The European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as CERN, is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border and has 23 member states. Israel is the only non-European country granted full membership. CERN is an official United Nations Observer; the acronym CERN is used to refer to the laboratory, which in 2016 had 2,500 scientific and administrative staff members, hosted about 12,000 users. In the same year, CERN generated 49 petabytes of data. CERN's main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research – as a result, numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN through international collaborations; the main site at Meyrin hosts a large computing facility, used to store and analyse data from experiments, as well as simulate events. Researchers need remote access to these facilities, so the lab has been a major wide area network hub.
CERN is the birthplace of the World Wide Web. The convention establishing CERN was ratified on 29 September 1954 by 12 countries in Western Europe; the acronym CERN represented the French words for Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire, a provisional council for building the laboratory, established by 12 European governments in 1952. The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the provisional council was dissolved though the name changed to the current Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire in 1954. According to Lew Kowarski, a former director of CERN, when the name was changed, the abbreviation could have become the awkward OERN, Werner Heisenberg said that this could "still be CERN if the name is ". CERN's first president was Sir Benjamin Lockspeiser. Edoardo Amaldi was the general secretary of CERN at its early stages when operations were still provisional, while the first Director-General was Felix Bloch; the laboratory was devoted to the study of atomic nuclei, but was soon applied to higher-energy physics, concerned with the study of interactions between subatomic particles.
Therefore, the laboratory operated by CERN is referred to as the European laboratory for particle physics, which better describes the research being performed there. At the sixth session of the CERN Council, which took place in Paris from 29 June - 1 July 1953, the convention establishing the organization was signed, subject to ratification, by 12 states; the convention was ratified by the 12 founding Member States: Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Yugoslavia. Several important achievements in particle physics have been made through experiments at CERN, they include: 1973: The discovery of neutral currents in the Gargamelle bubble chamber. In September 2011, CERN attracted media attention when the OPERA Collaboration reported the detection of faster-than-light neutrinos. Further tests showed that the results were flawed due to an incorrectly connected GPS synchronization cable; the 1984 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for the developments that resulted in the discoveries of the W and Z bosons.
The 1992 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher Georges Charpak "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber". The 2013 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to François Englert and Peter Higgs for the theoretical description of the Higgs mechanism in the year after the Higgs boson was found by CERN experiments; the World Wide Web began as a CERN project named ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and Robert Cailliau in 1990. Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honoured by the Association for Computing Machinery in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web. Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was intended to facilitate the sharing of information between researchers; the first website was activated in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced. A copy of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is still published on the World Wide Web Consortium's website as a historical document.
Prior to the Web's development, CERN had pioneered the introduction of Internet technology, beginning in the early 1980s. More CERN has become a facility for the development of grid computing, hosting projects including the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE and LHC Computing Grid, it hosts the CERN Internet Exchange Point, one of the two main internet exchange points in Switzerland. CERN operates a network of a decelerator; each machine in the chain increases the energy of particle beams before delivering them
Pierce Grace was an Irish Gaelic footballer and hurler. His championship career as a dual player with the Dublin and Kilkenny senior teams spanned nine seasons from 1906 until 1914. Born in Tullaroan, County Kilkenny, Grace was one of eleven children born to Nicholas and Kate Grace. Raised on the family farm, he was educated locally before attending St. Joseph's CBS and St. Kieran's College. Grace subsequently qualified as a medical doctor from University College Dublin and the Royal College of Surgeons. Grace first played competitive hurling in his early teens with the Tullaroan club, he won four county hurling championship medals with the club between 1899 and 1903. After moving to Dublin, Grace joined the Kickhams club where he played both hurling and Gaelic football, he won back-to-back county football championship medals in 1906 and 1907, while he won a county hurling championship medal with the club in 1908. Success at club level allowed Grace join the Dublin senior football team during the 1906 championship.
In a brief career with the team he won back-to-back All-Ireland medals in 1906 and 1907. Grace joined the Kilkenny senior hurling team, winning three successive All-Ireland medals between 1911 and 1913, he won two Leinster medals as a footballer and four Leinster medals as a hurler. Grace's brothers, - Jack and Dick - had All-Ireland success in both codes with Kilkenny and Dublin. Between them, the three Grace brothers won a total of 15 All-Ireland medals
Baharestan, is a Persian book written by Jami that contains prose. It has stories and moral advice in prose, but in poetry. Baharestan is divided into eight chapters, an introduction, a final part; each of its chapters is called a rowzeh. Jami wrote this book in a year in the 9th century after Muhammad's departure to Medina. In the introduction of Baharestan, Jami stated that he had written this book in the style of Saadi Shirazi's Gulistan for his son, ten years old at the time and was studying. Baharestan has content about mysticism. There are 469 verses of poetry in this book. Baharestan has saj' in its texts and the type of its prose is rhymed prose; each chapter in Baharestan has a specific topic. Persian Wikipedia Contributors. بهارستان. Persian. 19 September 2016. Translated to English from Persian by the creator of the page; the World of Persian Literary Humanism. Http://humsci.iaurasht.ac.ir/Files/ThesisProfiles/en/481.pdf.. Permanent archived link. Sweet short stories from Jami's Baharestan - About This Book.
Permanent archived link.. Permanent archived link.. Alternative link. SID.ir | AN INVESTIGATION ON THE SOURCES OF THE ANECDOTES FROM THE FIRST CHAPTER OF JAMI’S BAHARESTAN. Permanent link. Britannica Guide to the Islamic World; the Great Poet Jami - The New Nation. Permanent archived link. بهارستان جامی.. Permanent archived link. BAHĀRESTĀN – Encyclopaedia Iranica Binary Oppositions in Baharestan by Jami - Tarbiat Modares University Journals System