click links in text for more info


CD-R is a digital optical disc storage format. A CD-R disc is a compact disc that can read arbitrarily many times. CD-R discs are readable by most plain CD readers, i.e. CD readers manufactured prior to the introduction of CD-R; this is an advantage over CD-RW, which can be re-written but cannot be played on many plain CD readers. Named CD Write-Once, the CD-R specification was first published in 1988 by Philips and Sony in the'Orange Book'; the Orange Book consists of several parts, furnishing details of the CD-WO, CD-MO, CD-RW. The latest editions have abandoned the use of the term "CD-WO" in favor of "CD-R", while "CD-MO" were used little. Written CD-Rs and CD-RWs are, in the aspect of low-level encoding and data format compatible with the audio CD and data CD standards; this means they use Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation, CIRC error correction, for CD-ROM, the third error correction layer defined in the Yellow Book. Properly written CD-R discs on blanks of less than 80 minutes length are compatible with the audio CD and CD-ROM standards in all details including physical specifications.

80 minute CD-R discs marginally violate the Red Book physical format specifications, longer discs are noncompliant. CD-RW discs have lower reflectivity than CD-R or pressed CDs and for this reason cannot meet the Red Book standard; some hardware compatible with Red Book CDs may have difficulty reading CD-Rs and, because of their lower reflectivity CD-RWs. To the extent that CD hardware can read extended-length discs or CD-RW discs, it is because that hardware has capability beyond the minimum required by the Red Book and Yellow Book standards. CD-R recording systems available in 1990 were similar to the washing machine-sized Meridian CD Publisher, based on the two-piece rack mount Yamaha PDS audio recorder costing $35,000, not including the required external ECC circuitry for data encoding, SCSI hard drive subsystem, MS-DOS control computer. In 1991. With quality technical media being limited from Taiyo Yuden. Early CD-R Media had Phthalocyanine dye. By 1992, the cost of typical recorders was down to $10,000–12,000, in September 1995, Hewlett-Packard introduced its model 4020i manufactured by Philips, which, at $995, was the first recorder to cost less than $1000.

As of the 2010's, devices capable of writing to CD-Rs and other types of writable CDs can be found under $20. The dye materials developed by Taiyo Yuden made it possible for CD-R discs to be compatible with Audio CD and CD-ROM discs. In the United States, there was a market separation between "music" CD-Rs and "data" CD-Rs, the former being several times more expensive than the latter due to industry copyright arrangements with the RIAA. Physically, there is no difference between the discs save for the Disc Application Flag that identifies their type: standalone audio recorders will only accept "music" CD-Rs to enforce the RIAA arrangement, while computer CD-R drives can use either type of media to burn either type of content. A standard CD-R is a 1.2 mm thick disc made of polycarbonate about 120 mm in diameter. The 120 mm disc has a storage capacity of 650 Megabytes of data. CD-R/RWs are available with capacities of 80 minutes of audio or 737,280,000 bytes, which they achieve by molding the disc at the tightest allowable tolerances specified in the Orange Book CD-R/CD-RW standards.

The engineering margin, reserved for manufacturing tolerance has been used for data capacity instead, leaving no tolerance for manufacturing. Despite the foregoing, most CD-Rs on the market have an 80-minute capacity. There are 90 minute/790 MiB and 99 minute/870 MiB discs, although they are less common. Due to the limitations of the data structures in the ATIP, 90 and 99 minute blanks will identify as 80 minute ones. Therefore, in order to use the additional capacity, these discs have to be burned using "overburn" options in the CD recording software; some drives use special techniques, such as Plextor's GigaRec or Sanyo's HD-BURN, to write more data onto a given disc. However, in certain applications where discs will not be distributed or exchanged outside a private group and will not be archived for a long time, a proprietary format may be an acceptable way to obtain greater capacity; the greatest risk in using such a proprietary data storage format, assuming that it works reliably as designed, is that it

List of mayors of Como

The Mayor of Como is an elected politician who, along with the Como's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Como in Lombardy, Italy. The current Mayor is Mario Landriscina, a centre-right independent, who took office on 27 June 2017. According to the Italian Constitution, the Mayor of Como is member of the City Council; the Mayor is elected by the population of Como, who elects the members of the City Council, controlling the Mayor's policy guidelines and is able to enforce his resignation by a motion of no confidence. The Mayor is entitled to appoint and release the members of his government. Since 1994 the Mayor is elected directly by Como's electorate: in all mayoral elections in Italy in cities with a population higher than 15,000 the voters express a direct choice for the mayor or an indirect choice voting for the party of the candidate's coalition. If no candidate receives at least 50% of votes, the top two candidates go to a second round after two weeks; the election of the City Council is based on a direct choice for the candidate with a preference vote: the candidate with the majority of the preferences is elected.

