The Kabyle people are a Berber ethnic group indigenous to Kabylia in the north of Algeria, spread across the Atlas Mountains, one hundred miles east of Algiers. They represent the largest Berber-speaking population of Algeria and the second largest in the continent of Africa. Many of the Kabyle have emigrated from Algeria, influenced by factors such as the Algerian Civil War, cultural repression by the central Algerian government, overall industrial decline, their diaspora has resulted in Kabyle people living in numerous countries. Large populations of Kabyle people settled to a lesser extent, Canada; the Kabylians speak the Kabyle Berber language. Since the Berber Spring of 1980, they have been at the forefront of the fight for the official recognition of Berber languages in Algeria; the Kabyle were independent of outside control during the period of Ottoman Empire rule in North Africa. They lived in three different kingdoms: the Kingdom of Kuku, the Kingdom of Ait Abbas, the principality of Aït Jubar.
The area was taken over by the French during their colonization beginning in 1857, despite vigorous resistance. Such leaders as Lalla Fatma n Soumer continued the resistance as late as Mokrani's rebellion in 1871. French officials confiscated much land from the more recalcitrant tribes and granted it to colonists, who became known as pieds-noirs. During this period, the French carried out many arrests and deported resisters to New Caledonia. Due to French colonization, many Kabyle emigrated into other areas outside Algeria. Over time, immigrant workers went to France. In the 1920s, Algerian immigrant workers in France organized the first party promoting independence. Messali Hadj, Imache Amar, Si Djilani, Belkacem Radjef built a strong following throughout France and Algeria in the 1930s, they developed militants. This became widespread after World War II. Since Algeria gained independence in 1962, tensions have arisen between Kabylie and the central government on several occasions. In 1963 the FFS party of Hocine Aït Ahmed contested the authority of the FLN, which has promoted itself as the only party in the nation.
In 1980, protesters mounted several months of demonstrations in Kabylie demanding the recognition of Berber as an official language. In 1994–1995, the Kabyle conducted a school boycott, termed the "strike of the school bag". In June and July 1998, they protested, in events that turned violent, after the assassination of singer Matoub Lounes and passage of the law requiring use of Arabic in all fields. In the months following April 2001, major riots among the Kabyle took place followed the killing of Masinissa Guermah, a young Kabyle, by gendarmes. At the same time, organized activism produced the Arouch, neo-traditional local councils; the protests decreased after the Kabyle won some concessions from President Abdelaziz Bouteflika. The geography of the Kabyle region played an important role in the people's history; the difficult mountainous landscape of the Tizi Ouzou and Bejaia provinces served as a refuge, to which most of the Kabyle people retreated when under pressure or occupation. They were able to preserve their cultural heritage in such isolation from other cultural influences.
The area supported local dynasties or Algerian modern nationalism, the war of independence. The region was occupied by various conquerors. Romans and Byzantines controlled the main road and valley during the period of antiquity and avoided the mountains. During the spread of Islam, Arabs controlled plains but not all the countryside; the Regency of Algiers, under Ottoman influence, tried to have indirect influence over the people. The French and conquered the region and set up a direct administration. Algerian provinces with significant Kabyle-speaking populations include Tizi Ouzou, Béjaïa and Bouira, where they are a majority, as well as Boumerdes, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Jijel. Algiers has a significant Kabyle population, where they make up more than half of the capital's population; the Kabyle region is referred to as Al Qabayel by the Arabic-speaking population and as Kabylie in French. Its indigenous inhabitants call it Tamurt n Iqbayliyen/Tamurt n Iqbayliyen, it is located at the edge of the Mediterranean.
