Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Connecticut is often grouped along with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-State Area and it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, and Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital city is Hartford, and its most populous city is Bridgeport, the state is named for the Connecticut River, a major U. S. river that approximately bisects the state. The word Connecticut is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for long tidal river, Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, and the fourth most densely populated of the 50 United States. It is known as the Constitution State, the Nutmeg State, the Provisions State, and it was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States. Connecticuts center of population is in Cheshire, New Haven County, Connecticuts first European settlers were Dutch.
They established a small, short-lived settlement in present-day Hartford at the confluence of the Park, half of Connecticut was a part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers. The first major settlements were established in the 1630s by England, the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in North America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a charter, making Connecticut a crown colony. This colony was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution, the Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along the Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford. As of the 2010 Census, Connecticut features the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, and median household income in the United States.
Landmarks and Cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, and on the east by Rhode Island. The state capital and third largest city is Hartford, and other cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain, Greenwich. Connecticut is slightly larger than the country of Montenegro, there are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut. The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state, the highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront
Hamden is a town in New Haven County, United States. The towns nickname is The Land of the Sleeping Giant, the population was 60,960 at the 2010 census. Hamden is a suburb of the city of New Haven, the town of Hamden ranked #53 in the CNN Money list of Americas best small cities in 2012. In 2008, Fortune Magazine and CNN Money picked Hamden as #33 on their Best Place to Live and Launch list, the article pointed out Hamdens exceptional education system as well as its New England Charm. It remained a part of New Haven until 1786 when 1,400 local residents incorporated the area as a separate town, naming it after the English statesman John Hampden. Largely developed as a collection of village-like settlements, including Mount Carmel, Spring Glen, West Woods. In 1798, four years after Eli Whitney began manufacturing the cotton gin in New Haven, he made arms for the U. S. government at a site in Hamden. At that site, Whitney introduced the era of mass production with the concept of interchangeable parts.
The major thoroughfare through Hamden is named Whitney Avenue in honor of Eli Whitney, and it runs past Whitneys old factory, now the Eli Whitney Museum. Whitney constructed stone houses for his employees in the area, which is still referred to as Whitneyville. In 1806, the dam that Eli Whitney built at the site was enlarged to create a reservoir. The first truss bridge in the United States was erected nearby over the Mill River in Whitneyville in 1823, the Farmington Canal, which ships traveled from New Haven northward, passed through Hamden between 1825 and 1848 until it was supplanted by railroad travel. The canal right-of-way has become, in recent years, a walking and bicycling trail, passing by some of the well-preserved locks of the canal. Before its use as a walking and bicycling trail, many local residents rode their motocross bikes on the Farmington Canal, during the 19th and early 20th centuries, Hamden received a steady influx of immigrants, most notably from Italy and Ireland. To this day, a part of Greater New Havens Italian-American community resides in Hamden.
During the post-war period, Hamden underwent significant suburban development, much of the southern section of town is urbanized and is difficult to distinguish from neighboring New Haven. The northern section of town, retains a rural character. This area of town is the location of the unique Sleeping Giant hill formation that is the source of the towns nickname
Populism is a political doctrine that proposes that the common people are exploited by a privileged elite, and which seeks to resolve this. The underlying ideology of populists can be left, right, or center and its goal is uniting the uncorrupt and the unsophisticated little man against the corrupt dominant elites and their camp of followers. It is guided by the belief that political and social goals are best achieved by the actions of the masses. Political parties and politicians often use the terms populist and populism as pejoratives against their opponents, such a view sees populism as demagogy, merely appearing to empathize with the public through rhetoric or unrealistic proposals in order to increase appeal across the political spectrum. Populism is most common in democratic nations, academic definitions of populism vary, and people have often used the term in loose and inconsistent ways to reference appeals to the people and catch-all politics. The term has used as a label for new parties whose classifications are unclear.