The number of the seats for each party is determined proportionally. From 1946 to 1994, the Mayor of Como was elected by the City's Council. Since 1994, under provisions of new local administration law, the Mayor of Como is chosen by direct election

Stormin' the Castle

Stormin' the Castle is a bikers rally held in the north east of England at Witton Castle. Stormin' celebrated its 25th year in 2015, whilst run independently and voluntarily, is one of the main fund raising events for the Motorcycle Action Group and over the last 24 years has been a major donator to support the ongoing fight for rider’s rights. Along with Nabbed, Bulldog Bash, The Farmyard, Stormin' is one of the biggest biker rallies in the UK; the rally has played host to many popular bands including Levellers, UFO, Hayseed Dixie and Terrorvision. There are some cover bands as well. Entertainment is spread across 2 stages, Main stage, the smaller Iris tent; the Iris tent has a more laid back atmosphere with a mixture of R&B, Folk and Prog. As well as fairground and caterers stalls across the site; the highlight of the weekend is the Custom Bike show. General adult weekend entry is priced at around £45 and includes camping as well; the rally opens at 9 am every year. It is customary. Friday: Open 12:00 Saturday: Open 10:00 Sunday: Open 09:00 Best in Show Best Custom Best Engineering Best Streetfighter Best Paintwork Best Classic Exhibitor’s Choice Best Three Wheeler Best Alternative Best British Best Japanese

Currency of Uruguay

This is an outline of Uruguay's monetary history. For the present currency of Uruguay, see Uruguayan peso. Uruguay's currency was that common to all of Spanish America. During the struggle over this region between Spain and Portugal between Argentina and Brazil, the coinage of both contestants circulated; when the area was annexed to Brazil in 1821 as Provincia Cisplatina, the Portuguese administration put notes of Banco do Brazil into circulation. This was the first paper money to circulate in Uruguay. In 1826–1828, Argentine troops fighting against Brazil were paid in one-peso notes issued by Banco Nacional of Buenos Aires for Provincia Oriental. All parties to the conflict used the Spanish dollar, which circulated with a value of 8 Spanish reales or 960 Brazilian reis. Circulation consisted of coins from mints in Mexico, Potosí, Buenos Aires. During the turbulent period of conflict preceding independence, a considerable amount of poor-quality copper coin from both Buenos Aires and Brazil came into circulation.

Peso = 8 Reales = 800 Centésimos de real Onza de oro = 16 Pesos In 1828, Uruguay's currency was based on the silver peso of eight reales known as the patacón, the gold onza de oro, valued at 16 pesos silver. But a large quantity of debased copper coin circulated. Lacking the means to implement a national coinage, Gen. José Rondeau's provisional government permitted foreign silver and gold coin to circulate at its intrinsic value, but it restricted and prohibited the import of copper coin and the circulation of Buenos Aires bank notes. In January 1831, Gen. Fructuoso Rivera demonetized all copper coin in circulation, i.e. the coppers ceased to be legal tender for individuals and would be neither received nor paid out by public offices. Next, it was withdrawn at one patacón in gold for 13 reales in copper. To meet the need for small change, the government obtained Buenos Aires coins of one-tenth real, put about 1·6 million of them into circulation at half face value; this is considered the first money issued by República Oriental del Uruguay.

The government created a new monetary system, known as Sistema real, with accounts kept in a patacón of 8 reales, each of 100 centésimos. The patacón was a silver coin, 27·06 g, 0·902 fine; the standard gold coin was 0 · 875 fine, equal to 16 silver pesos. Other silver and gold coins were rated in terms of the patacón and onza, according to their intrinsic value. Law 208 authorized the minting of 20,000 pesos in copper coin, but only about 500 pesos in coins, dated 1840, were produced; the Government put the first of these coins into circulation on 15 October 1840. Copper coins and a silver peso were authorized by laws 254 and 255 of 13 December 1843, during Uruguay's long civil war, known as La Guerra Grande; the government established a mint that produced three copper denominations and a silver peso fuerte or peso del Sitio. Uruguay did not issue any paper money during this period; the Law of 26 January 1831 provided for a copper exchange company to issue notes for 1 and 5 pesos in exchange for copper coin.