The Kabyle speak a Berber language of the Afro-Asiatic family. As second and third languages, many people speak Algerian Arabic, French and, to a lesser degree English. During the first centuries of their history, Kabyles used the Tifinagh writing system. Since the beginning of the 19th century, under French influence, Kabyle intellectuals began to use the Latin script, it is the basis for the modern Berber Latin alphabet. After the independence of Algeria, some Kabyle activists tried to revive the old Tifinagh alphabet; this new version of Tifinagh has been called Neo-Tifinagh. Kabyle literature has continued to be written in the Latin script; the Kabyle people are Muslim, with a small Christian minority. Since the 19th century, there has been a large nominal Sunni Muslim community. Many Zaouia exist all over the region. Catholics of Kabyle background live in France and result from intermarriage with the French; the Protestant community
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is the period in the history of ancient Egypt following a period of political division known as the First Intermediate Period. The Middle Kingdom lasted from around 2050 BC to around 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the reign of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty; the Eleventh Dynasty ruled from Thebes and the Twelfth Dynasty ruled from el-Lisht. Some scholars include the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt wholly into this period as well, in which case the Middle Kingdom would finish around 1650, while others only include it until Merneferre Ay around 1700 BC, last king of this dynasty to be attested in both Upper and Lower Egypt. During the Middle Kingdom period, Osiris became the most important deity in popular religion; the Middle Kingdom was followed by the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, another period of division that involved foreign invasions of the country by the Hyksos of West Asia. After the collapse of the Old Kingdom, Egypt entered a period of weak Pharaonic power and decentralization called the First Intermediate Period.
Towards the end of this period, two rival dynasties, known in Egyptology as the Tenth and Eleventh, fought for power over the entire country. The Theban Eleventh Dynasty only ruled southern Egypt from the first cataract to the Tenth Nome of Upper Egypt. To the north, Lower Egypt was ruled by the rival Tenth Dynasty from Herakleopolis; the struggle was to be concluded by Mentuhotep II, who ascended the Theban throne in 2055 BC. During Mentuhotep II's fourteenth regnal year, he took advantage of a revolt in the Thinite Nome to launch an attack on Herakleopolis, which met little resistance. After toppling the last rulers of the Tenth Dynasty, Mentuhotep began consolidating his power over all Egypt, a process which he finished by his 39th regnal year. For this reason, Mentuhotep II is regarded as the founder of the Middle Kingdom. Mentuhotep II commanded petty campaigns south as far as the Second Cataract in Nubia, which had gained its independence during the First Intermediate Period, he restored Egyptian hegemony over the Sinai region, lost to Egypt since the end of the Old Kingdom.
To consolidate his authority, he restored the cult of the ruler, depicting himself as a god in his own lifetime, wearing the headdresses of Amun and Min. He died after a reign of 51 years, passed the throne to his son, Mentuhotep III. Mentuhotep III reigned for only twelve years, during which he continued consolidating Theban rule over the whole of Egypt, building a series of forts in the eastern Delta region to secure Egypt against threats from Asia, he sent the first expedition to Punt during the Middle Kingdom, by means of ships constructed at the end of Wadi Hammamat, on the Red Sea. Mentuhotep III was succeeded by Mentuhotep IV, whose name is omitted from all ancient Egyptian king lists; the Turin Papyrus claims that after Mentuhotep III came "seven kingless years". Despite this absence, his reign is attested from a few inscriptions in Wadi Hammamat that record expeditions to the Red Sea coast and to quarry stone for the royal monuments; the leader of this expedition was his vizier Amenemhat, assumed to be the future pharaoh Amenemhet I, the first king of the Twelfth Dynasty.
Mentuhotep IV's absence from the king lists has prompted the theory that Amenemhet I usurped his throne. While there are no contemporary accounts of this struggle, certain circumstantial evidence may point to the existence of a civil war at the end of the 11th dynasty. Inscriptions left by one Nehry, the Haty-a of Hermopolis, suggest that he was attacked at a place called Shedyet-sha by the forces of the reigning king, but his forces prevailed. Khnumhotep I, an official under Amenemhet I, claims to have participated in a flotilla of 20 ships to pacify Upper Egypt. Donald Redford has suggested these events should be interpreted as evidence of open war between two dynastic claimants. What is certain is that, however he came to power, Amenemhet I was not of royal birth. From the Twelfth Dynasty onwards, pharaohs kept well-trained standing armies, which included Nubian contingents; these formed the basis of larger forces which were raised for defence against invasion, or for expeditions up the Nile or across the Sinai.
