Cesar Chavez was an American labor leader and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association in 1962. A Mexican American farm worker, Chavez became the best known Latino American civil rights activist, was promoted by the American labor movement, eager to enroll Hispanic members, his public-relations approach to unionism and aggressive but nonviolent tactics made the farm workers' struggle a moral cause with nationwide support. By the late 1970s, his tactics had forced growers to recognize the UFW as the bargaining agent for 50,000 field workers in California and Florida. During his lifetime, Colegio Cesar Chavez was one of the few institutions named in his honor, but after his death he became a major historical icon for the Latino community, with many schools and parks being named after him, he has since become an icon for organized labor and leftist politics, symbolizing support for workers and for Hispanic empowerment based on grass roots organizing.
He is famous for popularizing the slogan "Sí, se puede", adopted as the 2008 campaign slogan of Barack Obama. Although the UFW faltered a few years after Chavez died in 1993, his work led to numerous improvements for union laborers, he has since become an iconic "folk saint" in the pantheon of Mexican Americans. His birthday, March 31, is a federal commemorative holiday observed by several states in the US, he received many honors and accolades, while still living and after his death, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1994. Chavez was born on March 1927, in Yuma, Arizona, in a Mexican-American family of six children, he was the son of Librado Chávez. He had two brothers and Librado, two sisters and Vicki, he was named after Cesario. Chavez grew up in the same home in which he was born, his family owned a grocery store and a ranch. The family's home was taken away after his father had agreed to clear eighty acres of land in exchange for the deed to the house, an agreement, subsequently broken.
When Chavez's father attempted to purchase the house, he could not pay the interest on the loan and the house was sold back to its original owner. His family moved to California to become migrant farm workers; the Chavez family faced many hardships in California. The family would pick peas and lettuce in the winter and beans in the spring and grapes in the summer, cotton in the fall; when Chavez was a teenager, he and his older sister Rita would help other farm workers and neighbors by driving those unable to drive to the hospital to see a doctor. In 1942, Chavez quit school in the seventh grade, it would be his final year of formal schooling, because he did not want his mother to have to work in the fields. Chavez dropped out to become a full-time migrant farm worker. In 1946 he served for two years. Chavez had hoped that he would learn skills in the Navy that would help him when he returned to civilian life. Chavez described his experience in the military as "the two worst years of my life". Chavez worked in the fields until 1952, when he became an organizer for the Community Service Organization, a Latino civil rights group.
Father Donald McDonnell who served in Santa Clara County introduced Fred Ross, a community organizer, to Chavez. Chavez urged Mexican Americans to register and vote, he traveled throughout California and made speeches in support of workers' rights, he became CSO's national director in 1958. From August 1958 through November 1959, heorganized the CSO to oppose abuses of the bracero program in Oxnard. Local growers were using braceros. Chavez documented the practice organized sit-ins and a protest march to draw attention to the issue. In 1962, Chavez left the CSO and co-founded the National Farm Workers Association with Dolores Huerta, it was called the United Farm Workers. When Filipino American farm workers initiated the Delano grape strike on September 8, 1965, to protest for higher wages, Chavez eagerly supported them. Six months Chavez and the NFWA led a strike of California grape pickers on the historic farmworkers march from Delano to the California state capitol in Sacramento for similar goals.
