Glossary of rail transport terms
Rail terminology is a form of technical terminology. The difference between the American term railroad and the international term railway is the most significant difference in rail terminology. There are others, due to the parallel development of rail transport systems in different parts of the world. Various global terms are presented here; the abbreviation "UIC" refers to standard terms adopted by the International Union of Railways in its official publications and thesaurus. Adhesion railway The most common type of railway, where power is applied by driving some or all of the wheels of the locomotive Adhesive weight The weight on the driving wheels of a locomotive, which determines the frictional grip between wheels and rail, hence the drawbar pull a locomotive can exert Air brake A power braking system with compressed air as the operating medium Alerter or watchdog Similar to the dead man's switch other than it does not require the operator's constant interaction. Instead, an alarm is sounded at a preset interval in which the operator must respond by pressing a button to reset the alarm and timer if no other controls are operated.
If the operator does not respond within a preset time, the prime mover is automatically throttled back to idle and the brakes are automatically applied. All weather adhesion The adhesion available during traction mode with 99% reliability in all weather conditions Alternator An electrical generator that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current American Locomotive Company The second largest builder of steam locomotives in the United States American type A steam locomotive with a 4-4-0 wheel arrangement Angle cock A valve affixed to each end of a piece of rolling stock that, when opened, admits compressed air to the brake pipe Articulated locomotive A steam locomotive with one or more engine units that can move relative to the main frame Articulation The sharing of one truck by adjacent ends of two rail vehicles Ashpan A feature of a locomotive with the same form and purpose as the domestic variety; the only significant difference is the size, measured in feet rather than inches.
Asynchronous An alternating current electric motor whose speed varies with load and has no fixed relation to the frequency of the supply Atlantic type A steam locomotive with a 4-4-2 wheel arrangement Automatic block signaling A system that consists of a series of signals that divide a railway line into a series of blocks and functions to control the movement of trains between them through automatic signals Automatic train control A system that applies an emergency brake if the driver does not react to certain signals or speed restrictions Automatic train operation An operational safety enhancement device used to help automate operations of trains Automatic train protection A system that enforces obedience to signals and speed restrictions by speed supervision, including automatic stop at signals Autotrain A branch-line train consisting of a steam locomotive and passenger carriages that can be driven from either end by means of rodding to the regulator and an additional vacuum brake valve.
The fireman remains with the locomotive and, when the driver is at the other end, the fireman controls the cut off and vacuum ejectors in addition to his usual duties. See also: Push-pull train. Axlebox or axle box The housing that holds the axle bearings on a rail vehicle The housing that attaches to the end of the axle to the bogie and contains the bearing on which the axle rotates See journal box below. Backhead The cab-side rear panel of a steam locomotive boiler through which the firebox is accessed. Bad order A note applied to a defective piece of equipment. Equipment tagged as bad order must not be used until repaired and approved for use. Bail off To release the locomotive brakes while the train brakes are applied, to permit smoother handling and prevent excessive slack, wheel slide and flat wheels Balancing The reciprocation and revolving masses of any steam, diesel or electric locomotive need balancing, if it is to work smoothly. Revolving masses can be balanced by counterweights, but the balancing of reciprocating parts is a matter of compromise and judgement.
Balise A transponder, used as a intermittent data point in an automatic train protection system or as reference point for train location in radio-based train control Ballast Aggregate stone, gravel, or cinders forming the track bed on which sleepers and track are laid to ensure stability and proper drainage Ballast tamper See Tamping machine. Balloon A looped length of track at the end of a spur or branch, which trains use to turn around for the return trip without reversing or shunting. Can be used as part of a freight installation to allow the loading or unloading of bulk materials without the need to stop the train. Bay platform A platform and track arrangement where the train pulls into a siding, or dead-end, when serving the platform Beep A one-of-a-kind switcher locomotive built by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway in 1970 Bellmouth A widening of an underground rail tunnel, in preparation for future connection or expansion of service. Used in subway nomenclature. Berkshire type A steam locomotive with a 2-8-4 wheel arrangement Blastpipe A part of a steam locomotive that discharges exhaust steam from the cylinders into the smokebox beneath the chimney to increase draught through the fire Block section A section
A streamliner is a vehicle incorporating streamlining in a shape providing reduced air resistance. The term is applied to high-speed railway trainsets of the 1930s to 1950s, to their successor "bullet trains". Less the term is applied to faired recumbent bicycles; as part of the Streamline Moderne trend, the term was applied to passenger cars and other types of light-, medium-, or heavy-duty vehicles, but now vehicle streamlining is so prevalent that it is not an outstanding characteristic. In land speed racing, it is a term applied to the long, custom built, high-speed vehicles with enclosed wheels; the first high-speed streamliner in Germany was the "Schienenzeppelin", an experimental propeller driven single car, built 1930. On 21 June 1931, it set a speed record of 230.2 km/h on a run between Hamburg. In 1932 the propeller was removed and a hydraulic system installed; the Schienenzeppelin made 180 km/h in 1933. The Schienenzeppelin led to the construction of the diesel-electric DRG Class SVT 877 "Flying Hamburger".