However, the Middle Kingdom was defensive in its military strategy, with fortifications built at the First Cataract of the Nile, in the Delta and across the Sinai Isthmus. Early in his reign, Amenemhet I was compelled to campaign in the Delta region, which had not received as much attention as upper Egypt during the 11th Dynasty. In addition, he strengthened defenses between Egypt and Asia, building the Walls of the Ruler in the East Delta region. In response to this perpetual unrest, Amenemhat I built a new capital for Egypt in the north, known as Amenemhet Itj Tawy, or Amenemhet, Seizer of the Two Lands; the location of this capital is unknown, but is near the city's necropolis, the present-day el-Lisht. Like Mentuhotep II, Amenemhet bolstered his claim to authority with propaganda. In particular, the Prophecy of Neferty dates to about this time, which purports to be an oracle of an Old Kingdom priest, who predicts a king, Amenemhet I, arising from the far south of Egypt to restore the kingdom after centuries of chaos.
Propaganda notwithstanding, Amenemhet never held the absolute power commanded in theory by the Old Kingdom pharaohs. During the First Intermediate Period, the governors of the nomes of Egypt, gained considerable power, their posts had become hereditary, some nomarchs entered into marriage alliances with the nomarchs of neighboring nomes. To strengthen his position, Amenemhet required registration of land, modified nome borders, appointed
The A-Group culture was an ancient civilization that flourished between the First and Second Cataracts of the Nile in Nubia. It lasted from c. 3800 BC to c. 3100 BC. In 1907, the Egyptologist George A. Reisner first discovered artifacts belonging to the A-Group culture. Early hubs of this civilization included Kubaniyya in the north and Buhen in the south, with Aswan, Sayala and Qustul in between; the A-Group makers maintained commercial ties with the Ancient Egyptians. They traded commodities like incense and ivory, which were gathered from the southern riverine area, they bartered carnelian from the Western Desert as well as gold mined from the Eastern Desert in exchange for Egyptian products, olive oil and other items from the Mediterranean basin. Excavations at an A-Group cemetery in Qustul yielded an old incense burner, adorned with Ancient Egyptian royal iconography. However, further research established the antecedence of the predynastic Egyptian regalia: The earliest known examples of Egyptian royal iconography, such as, e.g. the representation of the Red Crown on a late Naqada I pottery vessel from Abydos or the triumphal scenes in the painting from Hierakonpolis Tomb 100 are much older than the Qustul censer.
It seems thus that it was the Qustul rulers who adopted symbols of royal authority developed in Egypt and not vice versa. The A-Group makers left behind a number of cemeteries, with each necropolis containing around fifty graves. Most of what is known about this culture has been gleaned from these tombs, over 3,000 of which have been excavated; the burials are of two kinds: a more common oval pit, a similar pit featuring a lateral funerary niche. Skeletons found within these graves were observed to be physically akin to their peers in Upper Egypt; the specimens had straight hair of a black or dark brown hue. On average, the men were 169.9 cm in height and the women stood around 155.5 cm. Some individuals were positioned on reed mats. All of the tombs contained various burial items, including personal ornaments and ceramics; the A-Group culture came to an end around 3100 BC, when it was destroyed by the First Dynasty rulers of Egypt. Dental trait analysis of A-Group fossils found that they were related to Afroasiatic-speaking populations inhabiting Northeast Africa and the Maghreb.
Among the ancient populations, the A-Group people were nearest to the Kerma culture bearers and Kush populations in Upper Nubia, followed by the Meroitic, X-Group and Christian period inhabitants of Lower Nubia and the Kellis population in the Dakhla Oasis, as well as C-Group and Pharaonic era skeletons excavated in Lower Nubia and ancient Egyptians. Among the recent groups, the A-Group makers were morphologically closest to Afroasiatic-speaking populations in the Horn of Africa, followed by the Shawia and Kabyle Berber populations of Algeria as well as Bedouin groups in Morocco and Tunisia; the A-Group's dental morphology has been found to be phenotypically distinct from those belonging to recent Negroid populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. Reisner identified a B-Group culture, however this theory became obsolete when H. S. Smith demonstrated. Early States and the A-Group'Proto-Kingdom' Regional variations in the so-called “A-Group” Culture of Lower Nubia Hans-Åke Nordstrom: The Nubian A-Group Maria Gatto: Hunting for the Exclusive Nubian A-Group People.