The UFW encouraged all Americans to boycott table grapes as a show of support. The strike attracted national attention. Chavez received support from labor leader Walter Reuther who, in December 1965, marched with the striking grape pickers in Delano. Reuther's support made it difficult for the grape growers to ignore the strikers. During his visit, Reuther committed to provide $7,500 per month to the farm workers' strike fund for the duration of the walkout. At a packed union hall, Reuther declared, "This is not your strike, this is our strike!" In March 1966, the U. S. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare's Subcommittee on Migratory Labor held hearings in California on the strike. During the hearings, subcommittee member Robert F. Kennedy expressed his support for the striking workers; these activities led to similar movements in Southern Texas in 1966, where the UFW supported fruit workers in Starr County and led a march to Austin, in support of UFW farm workers' rights. In the Midwest, Chavez's movement inspired the founding of two midwestern independent unions: Obreros Unidos in Wisconsin in 1966, the Farm Labor Or
Jogging is a form of trotting or running at a slow or leisurely pace. The main intention is to increase physical fitness with less stress on the body than from faster running but more than walking, or to maintain a steady speed for longer periods of time. Performed over long distances, it is a form of aerobic endurance training. Jogging is running at its definition, as compared with running, is not standard. One definition describes jogging as running slower than 6 miles per hour. Running is sometimes defined as requiring a moment of no contact to the ground, whereas jogging sustains the contact. Jogging is distinguished from running by having a wider lateral spacing of foot strikes, creating side-to-side movement that adds stability at slower speeds or when coordination is lacking; the word jog originated in England in the mid-16th century. The etymology of the word is unknown. In 1593, William Shakespeare wrote in Taming of the Shrew, "you may be jogging whiles your boots are green". At that point, it meant to leave.
The term jog was used in English and North American literature to describe short quick movements, either intentional or unintentional. It is used to describe a quick, sharp shake or jar. Richard Jefferies, an English naturalist, wrote of "joggers", describing them as moving people who brushed others aside as they passed; this usage became common throughout the British Empire, in his 1884 novel My Run Home, the Australian author Rolf Boldrewood wrote, "Your bedroom curtains were still drawn as I passed on my morning jog". In the United States jogging was called "roadwork" when athletes in training, such as boxers, customarily ran several miles each day as part of their conditioning. In New Zealand during the 1960s or 1970s, the word "roadwork" was supplanted by the word "jogging", promoted by coach Arthur Lydiard, credited with popularizing jogging; the idea of jogging as an organised activity was mooted in a sports page article in The New Zealand Herald in February 1962, which told of a group of former athletes and fitness enthusiasts who would meet once a week to run for "fitness and sociability".
Since they would be jogging, the newspaper suggested that the club "may be called the Auckland Joggers' Club"—which is thought to be the first use of the noun "jogger". University of Oregon track coach Bill Bowerman, after jogging with Lydiard in New Zealand in 1962, started a joggers club in Eugene in early 1963, he published the book Jogging in 1966. Jogging may be used as a warm up or cool down for runners, preceding or following a workout or race, it is used by serious runners as a means of active recovery during interval training. For example, a runner who completes a fast 400 metre repetition at a sub-5-minute mile pace may drop to an 8-minute mile jogging pace for a recovery lap. Jogging can be used as a method to increase endurance or to provide a means of cardiovascular exercise but with less stress on joints or demand on the circulatory system. According to a study by Stanford University School of Medicine, jogging is effective in increasing human lifespan, decreasing the effects of aging, with benefits for the cardiovascular system.
Jogging is useful for staying healthy. The National Cancer Institute has performed studies that suggest jogging and other types of aerobic exercise can reduce the risk of lung, colon and prostate cancers, among others, it is suggested by the American Cancer Society that jogging for at least 30 minutes five days a week can help in cancer prevention. While jogging on a treadmill will provide health benefits such as cancer prevention, aid in weight loss, a study published in BMC Public Health reports that jogging outdoors can have the additional benefits of increased energy and concentration. Jogging outdoors is a better way to improve energy levels and advance mood than using a treadmill at the gym. Jogging prevents muscle and bone damage that occurs with age, improves heart performance and blood circulation and assists in preserving a balanced weight gain. A Danish study released in 2015 reported that "light" and "moderate" jogging were associated with reduced mortality compared to both non-jogging and "strenuous" jogging.