In recent years, academic scholars have produced definitions that facilitate populist identification and comparison, in the United States and Latin America, populism has generally been associated with the left, whereas in European countries, populism is more associated with the right. In both, the tenet of populism—that democracy should reflect the pure and undiluted will of the people—means it can sit easily with ideologies of both right and left. Cas Mudde says, Many observers have noted that populism is inherent to representative democracy, after all, most recently, many observers have categorized the rise of Donald Trump in the U. S. and Rodrigo Duterte in the Philippines as populist in nature. Populism has taken left-wing, right-wing, and even centrist forms, as well as forms of politics that bring together groups and individuals of diverse partisan views. The use of populist rhetoric in the United States has recently included references such as the trial lawyer lobby. Subsistence peasant movements, such as the Eastern European Green Rising militias, intellectuals who romanticize hard-working farmers and peasants and build radical agrarian movements like the Russian narodniki.
Populist democracy, including calls for political participation through reforms such as the use of popular referenda. Politicians populism marked by non-ideological appeals for the people to build a unified coalition, reactionary populism, such as the white backlash harvested by George Wallace. Populist dictatorship, such as established by Getúlio Vargas in Brazil. Scholars have argued that populist elements have appeared in authoritarian movements. Conspiracist scapegoating employed by various populist movements can create a seedbed for fascism, National Socialist populism interacted with and facilitated fascism in interwar Germany. In this case, distressed middle–class populists mobilized their anger against the government, the Nazis parasitized the forms and themes of the populists and moved their constituencies far to the right through ideological appeals involving demagoguery and conspiracism
Henderson State University
Henderson State University, founded in 1890 as Arkadelphia Methodist College, is a public four-year liberal arts university located in Arkadelphia, United States. It is Arkansass only member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges, Hendersons curricula based on the belief that a liberal arts education is essential for all undergraduates, Henderson utilizes a program based on a core of courses in the arts and sciences. The school owns and operates radio station KSWH-FM, as well as the local Public-access television cable TV channel, Henderson State University, was founded on March 23,1890 as Arkadelphia Methodist College by Rev. John McLaughlin. John Mclaughlin was a veteran of the Confederate States Army, after the Civil War, Rev. McLaughlin and his family settled in Arkadelphia and founded the Arkadelphia Methodist College in 1890. The university was renamed for Charles Christopher Henderson, a Trustee and prominent Arkadelphia businessman, in 1911 the name was changed to Henderson-Brown College to honor Walter Brown.
The state convention decided to close the institution down after thirty nine years of Methodist control, in 1929, the institution became known as Henderson State Teachers College. Hendrix was renamed Hendrix-Henderson College, and remained so for two years before returning to Hendrix College. After becoming an institution, Henderson State Teachers College began to expand at a rate never envisioned while it was under Methodist control. Six major buildings were built during the Great Depression alone, after World War II, the enrollment nearly doubled to about 500 students. Graduate classes were first offered in 1951 through the University of Arkansas, in 1955, the schools first graduate degree program began. To reflect the change, the name was changed to Henderson State College in 1967, Henderson has an excellent academic record. It has produced numerous Rhodes and Rotary International scholars and it serves as Arkansas’s only member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges. Currently, degree programs are offered through the Matt Locke Ellis College of Arts and Sciences, the School of Business, the School of Education, Henderson has its own degree program in nursing, and it provides the academic program for the Baptist School of Nursing.
The university offers the state’s only four-year bachelor of degree in aviation. The enrollment in the fall of 2012 was 3,773, the HSU Yearbook is The Star, published continuously since 1904. The University newspaper is the Oracle, which has published since 1908. Glendell Jones Jr. was named Henderson State University’s 17th president on Tuesday, March 6,2012, Henderson State University has an urban campus. Some of the include the Donald W. Reynolds Science Center, Arkansas Hall, McBrien Hall, Mooney Hall, Womack Hall, the Garrison Activity and Conference Center
Johns Hopkins University
The Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and his $7 million bequest—of which half financed the establishment of The Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States at that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as the institutions first president on February 22,1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U. S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a school from Germanys ancient Heidelberg University. Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D. C. with international centers in Italy and Singapore. The two undergraduate divisions, the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimores Charles Village neighborhood. The medical school, the school, and the Bloomberg School of Public Health are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore.