Lovell: Nubian A- and C-Groups Maria Carmela Gatto: The Nubian A-group: a reassessment
The Kharga Oasis "the outer". It is located in about 200 km to the west of the Nile valley. "Kharga" or "El Kharga" is the name of a major town located in the oasis, the capital of New Valley Governorate. The oasis, known as the'Southern Oasis' to the Ancient Egyptians and Oasis Magna to the Romans, is the largest of the oases in the Libyan desert of Egypt, it is from 20 km to 80 km wide. Its population is 67,700. Kharga is the most modernised of Egypt's western oases; the main town is functional with all modern facilities, nothing left of old architecture. Although framed by the oasis, there is no oasis feeling to it. There is extensive thorn palm, buffalo thorn and jujube growth in the oasis surrounding the modern town of Kharga. Many remnant wildlife species inhabit this region; the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot desert. A trade route called Darb El Arba ` īn passed through Asyut in the north, it was a long caravan route running north-south between the Sudan.
It was used from as early as the Old Kingdom of Egypt for the transport and trade of gold, spices, wheat and plants. The maximum extent of Darb El Arba'īn was northward from Kobbei in Darfur, 25 miles north of al-Fashir, passing through the desert, through Bir Natrum and Wadi Howar, ending in Egypt. All the oases have always been crossroads of caravan routes converging from the barren desert. In the case of Kharga, this is made evident by the presence of a chain of fortresses that the Romans built to protect the Darb El Arba'īn route; the forts vary in size and function, some being just small outposts, some guarding large settlements complete with cultivation. Some were installed where earlier settlements existed, while others were started from scratch. All of them are made of mud bricks, but some contain small stone temples with inscriptions on the walls. Described by Herodotus as a road "traversed... in forty days," by his time the route had become an important land route facilitating trade between Nubia and Egypt.
The length of the journey is the reason for it being called Darb El Arba`īn, the implication being "the forty-day road". After the prominent Christian theologian Nestorius was condemned as a heretic in the 431 Council of Ephesus, he was removed from his position as Patriarch of Constantinople and exiled to a monastery located in the Great Oasis of Hibis. There he lived for the rest of his life; the monastery suffered attacks by desert bandits, Nestorius was injured in one such raid. Nestorius seems to have survived there until at least 450 and there had composed the Bazaar of Heracleides - the only one of writings to survive in full, of importance to the Christian Nestorians who follow his teachings; as part of a caravan proceeding to Dafur, the English explorer W. G. Browne paused for several days at Kharga, leaving with the rest of the group 7 June 1793. At the time a gindi was stationed at Kharga, "belonging to Ibrahim Bey El Kebir, to whom those villages appertain. See Temple of Hibis Native Khargans belong to the related Beja ethnic group.
They speak their own Afro-Asiatic language, though Arabic is the dominant tongue. A regular bus service connects the oasis to the rest of Egypt. In 1907, the narrow gauge Western Oasis Lines provided twice-weekly train services. A standard gauge railway line Kharga - Qena - Port Safaga has been in service since 1996, but has been decommissioned soon after; the Temple of Hibis is a Saite-era temple founded by Psamtik II, erected c. 500 BC. It is located about 2 kilometres north in a palm-grove. There is a second 1st millennium BC temple in the southernmost part of the oasis at Dush. An ancient Christian cemetery at El Bagawat functioned at the Kharga Oasis from the 3rd to the 7th century AD, it is one of the best preserved Christian cemeteries in the ancient world. The first list of sites is due to Ahmad Fakhri but serious archaeological work began in 1976 with Serge Sauneron, director of the Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale. SitesAin El Beleida Ain El Labakha Ain Manawir Ain Shams El Din Ain El Tarakwa Ain Tauleib Deir Mustafa Kashef Deir El Munira Gabbanat El Bagawat Gebel El Teir El Nadura Qasr El Dabashiya Qasr Dush Qasr El Ghuweita Qasr El Gibb Qasr El Zayyan Sumeira Temple of Hibis Umm El Dabadib Umm Mawagir In June 2016, a report emerged that attributed the dagger buried with Pharaoh Tutankhamun to an iron meteorite, with similar proportions of metals to one discovered near and named after Kharga Oasis.