This two-car train set had a top speed of 160 km/h. During regular service starting on 15 May 1933, this train ran the 286 kilometres between Hamburg and Berlin in 138 minutes with an average speed of 124.4 km/h. The SVT 877 was the prototype for the DRG Class SVT 137, first built in 1935 for use in the FDt express train service. During test drives, the SVT 137 "Bauart Leipzig" set a world speed record of 205 km/h in 1936; the fastest regular service with SVT 137 was between Hannover and Hamm with an average speed of 132.2 km/h. This service lasted until 22 August 1939. In 1935 Henschel & Son, a major manufacturer of steam locomotives, introduced the 4-6-4 DRG Class 05 high speed streamliner locomotives for use on the Deutsche Reichsbahn Frankfurt am Main to Berlin route. Three examples were built during 1935-36. Built for top speeds of over 85 mph, they soon proved much faster in test runs. DRG 05-002 made seven runs during 1935-36 during which it attained top speeds of more than 177 km/h with trains up to 254 t weight.
On 11 May 1936 it set the world speed record for steam locomotives after reaching 200.4 km/h on the Berlin–Hamburg line hauling a 197 t train. The engine power was more than 2,535 kW ); that record was broken two years by the British LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard engine. On 30 May 1936 05-002 set an unbroken start stop speed record for steam locomotives: During the return run from a 190 km/h test on the Berlin-Hamburg route it did the ~113 kilometres from Wittenberg to a signal stop before Berlin-Spandau in 48 min 32 s, meaning 139.4 km/h average between start and stop. In the United Kingdom, development of streamlined passenger services began in 1934, with the Great Western Railway introducing low-speed streamlined railcars, the London and North Eastern Railway introducing the "Silver Jubilee" service using streamlined A4 class steam locomotives and full length trains rather than railcars. In 1938 on a test run, the locomotive Mallard built for this service set the official record for the highest top speed attained by a steam locomotive, reaching 126 mph.
That record stands to this day. The London Midland and Scottish Railway introduced streamline locomotives of the Princess Coronation Class shortly before the outbreak of war; the Ferrovie dello Stato developed a three-unit electric streamliner. The development started in 1934; these trains went into service in 1937. On 6 December 1937, an ETR 200 made a top speed of 201 km/h between Campoleone and Cisterna on the run Rome-Naples. In 1939 the ETR 212 made 203 km/h; the 219-kilometre journeys from Bologna to Milan were made in 77 minutes, meaning an average of 171 km/h. In the Netherlands, Nederlandse Spoorwegen introduced the Materieel 34, a three unit 140 km/h streamlined diesel-electric trainset in 1934. An electric version, Materieel 36, went into service in 1936. From 1940 the "Dieselvijf", a 160 km/h top speed five unit diesel-electric trainset based on DE3, completed the Dutch streamliner fleet. During test runs, a DE5 ran 175 km/h; that year the similar electric Materieel 40 were first built.
In the 1930s, NS developed a streamlined version of the class 3700/3800 steam locomotive, nicknamed "potvis". In Czechoslovakia in 1934, Czechoslovak State Railways ordered two motor railcars with maximum speed 130 km/h; the order was received by Tatra company, producing first streamlined mass-produced automobile Tatra 77 in that time. The railcar project received streamlined design. Both ČSD Class M 290.0 were delivered in 1936 with desired 130 km/h maximum speed, although during test runs one car reached 148 km/h mark. They were run on Czechoslovak prominent route Prague-Bratislava under Slovenská strela brand; the earliest known streamlined rail equipment in the United States were McKeen rail motorcars built for Union Pacific and Southern Pacific between 1905 and 1917. Most of them sported a pointed "wind splitter" front, a rounded rear, round porthole style windows in a style, as much nautically as aerodynamically inspired; the McKeen cars were unsuccessful because internal combustion drive technology for that application was unreliable at the time and the lightweight frames dictated by their limited power tended to break.