These notes were payable to bearer at sight after 90 days in gold onzas, silver pesos fuertes or patacones, or in subsidiary Brazilian silver, they were received by government offices at par with silver and gold coin. A law of 29 April 1835 authorized a foreign loan to pay off a portion of the national debt, provided for the issue of up to $700,000 in polizas de deuda pública; these were high-denomination vales for 400, 500, 2000, 5000 pesos, payable to bearer. Uruguay's first coins were two copper, centésimo denominations dated 1840, struck by a private firm in Montevideo, the type being that of a radiate sunface: 5c, 24 mm; the 5c coin was known as the 20c as a vintén. The three copper, centésimo coins of 1843–1844 are of the same type as those of 1840: 5c, 5·38 g, 24 mm; the peso fuerte of 1844 was 27·07 g, 35 mm, ≈0·875 fine, was the only silver coin minted at Montevideo. It was made by melting down silver objects donated by the Montevideo residents. Only about 1226 pieces were produced. First coins were struck on January 19th.

Or 20th. And given to Government authorities on Jan. 22nd. Official issue date was set on 15 February 1844 after production ended, it was a siege coin, issued to city Government be able to pay defending supplies. Its circulation outside the city of Montevideo was prohibited by the government of Gen. Manuel Oribe. Escudo = 10 Reales = 1000 Centésimos de real Patacón = 10 Reales = 1000 Centésimos de real Legislation of 22 July 1854 authorized the minting of gold coins of 1, 2, 4 escudos, silver coins of 1¼, 2½, 5 reales, copper coins of 10, 20, 40 centésimos. Law 414 defined the gold 10 reales as 1·6175 g, 0·875 fine, or 1415·32

Joep Lange

Joseph Marie Albert "Joep" Lange was a Dutch clinical researcher specialising in HIV therapy. He served as the president of the International AIDS Society from 2002 to 2004, he was a passenger on Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, shot down on 17 July 2014 over Ukraine. Lange was born on 25 September 1954 in Nieuwenhagen in the Netherlands, he was a Youth for Understanding foreign exchange student from 1971 to 1972 at Robinson High School in Tampa, Florida. He studied medicine at the University of Amsterdam, receiving his MD in 1981 and his PhD in 1987. In 2001, he founded the "PharmAccess Foundation", a non-profit organisation based in Amsterdam which aims to improve access to HIV/AIDS therapy in developing countries, he served as chairman until his death. Lange was a former president of the International AIDS Society. Lange was the Scientific Director of HIVDucation, an online learning system for medical doctors and counsellors working with HIV-positive people, he was a founding editor of the medical journal, Antiviral Therapy.

In 2006 he became Professor of Medicine at the Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam and Senior Scientific Advisor to the International Antiviral Therapy Evaluation Centre, Amsterdam. He was co-director of the HIV Netherlands Australia Research Collaboration, based in Thailand. Joep Lange established the Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development in 2009 and uniquely positioned it to fill the gap of the ‘delivery perspective’, neglected in academic approaches to global health. AIGHD links disciplines and innovative programs from academic institutions and implementing partners in both the developed and developing world, with the ultimate aim to lead the way to access to high quality health care for all inhabitants of this world. Lange served on Accordia Global Health Foundation's Scientific Advisory Board, he was a member of several societies including the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Society for Microbiology, International AIDS Society.

He received the Eijkman Medal for tropical medicine and international health in 2007. During the mid-1990s, Lange began advocating for the use of combination therapy in the management of HIV/AIDS, he argued that it is an "illusion to think that monotherapy with any antiretroviral agent will have a major and lasting impact on this disease" because the development of drug resistance lowers the efficacy of treatment. In 1996, Lange defended the work of controversial HIV/AIDS researcher David Ho, who treated infected patients by having them swallow 20 pills a day as part of a multidrug "cocktail" regimen. Although this experiment was criticised, Lange explained to The Wall Street Journal that "David's work in the past few years has helped to transform our understanding of HIV". Lange was an important advocate for providing affordable AIDS medication to African countries, stating at one point that "f we can get cold Coca-Cola and beer to every remote corner of Africa, it should not be impossible to do the same with drugs".