The optimal amount per week was 1 to 2.4 hours, the optimal frequency was less than or equal to 3 times per week and the optimal speed was "slow" or "average". Activewear Outline of running Physical exercise James; the Complete Book of Running, Random House. ISBN 0-394-41159-5. Fixx, James. Jim Fixx's Second Book of Running, Random House. ISBN 0-394-50898-X. Bowerman, William J.. E.. LCCN 67016154
The Berkeley Marina is the westernmost portion of the city of Berkeley, located west of the Eastshore Freeway at the foot of University Avenue on San Francisco Bay. Narrowly speaking, "Berkeley Marina" refers only to the city marina, but in common usage, it applies more to the surrounding area. There are a hotel and a yacht club in the Berkeley Marina. There are several walking and bicycle paths; the area is accessible from the rest of Berkeley by foot or bike over the Berkeley I-80 Bridge at the foot of Addison Street, is traversed near Interstate 80 by a segment of the San Francisco Bay Trail. In addition, it is the western terminus of AC Transit Route 51B on select trips only; the easternmost portion of the Marina, running parallel to I-80/580, is now a part of the Eastshore State Park. The Berkeley Marina was part of the open waters of San Francisco Bay; the original shoreline ran. The area was filled in over the years. In 1909, the City built a municipal wharf at the foot of University Avenue, used for freight.
Starting in 1926, the Golden Gate Ferry Company began construction of the Berkeley Pier. It was built out from the foot of University Avenue about 3.5 miles into the Bay. On June 16, 1927 auto ferry service began. Between the Berkeley Pier and the Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco, a pier shared with the Sausalito ferry. During this period U. S. Route 40 ran from San Pablo Avenue down University Avenue to the Berkeley Pier; the ferry service lasted until about 1937, after the 1936 opening of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. Thereafter it became a fishing pier. US 40 was shifted to the Bay Bridge. Storms damaged the end of the pier over the years and it was closed. After World War II ended, it was re-opened in 1946 for fishing. In the 1970s, the city again repaired and upgraded the least damaged length of the Berkeley Pier, it was in use until 2015 for fishing and viewing. Since about the late 1920s, the city municipal dump was located here, the accumulated garbage and construction debris accounts for most of the dry land of the Berkeley Marina.
In the early 1990s much of the former dump was landscaped and converted into a park named "North Waterfront Park". The park was renamed Cesar Chavez Park in 1996 to commemorate the late California labor leader; the actual Berkeley Marina, used by many people who sail on the Bay, was constructed as the Berkeley Yacht Harbor in the late 1930s by the Works Progress Administration in conjunction with its nearby work developing Aquatic Park. During World War II, the Berkeley Yacht Harbor was used by the United States Navy to construct tug boats. From October 1961 until April 1974 a heliport was operated by San Francisco and Oakland Helicopter Airlines on the north side of University Avenue west of I-80 near the marina; this helicopter airline transported passengers to the San Francisco and Oakland international airports. And at one point to downtown San Francisco. SFO Helicopter operated jet turbine powered Sikorsky S-61 and Sikorsky S-62 helicopters into the heliport, no longer in existence. Berkeley Pier César Chávez Park OCSC Sailing Adventure Playground Berkeley, California: the story of the evolution of a hamlet into a city of culture and commerce by William Warren Ferrier, Imprint Berkeley, Calif..
Richmond Inner Harbor
Richmond Inner Harbor is a deepwater body of water in Richmond, California. The harbor lies between Ferry Point and Point Isabel, between the mainland and Brooks Island in western Contra Costa County along the East Bay's northern East Shore; the harbor provides excellent protection as it lies protected by Brooks Island an extensive breakwater inside the protected San Francisco Bay. The harbour connects to the Sante Fe Channel and its chanellets in addition to the Richmond Marina Bay and Campus Bay. Baxter Creek and Meeker Slough Creek's mouths and deltas drain into the harbor
San Joaquin River
The San Joaquin River is the longest river of Central California in the United States. The 366-mile long river starts in the high Sierra Nevada, flows through the rich agricultural region of the northern San Joaquin Valley before reaching Suisun Bay, San Francisco Bay, the Pacific Ocean. An important source of irrigation water as well as a wildlife corridor, the San Joaquin is among the most dammed and diverted of California's rivers. People have inhabited the San Joaquin Valley for more than 8,000 years, it was long one of the major population centers of pre-Columbian California. Starting in the late 18th century, successive waves of explorers settlers Spanish and American, emigrated to the San Joaquin basin, first exploiting driving out the indigenous tribes; the newcomers appropriated the rich natural and hydrologic resources of the watershed for use in farms and cities, but found themselves plagued by flood and drought. Because of the uniform topography of the San Joaquin Valley, floods once transformed much of the lower river into a huge inland sea.