Streamlined rail motorcars would appear again in the early 1930s after the internal combustion-electric prop
A boxcab, in railroad terminology, is a locomotive in which the machinery and crew areas are enclosed in a box-like superstructure. It is a term used in North America while in Victoria, such locomotives have been nicknamed "butterboxes". Boxcabs may use any source of power but most are diesel or electric locomotives. Few steam locomotives are so described but the British SR Leader class was a possible exception. Most American boxcabs date from before World War II, when the earliest boxcabs were termed "oil-electrics" to avoid the use of the German name "Diesel" due to propaganda purposes. Boxcabs do not have styled ends, or a superstructure consisting of multiple boxy structures, although the prototype diesel/oil-electric, GE #8835, had one prominently-rounded nose and the second and following 100-ton ALCO boxcabs had semi-cylindrical ends; the construction of double-ended boxcab diesel locomotives was common in Australia from 1969 until the 1980s. These were GM-EMD derivatives built by Clyde Engineering with a smaller number of Alco derivatives built by A. E. Goodwin/Commonwealth Engineering and GE derivatives by A. Goninan & Co/UGL Rail.
Most British diesel and electric locomotives are boxcabs but the term "boxcab" is not used in Britain. Instead, locomotives are referred to by their class numbers, e.g. British Rail Class 47 and British Rail Class 92. British diesel and electric locomotives are nearly always double-ended. Other double cab designs, where the cab is wider than a narrow engine compartment, include the British Rail Class 58 and British Rail Class 70, however these do not classify as boxcabs. In post-Soviet Eastern Europe and electric locomotives with a boxcab configuration are common. Notable examples are the diesel TE10 and 2TE25A, the electric VL23. In Sweden, the electric SJ Rb and Rc locomotives have a near-perfect box shape which would inspire derivatives such as the American EMD AEM-7. In historic East and West Germany, the first electric locomotives such as the DRG Class E 77 and the E 91 has this configuration, although there are more recent locomotives such as the DB Class 151 and 155 which have the same shape.
Several locomotives of this configuration can be found in Asia. In China, there are many diesel locomotives that use this classification such as the first generation DF8, ND2 and the NJ2. In Japan, most of its earlier electric locomotives have this body type such as the JNR Classes EF60 to EF65. In Thailand every diesel locomotive classifies as a "boxcab", with the exception of the Hitachi 8FA-36C. An example of this configuration used by the State Railway of Thailand would be GE UM12C and Alsthom AD42C. Pakistan Railways ran boxcab electric locomotives until 2011 with the BCU30. In South Africa, while diesel locomotives follow the hood unit style since their inception, electric locomotives has followed this configuration since 1947 with the introduction of the South African Class 3E; the first electrics had a steeplecab shape while locomotives had a pentagonal shape. The electrics feature a door in front of the locomotive with the exception of the 12E, similar to the Japanese JNR-era ones. Older locos have their doors at the center while newer ones starting with 14E feature a door at the left-hand side of the train.
ALCO boxcab Box motor GE boxcab GE three-power boxcab GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab
The term cab forward refers to various rail and road vehicle designs that place the driver's compartment farther towards the front than is common practice. In steam locomotive design, a cab forward design will have the driver's compartment placed forward of the boiler at the front of the engine. On a coal-fired locomotive, the fireman's station remains on the footplate behind the firebox so as to be next to the tender. On an oil-fired locomotive, the fireman's station could be in the forward cab; this type of design was though not used throughout Europe in the first half of the 20th century in conjunction with an enclosed body design and/or streamlining. Visibility is improved from the cab, fumes from the chimney do not fill a forward cab in tunnels. However, the crew's prospects in the event of a collision are worse, if the driver and fireman are in separate places it is difficult for them to communicate, just as in autotrains. In Germany, Borsig in Berlin built a one-off streamlined cab forward DRG Class 05 4-6-4 in 1937, with further development stopped by World War II.