Johns Hopkins was a member of the American Association of Universities. Over the course of almost 140 years, thirty-six Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins, founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men’s lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and joined the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member in 2014. On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At that time this fortune, generated primarily from the Baltimore, the first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins, who named his own son Samuel Hopkins, Samuel named one of his sons for his father and that son would become the universitys benefactor. Milton Eisenhower, a university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as President of John Hopkins.
Eisenhower retorted that he was glad to be here in Pittburgh, the original board opted for an entirely novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Building on the German education model of Wilhelm von Humboldt, it dedicated to research. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the research university in the United States. Its success eventually shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the discovery of new knowledge. The trustees worked alongside four notable university presidents – Charles W. Eliot of Harvard, Andrew D. White of Cornell, Noah Porter of Yale College and they each vouched for Daniel Coit Gilman to lead the new University and he became the universitys first president
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was an American Baptist minister and activist who was a leader in the Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs, King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957, with the SCLC, King led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Albany and helped organize the 1963 nonviolent protests in Birmingham, Alabama. King helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous I Have a Dream speech, on October 14,1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolent resistance. In 1965, he helped to organize the Selma to Montgomery marches, in the final years of his life, King expanded his focus to include opposition towards poverty and the Vietnam War, alienating many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled Beyond Vietnam.
In 1968, King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D. C. to be called the Poor Peoples Campaign, Kings death was followed by riots in many U. S. cities. Ray, who fled the country, was arrested two months at London Heathrow Airport, King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King Jr. Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971, hundreds of streets in the U. S. have been renamed in his honor, and a county in Washington State was renamed for him. The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, King was born on January 15,1929, in Atlanta, Georgia, to the Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. and Alberta Williams King. It was during this time he chose to be called Martin Luther King in honor of the German reformer Martin Luther, King had Irish ancestry through his paternal great-grandfather, as well as African ancestry. King was a child, between an older sister, Willie Christine King, and a younger brother, Alfred Daniel Williams King.
King sang with his choir at the 1939 Atlanta premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind. His mother was an accomplished organist and choir leader, and she took him to various churches to sing and he received attention for singing I Want to Be More and More Like Jesus. King became a member of the choir in his church. King said that his father regularly whipped him until he was fifteen, King saw his fathers proud and fearless protests against segregation, such as King Sr. When King was a child, he befriended a boy whose father owned a business near his familys home. When the boys were six, they started school, King had to attend a school for African Americans, King lost his friend because the childs father no longer wanted the boys to play together. King suffered from depression throughout much of his life, in his adolescent years, he initially felt resentment against whites due to the racial humiliation that he, his family, and his neighbors often had to endure in the segregated South
James M. McPherson
For the American Civil War general of similar name, see James B. James M. Jim McPherson is an American Civil War historian and he received the 1989 Pulitzer Prize for Battle Cry of Freedom, The Civil War Era. McPherson was the president of the American Historical Association in 2003, McPhersons works include The Struggle for Equality, awarded the Anisfield-Wolf Award in 1965. In 1988, he published his Pulitzer-winning book, Battle Cry of Freedom, and in 1998 another book, For Cause and Comrades, Why Men Fought in the Civil War, received the Lincoln Prize. In 2002, he published both a book, Crossroads of Freedom, Antietam 1862, and a history of the American Civil War for children. McPherson published This Mighty Scourge in 2007, a series of essays about the American Civil War, one essay describes the huge difficulty of negotiation when regime change is a war aim on either side of a conflict. For at least the past two centuries, nations have found it harder to end a war than to start one. Americans learned that lesson in Vietnam, and apparently having forgotten it, were forced to learn it all over again in Iraq.
One of McPhersons examples is the American Civil War, in both the Union and the Confederacy sought regime change. It took four years to end the war, in 2009, he was the co-winner of the Lincoln Prize for Tried by War, Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief. McPherson was named the 2000 Jefferson Lecturer in the humanities by the National Endowment for the Humanities, in 2007, he was awarded the $100,000 Pritzker Military Library Literature Award for lifetime achievement in military history and was the first recipient of the prize. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts, currently, McPherson resides in Princeton, New Jersey. He is married to Patricia and they have one child, McPherson is known for his outspokenness on contemporary issues and for his activism, such as his work on behalf of the preservation of Civil War battlefields. As president in 1993-1994 of Protect Historic America, he lobbied against the construction of a Disney theme park near Manassas battlefield. He has served on the boards of the Civil War Trust as well as the Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites, from 1990 to 1993, he sat on the Civil War Sites Advisory Commission.