In the 20th century, many levees and dams were built on the San Joaquin and all of its major tributaries. These engineering works changed the fluctuating nature of the river forever, cut off the Tulare Basin from the rest of the San Joaquin watershed. Once habitat for hundreds of thousands of spawning salmon and millions of migratory birds, today the river is subject to tremendous water-supply and regulation works by various federal agencies, which have reduced the flow of the river since the 20th century; the river was called many different names. The present name of the river dates to 1805–1808, when Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga was surveying east from Mission San José in order to find possible sites for a mission. Moraga named a tributary of the river for Saint Joachim, husband of Saint Anne and father of Mary, the mother of Jesus; the name Moraga chose was applied to the entire river. In 1827, Jedediah Smith wrote in his journal that an unknown group of Native Americans called the river the Peticutry, a name, listed as an official variant in the U.
S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System. In the Mono language, the river is called typici h huu', which means "important or great river."An earlier name for the lower section of the San Joaquin was Rio de San Francisco, the name Father Juan Crespí gave to the river he could see entering the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta from the south. A member of the Pedro Fages party in 1772, Crespi's vantage point was the hilltops behind modern Antioch. Another early name was Rio San Juan Bautista, the origin of, unknown; the river's source is located in the Ansel Adams Wilderness, in the south-central Sierra Nevada at the confluence of two major affluents: the Middle Fork, which rises from Thousand Island Lake at 10,000 ft above sea level, the smaller North Fork, which starts 1.8 mi southeast of Mount Lyell. The Middle Fork is considered part of the main stem; the South Fork, which begins at Martha Lake in Kings Canyon National Park and flows through Florence Lake, joins a short distance downstream.
From the mountainous alpine headwaters, the San Joaquin flows south into the foothills of the Sierra, passing through four hydroelectric dams. It emerges from the foothills at what was once the town of Millerton, the location of Friant Dam since 1942, which forms Millerton Lake. Below Friant Dam, the San Joaquin flows west-southwest out into the San Joaquin Valley – the southern part of the Great Central Valley – passing north of Fresno. With most of its water diverted into aqueducts, the river runs dry in a 150-mile section; this lack of riverwater begins in the 60 mi between Friant Dam and Mendota, where it is only replenished by the Delta-Mendota Canal and the Fresno Slough, when the Kings River is flooding. From Mendota, the San Joaquin swings northwest, passing through many different channels, some natural and some man-made. Northeast of Dos Palos, it is only joined by the Fresno and Chowchilla Rivers when they reach flood stage. Fifty miles downstream, the Merced River empties into an otherwise dry San Joaquin.
The majority of the river flows through quiet agricultural bottom lands, as a result its meandering course manages to avoid most of the urban areas and cities in the San Joaquin Valley. About 11 mi west of Modesto, the San Joaquin meets the Tuolumne. Near Vernalis, it is joined by the Stanislaus River; the river passes between Manteca and Tracy, where a pair of distributaries – the Old River and Middle River – split off from the main stem just above the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, a huge inverted river delta formed by sediment deposits of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. About 40 mi from the mouth, the river draws abreast to the western flank of Stockton, one of the basin's largest cities. From here to the mouth, the river is dredged as part of a navigation project, the Stockton Deep Water Ship Channel. Past the head of tide, amid the many islands of the delta, the San Joaquin is joined by two more tributaries: the Calaveras River and the larger Mokelumne; the river grows to 5,000 ft wide before ending at its confluence with the Sacramento River, in Antioch, forming the head of Suisun Bay.
