The Compact Disc-Interactive is a digital optical disc data storage format, developed and marketed by Dutch company Philips. It was created as an extension of CDDA and CD-ROM and specified in the Green Book, co-developed by Philips and Sony, to combine audio and graphics; the two companies expected to impact the education/training, point of sale, home entertainment industries, but CD-i became best known for its video games. CD-i media physically have the same dimensions as CD, but with up to 744 MiB of digital data storage, including up to 72 minutes of full motion video. CD-i players were standalone boxes that connect to a standard television. Most players were created by Philips. Unlike CD-ROM drives, CD-i players are complete computer systems centered around dedicated Motorola 68000-based microprocessors and its own operating system called CD-RTOS. Media released on the format included video games and "edutainment" and multimedia reference titles, such as interactive encyclopedias and museum tours – which were popular before public Internet access was widespread – as well as business software.
Philips's CD-i system implemented Internet features, including subscriptions, web browsing, downloading, e-mail, online play. Philips's aim with its players was to introduce interactive multimedia content for the general public by combining features of a CD player and games console, but at a lower price than a personal computer with a CD-ROM drive. Authoring kits for the format were released first in 1988, the first player aimed for home consumers, Philips's CDI 910/205, at the end of 1991 priced around US$1,000, capable of playing interactive CD-i discs, Audio CDs, CD+G, Karaoke CDs, Photo CDs and Video CDs, though the latter required an optional "Digital Video Card" to provide MPEG-1 decoding. Marketed to consumers as "home entertainment systems", in years as a "gaming platform", CD-i did not manage to find enough success in the market, was abandoned by Philips in 1996; the format continued to be supported for licensees for a few more years after. Development of the "Compact Disc-Interactive" format began in 1984 and it was first publicly announced by Philips and Sony – two of the largest electronics companies of the time – at Microsoft's CD-ROM Conference in Seattle in March 1986.
Microsoft's CEO Bill Gates had no idea beforehand. The Green Book, formally known as the "CD-i Full Functional Specification", defined the format for interactive, multimedia compact discs designed for CD-i players; the Green Book specification defines a whole hardware set built around the Motorola 68000 microprocessor family, an operating system called CD-RTOS based on OS-9, a product of Microware. The standard was not available and had to be licensed from Philips. However, the 1994 version of the standard was made available free by Philips. CD-i discs conform to the Red Book specification of audio CDs. Tracks on a CD-i's program area can be CD-DA tracks or CD-i tracks, but the first track must always be a CD-i track, all CD-i tracks must be grouped together at the beginning of the area. CD-i tracks are structured according to the CD-ROM XA specification, have different classes depending on their contents. "Message" sectors contain audio data to warn users of CD players that the track they are trying to listen to is a CD-i track and not a CD-DA track.
The CD-i specification specifies a file system similar to ISO 9660 to be used on CD-i tracks, as well as certain specific files that are required to be present in a CD-i compatible disc. Compared to the Yellow Book, the Green Book CD-i standard solves synchronisation problems by interleaving audio and video information on a single track; the format gained interest from large manufacturers, received backing from many Matsushita. Although a joint effort, Philips took over the majority of CD-i development at the expense of Sony. Philips invested many millions in developing players based on the CD-i specification. Branded "CD-I", the name was changed in 1991 to "CD-i" with a lowercase i; the CD-i Ready format is a type of bridge format designed by Philips, that defines discs compatible with CD Digital audio players and CD-i players. This format puts CD-i software and data into the pregap of Track 1; the CD-i Bridge format, defined in Philips' White Book, is a transitional format allowing bridge discs to be played both on CD-ROM drives and on CD-i players.