The dagger's metal was from the same meteor shower. Frank Bliss: Artisanat et artisanat d’art dans les oasis du désert occidental égyptien. Frobenius-Institut, Köln, 1998. Frank Bliss: Wirtschaftliche
Eritrea the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara. It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, Djibouti in the southeast; the northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea. The nation has a total area of 117,600 km2, includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands, its toponym Eritrea is based on the Greek name for the Red Sea, first adopted for Italian Eritrea in 1890. Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country, with nine recognized ethnic groups in its population of around 5 million. Most residents speak languages from the Afroasiatic family, either of the Ethiopian Semitic languages or Cushitic branches. Among these communities, the Tigrinyas make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre people constituting around 30% of inhabitants. In addition, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities. Most people in the territory adhere to Islam; the Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, was established during the first or second centuries AD.
It adopted Christianity around the middle of the fourth century. In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri kingdom, with a smaller region being part of Hamasien; the creation of modern-day Eritrea is a result of the incorporation of independent, distinct kingdoms and sultanates resulting in the formation of Italian Eritrea. After the defeat of the Italian colonial army in 1942, Eritrea was administered by the British Military Administration until 1952. Following the UN General Assembly decision, in 1952, Eritrea would govern itself with a local Eritrean parliament but for foreign affairs and defense it would enter into a federal status with Ethiopia for a period of 10 years. However, in 1962 the government of Ethiopia annulled the Eritrean parliament and formally annexed Eritrea, but the Eritreans that argued for complete Eritrean independence since the ouster of the Italians in 1941, anticipated what was coming and in 1960 organized the Eritrean Liberation Front in opposition.
In 1991, after 30 years of continuous armed struggle for independence, the Eritrean liberation fighters entered the capital city, Asmara, in victory. Eritrea is a one-party state in which national legislative elections have never been held since independence. According to Human Rights Watch, the Eritrean government's human rights record is among the worst in the world; the Eritrean government has dismissed these allegations as politically motivated. The compulsory military service requires long, indefinite conscription periods, which some Eritreans leave the country to avoid; because all local media is state-owned, Eritrea was ranked as having the second-least press freedom in the global Press Freedom Index, behind only North Korea. The sovereign state of Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, is an observer in the Arab League alongside Brazil, Venezuela and Turkey; the name Eritrea is derived from the ancient Greek name for the Red Sea.
It was first formally adopted with the formation of Italian Eritrea. The name persisted over the course of subsequent British and Ethiopian occupation, was reaffirmed by the 1993 independence referendum and 1997 constitution. At Buya in Eritrea, one of the oldest hominids representing a possible link between Homo erectus and an archaic Homo sapiens was found by Italian scientists. Dated to over 1 million years old, it is the oldest skeletal find of its kind and provides a link between hominids and the earliest anatomically modern humans, it is believed that the section of the Danakil Depression in Eritrea was a major player in terms of human evolution, may contain other traces of evolution from Homo erectus hominids to anatomically modern humans. During the last interglacial period, the Red Sea coast of Eritrea was occupied by early anatomically modern humans, it is believed that the area was on the route out of Africa that some scholars suggest was used by early humans to colonize the rest of the Old World.
In 1999, the Eritrean Research Project Team composed of Eritrean, American and French scientists discovered a Paleolithic site with stone and obsidian tools dated to over 125,000 years old near the Bay of Zula south of Massawa, along the Red Sea littoral. The tools are believed to have been used by early humans to harvest marine resources such as clams and oysters. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic era from the family's proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley. Other scholars propose that the Afroasiatic family developed in situ in the Horn, with its speakers subsequently dispersing from there. Together with Djibouti, northern Somalia, the Red Sea coast of Sudan, Eritrea is considered the most location of the land which the ancient Egyptians called Punt, first mentioned in the 25th century BC; the ancient Puntites had close relations with Ancient Egypt during the rule of Pharaoh Sahure and Queen Hatshepsut. This is confirmed by genetic studies of mummified baboons.