Along with several historians, McPherson signed a May 2009 petition asking U. S. President Barack Obama not to lay a wreath at the Confederate Monument Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery. This implies that the humanity of Africans and African Americans is of no significance, the monument gives encouragement to the modern neo-Confederate movement and provides a rallying point for them. The modern neo-Confederate movement interprets it as vindicating the Confederacy and the principles and ideas of the Confederacy, the presidential wreath enhances the prestige of these neo-Confederate events
Sociology is the study of social behaviour or society, including its origins, organisation and institutions. It is a science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, disorder. Many sociologists aim to research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare. Subject matter ranges from the level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems. The traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality, the range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques, the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-twentieth century led to increasingly interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. There is often a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, and other statistical fields, Sociology is distinguished from various general social studies courses, which bear little relation to sociological theory or to social-science research-methodology.
The US National Science Foundation classifies sociology as a STEM field, Sociological reasoning pre-dates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the stock of Western knowledge and philosophy. The origin of the survey, i. e, there is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings. The word sociology is derived from both Latin and Greek origins, the Latin word, companion, the suffix -logy, the study of from Greek -λογία from λόγος, lógos, knowledge. It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript, Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte, in 1838. Comte used this term to describe a new way of looking at society, Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the understanding of the social realm.
Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism. To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society nevertheless came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the father of modern sociology
Arkansas is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the states diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River. Arkansas is the 29th largest by area and the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States, the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population, the largest city in the eastern part of the state is Jonesboro. The largest city in the part of the state is Pine Bluff. The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15,1836, in 1861 Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War.
Upon returning to the Union in 1868, the state would continue to suffer due to its reliance on slavery. White rural interests continued to dominate the politics until the Civil Rights Movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice. The culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows, restaurants and physicist William L. McMillan, who was a pioneer in superconductor research, have all lived in Arkansas. The name Arkansas derives from the root as the name for the state of Kansas. The Kansa tribe of Native Americans are closely associated with the Sioux tribes of the Great Plains, the word Arkansas itself is a French pronunciation of a Quapaw word, meaning land of downriver people or the Sioux word akakaze meaning people of the south wind. In 2007, the legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring the possessive form of the states name to be Arkansass which has been followed increasingly by the state government.
Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, as well as Tennessee, the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The state line along the Mississippi River is indeterminate along much of the border with Mississippi due to these changes. Arkansas can generally be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half, the highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains. The southern lowlands include the Gulf Coastal Plain and the Arkansas Delta and this dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The term may be used to only those individuals who are descended from enslaved Africans. As a compound adjective the term is usually hyphenated as African-American and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are of West and Central African descent and are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of 73. 2–80. 9% West African, 18–24% European, according to US Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities, immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, believed to be inferior to white people, they were treated as second-class citizens.
The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, in 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States. The first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, the ill-fated colony was almost immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic, the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence they had come. The first recorded Africans in British North America were 20 and odd negroes who came to Jamestown, as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. Typically, young men or women would sign a contract of indenture in exchange for transportation to the New World, the landowner received 50 acres of land from the state for each servant purchased from a ships captain.