The combined waters from the two rivers flow west through the Carquinez Strait and San Francisco Bay into the Pacific. The natural annual discharge of the San Joaquin before agricultural development is believed to ha
Richardson Bay is a shallow, ecologically rich arm of San Francisco Bay, managed under a Joint Powers Agency of four northern California cities. The 911-acre Richardson Bay Sanctuary was acquired in the early 1960s by the National Audubon Society; the bay was named for William A. Richardson, early 19th century sea captain and builder in San Francisco. Richardson Bay is one of the most pristine estuaries on the Pacific Coast in spite of its urbanized periphery, since it supports extensive eelgrass areas and sizable undisturbed intertidal habitats, it is a feeding and resting area for a panoply of estuarine and pelagic birds, while its associated marshes and littoral zones support a variety of animal and plant life. Richardson Bay has been designated as an Important Bird Area, based upon its large number of annual bird visitors and residents, its sightings of California clapper rail and its strategic location in the flyway; the bay's waters are subject to a "no discharge" rule to protect the elaborate and fragile ecosystems present, including a complex fishery, diverse mollusk populations and marine mammals such as the harbor seal.
Owing to its lack of depth and complicated channel structure, Richardson Bay is limited in boating uses to kayaking and small sailing craft. There are extensive hiking and bicycling paths at the bay perimeter in the shore areas of Mill Valley and the town of Tiburon. On August 22, 1822, an English whaler, the Orion, put into Yerba Buena Cove in San Francisco for supplies. Martinez, for whom the town of Martinez is named, decided to invite the Captain to reside with their family. Maria married the captain after he joined the Catholic Church, being baptized "Guillermo Antonio Richardson." This wedding, held at Mission Dolores on May 12, 1826 was the first great Spanish-Anglo Saxon wedding in North America. Richardson taught carpentry, boat building and navigation at Mission Dolores, served as Captain of the Port of San Francisco, built the first significant residence in San Francisco, although it was meant to be a trading post, he had charge of several schooners belonging to the Mission Dolores and Mission Santa Clara.
Richardson received a 19,500-acre Mexican land grant in 1838, Rancho Saucelito, all of the land north of the Golden Gate extending from bay to ocean and ranging north to Mount Tamalpais The grant contained all the land southeast of Mount Tamalpais, included Redwood Canyon and the lands now within Muir Woods National Monument. Richardson Bay was thus named in the honor of builder; the Tiburon Peninsula on the northeast side of the bay was part of Rancho Corte Madera del Presidio granted to John Thomas Reed in 1834. According to local sources and period maps, the Bay's original given name was possessive: Richardson's Bay. However, the United States Board on Geographic Names discourages the use of apostrophes in United States place names, why the name appears as Richardson Bay in government databases and maps. Richardson Bay is developed on surficial sediments of clays and minor sands and gravels deposited in a marine and estuarine environment during periods of previous high stands of water relative to the present shoreline.
The bay muds are widespread in San Francisco Bay and, at Richardson Bay, are 80 to 95 feet deep. The Bay Muds are of Holocene Age, they overlie firm alluvial soils which contain two sand layers at 110 feet, respectively. This section, in turn, overlies shale of the Franciscan Complex, a heterogeneous mixture of sedimentary and metamorphic rock gathered together in the course of the tectonic evolution of the region from the Late Jurassic to the Middle Miocene; these assemblages of Franciscan rocks are referred to as tectonostratigraphic terrains and two of them, the Central Belt and the Coastal Belt, are in fault contact near Richardson Bay. Richardson Bay is an important ecological area being managed by Audubon California as the Richardson Bay Audubon Center & Sanctuary. There are marsh birdlife, mammalian species and marsh plants. Birds are abundant in Richardson Bay, with over one million migratory visitors each winter, many of whom utilizing the upper mudflats and Bothin Marsh associated with the area west of the U.