In 2010, a study was conducted on baboon mummies that were brought from Punt to Egypt as gifts by the ancient Egyptians. The scientists from the Egyptian Museum and the University of California used oxygen isotope analysis to examine hairs from two baboon mummies, preserved in the British Museum. One of the baboons had distorted isotopic data, so t
Kingdom of Kush
The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the Sudanese and southern Egyptian Nile Valley. The Kushite era of rule in Nubia was established after the Late Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt. Kush was centered at Napata during its early phase. After Kashta invaded Egypt in the 8th century BC, the monarchs of Kush were the pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, until they were expelled by the Neo-Assyrian Empire under the rule of Esarhaddon a century later. During classical antiquity, the Kushite imperial capital was located at Meroë. In early Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Aethiopia; the Kingdom of Kush with its capital at Meroe persisted until the 4th century AD, when it weakened and disintegrated due to internal rebellion. The seat was captured and burnt to the ground by the Kingdom of Aksum. Afterwards the Nubians established the three Christianized, kingdoms of Nobatia and Alodia; the native name of the Kingdom was recorded in Egyptian as k3š pronounced /kuɫuʃ/ or /kuʔuʃ/ in Middle Egyptian when the term is first used for Nubia, based on the New Kingdom-era Akkadian transliteration as the genitive kūsi.
It is an ethnic term for the native population who initiated the kingdom of Kush. The term is displayed in the names of Kushite persons, such as King Kashta. Geographically, Kush referred to the region south of the first cataract in general. Kush was the home of the rulers of the 25th dynasty; the name Kush, since at least the time of Josephus, has been connected with the biblical character Cush, in the Hebrew Bible, son of Ham. Ham had four sons named: Cush, Put and Mizraim. According to the Bible, Nimrod, a son of Cush, was the founder and king of Babylon, Erech and Calneh, in Shinar; the Bible makes reference to someone named Cush, a Benjamite. Some modern scholars, such as Friedrich Delitzsch, have suggested that the biblical Cush might be linked to the Kassites of the Zagros Mountains. Mentuhotep II, the 21st century BC founder of the Middle Kingdom, is recorded to have undertaken campaigns against Kush in the 29th and 31st years of his reign; this is the earliest Egyptian reference to Kush.
Under Thutmose I, Egypt made several campaigns south. This resulted in their annexation of Nubia circa 1504 BC. After the conquest, Kerma culture was Egyptianized, yet rebellions continued for 220 years until c. 1300 BC. During the New Kingdom, Nubia became a key province of the New Kingdom, economically and spiritually. Indeed, major Pharonic ceremonies were held at Jebel Barkal near Napata; as an Egyptian colony from the 16th century BC, Nubia was governed by an Egyptian Viceroy of Kush. With the disintegration of the New Kingdom around 1070 BC, Kush became an independent kingdom centered at Napata in modern northern Sudan; the extent of cultural/political continuity between the Kerma culture and the chronologically succeeding Kingdom of Kush is difficult to determine. The latter polity began to emerge around 500 years after the end of the Kingdom of Kerma. By 1200 BC, Egyptian involvement in the Dongola Reach was nonexistent. By the 8th century BC, the new Kushite kingdom emerged from the Napata region of the upper Dongola Reach.
The first Napatan king, dedicated his sister to the cult of Amun at the rebuilt Kawa temple, while temples were rebuilt at Barkal and Kerma. A Kashta stele at Elephantine, places the Kushites on the Egyptian frontier by the mid-eighteenth century; this first period of the kingdom's history, the'Napatan', was succeeded by the'Meroitic', when the royal cemeteries relocated to Meroe around 300 BC. The Kushites buried their monarchs along with all their courtiers in mass graves. Archaeologists refer to these practices as the "Pan-grave culture"; this was given its name due to the way. They would put stones around them in a circle. Kushites built burial mounds and pyramids, shared some of the same gods worshiped in Egypt Ammon and Isis. With the worshiping of these gods the Kushites began to take some of the names of the gods as their throne names; the Kush rulers were regarded as guardians of the state religion and were responsible for maintaining the houses of the gods. Some scholars believe; the state would redistribute to the people.