An indentured servant would work for years without wages. The status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery, servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Africans could legally raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom and they raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of slavery when they sentenced John Punch. One of Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black slaves, John Casor
Battle of Leyte Gulf
The Battle of Leyte Gulf is generally considered to be the largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, possibly the largest naval battle in history. It was fought in waters near the Philippine islands of Leyte and Luzon, from 23–26 October 1944, between combined American and Australian forces and the Imperial Japanese Navy. The Imperial Japanese Navy mobilized nearly all of its major naval vessels in an attempt to defeat the Allied invasion but was repulsed by the U. S. Navys 3rd. The IJN failed to achieve its objective, suffered heavy losses. The majority of its surviving ships, deprived of fuel, remained in their bases for the rest of the Pacific War. It was the first battle in which Japanese aircraft carried out organized kamikaze attacks, by the time of the battle, Japan had fewer aircraft than the Allied forces had sea vessels, demonstrating the difference in power of the two sides at this point of the war. S. 5th Fleets Fast Carrier Task Force captured most of the Mariana Islands and this offensive breached Japans strategic inner defense ring and gave the Americans a base from which long-range Boeing B-29 Superfortress bombers could attack the Japanese home islands.
The Japanese counterattacked in the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the U. S. Navy destroyed three Japanese aircraft carriers and approximately 600 Japanese aircraft, leaving the IJN with virtually no carrier-borne air power or any experienced pilots. For subsequent operations, Admiral Ernest J. U. S. Army General Douglas MacArthur championed an invasion of the Philippines, which lay across the supply lines to Japan. Leaving the Philippines in Japanese hands would be a blow to American prestige and an affront to MacArthur. However and MacArthur initially had opposing plans, with Nimitzs plan centered on an invasion of Formosa, Formosa could serve as a base for an invasion of mainland China, which MacArthur felt was unnecessary. Nimitz eventually changed his mind and agreed to MacArthurs plan and it was estimated that an invasion of Formosa would require about 12 divisions of U. S. Army soldiers and Marines. It was eventually decided that MacArthurs forces would invade the island of Leyte in the central Philippines, amphibious forces and close naval support would be provided by the 7th Fleet, commanded by Vice Admiral Thomas C.
The 7th Fleet at this time contained units of the U. S. Navy, the U. S. 3rd Fleet—commanded by Admiral William F. Halsey, Jr. with Task Force 38 as its main component—would provide more distant cover and support for the invasion. A fundamental defect in this plan was there would be no single American naval admiral in overall command and his 7th Fleet fell under MacArthur as Supreme Allied Commander Southwest Pacific, whereas Halseys 3rd Fleet reported to Nimitz as C-in-C Pacific Ocean Areas. This lack of unity of command, along with failures in communication, was to produce a crisis, by coincidence, the Japanese plan, using three separate fleets, lacked an overall commander. The American options were apparent to the IJN, the plans were for complex offensive operations committing nearly all available forces to a decisive battle, despite this substantially depleting Japans slender reserves of fuel oil. The Japanese command therefore put Shō-Gō2 into action, launching waves of air attacks against 3rd Fleets carriers, following the American invasion of the Philippines, the Japanese Navy made the transition to Shō-Gō1
Arkadelphia is a city in Clark County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,714, the city is the county seat of Clark County. It is situated at the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains, two universities, Henderson State University and Ouachita Baptist University, are located there. The site was settled in about 1809 by John Hemphill, operator of a salt works. It was known as Blakelytown until 1839, when the settlement adopted the name Arkadelphia, origin of the name Arkadelphia is uncertain. One possibility is that it was formed by combining Ark- from the states name Arkansas, another explanation of the name is a combination of adelphia for place and arc. Arkadelphia was once known as the City of Rainbows, perhaps because the climate often resulted in rain. Arkadelphia is located in northeastern Clark County at 34°7′19″N 93°3′58″W, on the west bank of the Ouachita River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 7.3 square miles, of which 7.3 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles.
The climate is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Arkadelphia has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated Cfa on climate maps. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,714 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 64. 0% White,30. 0% Black,0. 4% Native American,0. 8% Asian,3. 2% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,912 people,3,865 households, the population density was 1,486.2 people per square mile. There were 4,216 housing units at a density of 574.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68. 98% White,26. 51% Black or African American,0. 53% Native American,1. 29% Asian,0. 05% Pacific Islander,1. 35% from other races, and 1. 28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2. 59% of the population,31. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 7% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.26 and the family size was 2.87. In the city, the population was out with 18. 1% under the age of 18,32. 9% from 18 to 24,20. 4% from 25 to 44,14. 5% from 45 to 64