In 2003, Lange completed a study on the children of HIV-positive volunteer mothers in Rwanda and Uganda. He found that a baby's chance of contracting HIV falls to less than 1% if they receive anti-retroviral drugs while being nursed; the findings of the study were announced by Lange at the 2003 International AIDS Society meeting in Paris. During the 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Boston, Lange announced the results of a large multicenter clinical trial with the involvement of 1,216 patients in 17 countries. According to Lange, who served as principal investigator, these findings "clearly demonstrate the comparable efficacy of nevirapine and efavirenz in HIV treatment". Two years he commented in an editorial for PLOS Medicine that activist groups have derailed several pre-exposure prophylaxis clinical trials, he expressed frustration that activist groups have prevented newer CCR5 receptor antagonists from being tested in Europe. However, Lange was criticised for neglecting the needs of sex workers in the trials, other researchers asserted that the concerns raised by activists are "entirely legitimate" since the known toxic effects of so-called'pre-exposure' drugs will lead to liver failure and kidney disease, thereby killing people rather than protecting them.

From 2010 to 2012, Lange was a regular participant in the annual Bangkok International Symposium on HIV Medicine, where he argued that PREP is more effective than current methods for HIV prevention. Lange and his partner Jacqueline van Tongeren were passengers on Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, shot down near Hrabove, Ukraine, on 17 July 2014, he was en route to Melbourne to attend the 20th International AIDS Conference, starting on 20 July. His death was mourned by his peers, with the IAS stating that they had "truly lost a giant", while conference delegates interviewed by the media were described as being in "total shock". On July 15, 2015 the Joep Lange Institute and the Joep Lange Chair and Fellows program was announced; the institute is meant to continue the unique combination of scientific research and action that characterized Joep Lange. The first funding, consisting of $20 million from private sources in the United States, has been confirmed; the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs will support the Joep Lange Chair.

To mark the announcement of the Institute, former US President Bill Clinton has shared a video message in which he honors Joep Lange's work and emphasizes the importance of carrying forward his legacy. Operations will start in late 2015. Biography at The Body PharmAccess Fou

Dwight E. Beach

General Dwight Edward Beach commanded the United States Forces Korea from 1965–1966 and U. S. Army, Pacific from September 1966 to July 1968, he gained his commission in 1932 into the Field Artillery. He served in World War II in the Pacific theater, participating in four amphibious assaults, as well as in the Korean War. Beach was born in Chelsea, Michigan, on July 20, 1908, attended the University of Michigan for two years before transferring and graduating from the United States Military Academy. Prior to transferring to West Point, he was initiated into the Sigma Chi fraternity, he attended the Armed Forces Staff College and the Army War College, was an instructor of tactics at West Point. Major command assignments for Beach include Commanding General, 45th Infantry Division, of the Eighth Army in Korea in 1954, he served as Commanding General for the 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg. During the escalation of U. S. involvement in Vietnam, he served as Commanding General for the U. S. Army Combat Developments Command in Fort Belvoir, as Commander in Chief of the United Nations Command, Commander of U.

S. Forces in Korea and Commanding General of the Eighth Army in Korea. Additional major duty assignments for Beach were Deputy Chief of Staff and Chief of Staff for the Eighth Army in Korea, Director of Special Weapons Development at Fort Bliss, Texas, he served as Deputy Chief and Chief of Research and Development for the Department of the Army in Washington, D. C, he retired from the Army on August 1, 1968. He was married to the former Florence Eileen Clem in 1932, had five children, he died in Michigan, at the 147-year-old Beach Farm. Awards and decorations for General Beach include the Army Distinguished Service Medal, the Silver Star, the Legion of Merit, the Bronze Star, the World War II Victory Medal, the Occupation of Japan Medal, the Korean Service Medal, the United Nations Service Medal, the Philippine Liberation Ribbon. Distinguished Service Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster Silver Star Legion of Merit Bronze Star World War II Victory Medal Army of Occupation Medal with Japan clasp Korean Service Medal United Nations Service Medal for Korea Philippine Liberation MedalDwight E. Beach Middle School, in Chelsea, Michigan, is named for him.

This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "". The short film STAFF FILM REPORT 66-18A is available for free download at the Internet Archive