Others believe that most of the society worked on the land and required nothing from the state and did not contribute to the state. Northern Kush seemed to be wealthier than the Southern area. Dental trait analysis of fossils dating from the Meroitic period in Semna, found that they were related to Afroasiatic-speaking populations inhabiting the Nile, Horn of Africa and Canary Islands; the Meroitic skeletons and these ancient and recent fossils were phenotypically distinct from those belonging to recent Niger–Congo, Nilo-Saharan and Khoisan-speaking populations in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as from the Mesolithic inhabitants of Jebel Sahaba in Nubia. Resistance to the early eighteenth Dynasty Egyptian rule by neighbouring Kush is evidenced in the writings of Ahmose, son of Ebana, an Egyptian warrior who served under Nebpehtrya Ahmose, Djeserkara Amenhotep I and Aakheperkara Thutmose I. At the end of the Second Intermediate Period (mid-sixteenth century BC
Hawara is an archaeological site of Ancient Egypt, south of the site of Crocodilopolis at the entrance to the depression of the Fayyum oasis. The first excavations at the site were made by Karl Lepsius, in 1843. William Flinders Petrie excavated at Hawara, in 1888, finding papyri of the 1st and 2nd centuries CE, north of the pyramid, a vast necropolis where he found 146 portraits on coffins dating to the Roman period, famous as being among the few surviving examples of painted portraits from Classical Antiquity, the "Fayoum portraits" illustrated in Roman history textbooks. Amenemhat III was the last powerful ruler of the 12th Dynasty, the pyramid he built at Hawara is believed to post-date the so-called "Black Pyramid" built by the same ruler at Dahshur; this is believed to have been Amenemhet's final resting place. At Hawara there was the intact tomb of Neferu-Ptah, daughter of Amenemhet III; this tomb was found about 2 km South of the king's pyramid. In common with the Middle Kingdom pyramids constructed after Amenemhat II, it was built of mudbrick round a core of limestone passages and burial chambers, faced with limestone.
Most of the facing stone was pillaged for use in other buildings— a fate common to all of Egypt's pyramids— and today the pyramid is little more than an eroded, vaguely pyramidal mountain of mud brick, of the once magnificent mortuary temple precinct enclosed by a wall there is little left beyond the foundation bed of compacted sand and chips and shards of limestone. From the pyramid entrance a sloping passageway with steps runs down to a small room and a further short horizontal passage. In the roof of this horizontal passage there was a concealed sliding trapdoor weighing 20 tons. If this was found and opened a robber would find himself confronted by an empty passage at a right angle to the passage below, closed by wooden doors, or by a passage parallel to the passage below filled with mud and stone blocking, he would assume that the blocking concealed the waste time removing it. In fact there was a second 20-ton trapdoor in the roof of the empty passage, giving onto a second empty passage at a right angle to the first.
This too had a 20-ton trapdoor giving onto a passage at a right angle to its predecessor. However this passage ended in a large area of mud and stone blocking that concealed the burial chamber. This, was a blind and filled a wide but shallow alcove. Two blind shafts in the floor filled with cut stone blocks, further wasted the robbers' time, for the real entrance to the burial chamber was more concealed and lay between the blind shafts and opposite the alcove. Despite these elaborate protective measures, Petrie found that none of the trapdoors had been slid into place and the wooden doors were open. Whether this indicated negligence on the part of the burial party, an intention to return and place further burials in the pyramid, or a deliberate action to facilitate robbery of the tomb, we cannot know; the burial chamber was made out of a single quartzite monolith, lowered into a larger chamber lined with limestone. This monolithic slab weighed an estimated 110 tons according to Petrie. A course of brick was placed on the chamber to raise the ceiling the chamber was covered with 3 quartzite slabs.
Above the burial chamber were 2 relieving chambers. This was topped with 50 ton limestone slabs forming a pointed roof. An enormous arch of brick 3 feet thick was built over the pointed roof to support the core of the pyramid; the entrance to the pyramid is today flooded to a depth of 6 metres as a result of the waters from the Bahr Yusuf canal, which flows around two sides of the site and passes within 30m of the pyramid. The huge mortuary temple that stood adjacent to this pyramid is believed to have formed the basis of the complex of buildings with galleries and courtyards called a "labyrinth" by Herodotus, mentioned by Strabo and Diodorus Siculus; the demolition of the "labyrinth" may date in part to the reign of Ptolemy II, under whom the Pharaonic city of Shedyt was renamed to honour his sister-wife Arsinoë. Queen Sobekneferu of the Twelfth dynasty built at the complex, her name meant the sacred crocodile. Among the discoveries made by Flinders Petrie were papyrus manuscripts, including a great papyrus scroll which contains parts of books 1 and 2 of the Iliad.
List of Egyptian pyramids List of megalithic sites Monuments and Sites of Ancient Egypt: Hawara The Hawara Papyri The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, University College London: A Virtual Exploration of the Lost Labyrinth a 2000 pdf showing some 3d modelling of the labyrinth