S. Route 101. In addition to being designated a high score IBA, Richardson's Bay has been dedicated as a Hemispheric Reserve of the Western Shorebird Network. Migrating birds that winter at Richardson's Bay include least sandpiper, western sandpiper, spotted sandpiper, American avocet, marbled godwit, greater yellowlegs, long-billed curlew and dowitchers. A special resident of Bothin Marsh, Blackies' Creek mouth and DeSilva Island is the California clapper rail, a non-migratory endangered species. Beginning in 2014, endangered black oystercatchers have been observed nesting on Aramburu Island. Common year around residents of the Richardson Bay Sanctuary include great blue heron, snowy egret, great egret. Common residents Passeriformes include scrub jay, American crow, chestnut-backed chickadee, Bewick's wren, house sparrow, red-winged blackbird, house finch, California towhee and song sparrow. Fishery characteristics of Richardson Bay include a Pacific herring oyster beds; the herring fishing fleet serving all of San Francisco Bay is based in Ri
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the US state of California. It is surrounded by a contiguous region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, is dominated by the large cities of San Jose, San Francisco and Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from 40 percent of California. Water from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, from the Sierra Nevada mountains, flow into Suisun Bay, which travels through the Carquinez Strait to meet with the Napa River at the entrance to San Pablo Bay, which connects at its south end to San Francisco Bay; the Guadalupe River enters the bay at its southernmost point in San Jose. The Guadalupe drains water from the Santa Cruz mountains and Hamilton Mountain ranges in southernmost San Jose, it enters the bay at the town of Alviso. It connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this entire group of interconnected bays is called the San Francisco Bay; the bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2, 2012. The bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, so on are included in the measurement.
The main part of the bay measures three to twelve miles wide east-to-west and somewhere between 48 miles 1 and 60 miles 2 north-to-south. It is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas; the bay was navigable as far south as San Jose until the 1850s, when hydraulic mining released massive amounts of sediment from the rivers that settled in those parts of the bay that had little or no current. Wetlands and inlets were deliberately filled in, reducing the Bay's size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bay's size. Despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space; as a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was dumped onto the wetlands and other parts of the bay as landfill. From the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and built on.
The deep, damp soil in these areas is subject to soil liquefaction during earthquakes, most of the major damage close to the Bay in the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 occurred to structures on these areas. The Marina District of San Francisco, hard hit by the 1989 earthquake, was built on fill, placed there for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, although liquefaction did not occur on a large scale. In the 1990s, San Francisco International Airport proposed filling in hundreds more acres to extend its overcrowded international runways in exchange for purchasing other parts of the bay and converting them back to wetlands; the idea was, remains, controversial. There are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut to form the Port of Oakland in 1901, it is now a suburban community. Angel Island was known as "Ellis Island West" because it served as the entry point for immigrants from East Asia, it is now a state park accessible by ferry.
Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. Attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both islands served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the famous federal penitentiary; the federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site. Despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. San Francisco Bay is thought to represent a down-warping of the Earth's crust between the San Andreas Fault to the west and the Hayward Fault to the east, though the precise nature of this remains under study. About 560,000 years ago, a tectonic shift caused the large inland Lake Corcoran to spill out the central valley and through the Carquinez Strait, carving out sediment and forming canyons in what is now the northern part of the San Francisco Bay and Golden Gate strait.
Until the last ice age, the basin, now filled by the San Francisco Bay was a large linear valley with small hills, similar to most of the valleys of the Coast Ranges. As the great ice sheets began to melt, around 11,000 years ago, the sea level started to rise. By 5000 BC the sea level rose 300 feet; the valley become a bay, the small hills became islands. From 15,000 – 10,000 years ago, the Ohlone tribe inhabited the area, now the San Francisco Bay; the natives were displaced 5,000 years ago as the bay filled with water due to the rising sea level at the end of the ice age. The first European to see San Francisco Bay is N. de Morena, left at New Albion at Drakes Bay in Marin County, California by Sir Francis Drake in 1579 and walked to Mexico. The first recorded European discovery of San Francisco Bay was on November 4, 1769 when Spanish explorer Gaspar de Portolà, unable to find the port of Monterey, continued north close to what is now Pacifica and reached the summit of the 1,200-foot-high Sweeney Ridge, now marked as the place where he first sighted San Francisco Bay.
Portolá and his party did not realize what they had discovered, thinking they had arrived at a large arm of what is now called Drakes Bay. At the time, Drakes Bay went by the name Bahia de San