The CD-i Digital Video format was launched in 1993 containing movies that could be played on CD-i players with a Digital Video Cartridge add-on. The format was incompatible with Video CD, although a CD-i unit with the DVC could play both formats. Only about 20 movies were released on the format and it was stopped in 1994 in favor of VCD. Applications were developed using authoring software produced by OptImage; this included OptImage's Balboa Runtime MediaMogul. The second company that produced authoring software was Script Systems. Much of the CD-i software were promoted and/or published by American Interactive Media, a joint venture between Philips and its subsidiar
Kevin Venegas is an American soccer player who plays for Detroit City FC in the National Independent Soccer Association. In 2010, while at Cal State Fullerton, Venegas put together a career year for the Titans starting in all 21 matches and finished with seven goals and three assists, he finished his career at Fullerton with 16 goals and 11 assists. Venegas spent the summer of 2010 with the Orange County Blue Star in the USL Premier Development League. On January 17, 2012, Venegas was drafted in the second round of the 2012 MLS Supplemental Draft by Chivas USA. After failing to make the squad, Venegas joined Minnesota Stars FC of the North American Soccer League on April 3, 2012. Three weeks he made his debut in a 3–3 draw against the Atlanta Silverbacks. In 2012, he was named NASL Play Of The Year. Venegas remained with Minnesota as they moved up from NASL to Major League Soccer in 2017, he made six appearances for Minnesota that year. After the season's conclusion, Minnesota dropped Venegas from their roster.
On January 25, 2018, United Soccer League side Indy Eleven announced that they had signed Venegas for the 2018 season. On June 14, Venegas scored his first goal and an assist for Indy Eleven in a 3–1 win over Toronto FC II; this performance earned him a spot on the USL Team of the Week for week 14. On February 14, 2020, Detroit City FC announced; as of October 20, 2018 Kevin Venegas at USL Championship Kevin Venegas at Major League Soccer Cal State Fullerton bio Kevin Venegas on Twitter
Magomed Ismailov is a Russian mixed martial artist in the light heavyweight category. Performs as a professional since 2011, famous as a participant of tournaments lead by the fighting organizations M-1 Global, Fight Nights Global and others, he is an award-winning athlete Amateur, a combat sambo World champion, master of sports of Russia of international class. Master of sports in Russian army hand-to-hand combat and freestyle wrestling. Magomed Ismailov was born June 21, 1986, in the town of Nizhny Tagil, Sverdlovsk Oblast to an avarian-born father and a kumuk-born mother. At the age of 7 he moved with his family to Mahachkala, where he started to go in for free wrestling at the age of 12 he moved to Moscow and trained at the sport society «Labour reserve», he started his sport career as a free wrestler, won bronze medal at Dagestan championship, He is a champion and multiple prizewinner of Moscow tournaments and prizewinner of international tournaments, master of sports in Russia at the Freestyle wrestling.
He learn the military hand-to-hand combat at Russian army and took part in tournaments: he is a prizewinner of the International memorial tournament army General V. F. Margelov, Master of sports in Army hand-to-hand combat. After the demobilization he started to go in for combat sambo under his trainer Vladimir Osia at Moscow fighting club Golden Team. In 2010 he won the bronze medal at Russian combat sambo championship, won the gold the next year, won at the Rinat Sadikov memorial championship. In 2012 he won the Combat sambo World championship — for which he was awarded as the «Master of sports in Russia, International class», he made his professional debut in mixed martial arts in March 2011, with the help of a strangulation from behind he made his opponent to surrender in 2nd round. At first he performed at large Russian fight organization M-1 Global, where he participated in 5 fights, 4 wins — was defeated only by strong Russian fighter Anatolyi Tokov, by whom he was caught on the reverse knot of the elbow in the 1st round and had to capitulate.
In 2012 he took part in the first Russian MMA championship, which he won in the light heavyweight category, in the Final he defeated Rashid Yousupov. In 2014—2017 he participated in small promotional fights, winning all of them, except the match against French fighter Xavier Fupa-Pokam at the 100% Fight 20 in France; the referees separate solution was controversial. Since 2018 he cooperates with Russian organization Fight Nights Global, he won by knockout in the short notice match against Brazilian fighter Ildemar Alcantara in the 1st round. In the autumn of 2018 he matched in the main fight of the night against Vladimir Mineev; the fight ended by draw in separate solution. Professional MMA record for Magomed Ismailov from Sherdog Magomed Ismailov on Instagram