The design speed was 175 km/h, but its conventional layout sister 05 002 set a new world speed record for steam locomotives on May 11, 1936, after reaching 200.4 km/h on the Berlin–Hamburg line hauling a 197 t train, a record it lost two years to the British LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard. In 1944, the streamlining was removed, but the 05 003 had by already lost its cab forward layout. After the war, it pulled express trains in West Germany until 1958, it was scrapped in 1960. The state-owned Italian Ferrovie dello Stato had several cab forward locomotives, Class 670, 671, 672; these 4-6-0 engines had a three-axle tender, were nicknamed "mucca". The engines were used to haul passenger trains on the Milan-Venice railway. Matthias N. Forney was issued a patent in the late 1860s for a new locomotive design, he had set out to improve the factor of adhesion by putting as much of the boiler’s weight as possible on the driving wheels, omitting the pilot wheels from beneath the front of the boiler. Such a design would not have been stable at high speeds on the rather uneven tracks which were common at the time.
Instead, he extended the locomotive frame behind the cab, placing a four-wheel truck beneath the water tank and coal bunker. In conventional Whyte notation, this resulted in a 0-4-4T locomotive, but when run in reverse it was a 4-4-0 tank locomotive, with the track stability of that popular wheel arrangement, along with unobstructed visibility for the engineer, improved dispersal of smoke and steam. Forney's design proved ideal for the small quick locomotives for elevated and commuter railroads, he licensed the patent design to many manufacturers. Large numbers of Forneys served in New York City, Boston and elsewhere, but were superseded at the end of the nineteenth century by electrification and the development of subways. Ariel and Puck were two-foot gauge locomotives built to the Forney cab-forward design for the Billerica and Bedford Railroad in 1877 by Hinkley Locomotive Works of Boston; the best known example of the cab-forward design in the United States, the Southern Pacific Cab-Forward placed the cab at the front by the simple expedient of turning the entire locomotive, minus the tender, by 180 degrees.
This arrangement was made possible by burning fuel oil instead of coal. The cab forward design was used by the Southern Pacific Railroad; the design was able to deal with the peculiar problems of its routes. The 39 long tunnels and nearly 40 miles of snow sheds of the Sierra Nevada Mountains could funnel dangerous exhaust fumes back into the crew compartment of a conventional locomotive. After a number of crews nearly asphyxiated, the locomotive was run in reverse; this meant. The tender put crewmen on the wrong sides of the cab for seeing signals; the tenders were not designed to be pushed at the lead of the train. Southern Pacific commissioned Baldwin Locomotive Works to build a prototype cab-forward locomotive ordered more units before the prototype had arrived. All of the cab-forwards were oil-burning locomotives, which meant there was little trouble involved putting the tender at what would be the front of the locomotive; the oil and water tanks were pressurized so that both would flow even on uphill grades.
Visibility from the cab was superb, such that one crewman could survey both sides of the track. There were concerns about what would happen to the crew in the event of a collision, at least one fatal accident occurred on the Modoc Line in Herlong, California when a moving locomotive struck a flat car. Turning the normal locomotive arrangement around placed the crew well ahead of the exhaust fumes, insulating them from that hazard. One problematic aspect of the design, was the routing of the oil lines. A nuisance under most conditions, it resulted in at least one fatal accident; this occurred in 1941 when a cab-forward with leaking steam and oil lines entered the tunnel at Santa Susana Pass, near Los Angeles. The tunnel was on a grade, as the slow-moving train ascended the tunnel, oil on the rails caused the wheels to slip and spin; the train slipped backwards and a coupler knuckle broke, separating the air line, causing an emergency brake application and stal
The cab, crew compartment or driver's compartment of a locomotive, or a self-propelled rail vehicle, is the part housing the train driver or engineer, the fireman or driver's assistant, the controls necessary for the locomotive's, or self-propelled rail vehicle's, operation. On steam locomotives, the cab is located to the rear of the firebox, although steam locomotives have sometimes been constructed in a cab forward or camelback configuration; the cab, or crew or driver's compartment of a diesel or electric locomotive will be found either inside a cabin attached to a hood unit or cowl unit locomotive, or forming one of the structural elements of a cab unit locomotive. The former arrangement is now the norm in North America for all types of diesel or electric locomotives. In Europe, most modern locomotives are cab units with one at each end. However, the locomotives powering some high speed European trains are cab units with one cab, European shunting locomotives are hood units. On self-propelled rail vehicles, the cab may be at both ends.
In addition to the locomotive controls, a cab will be fitted with windshields, rectangular side windows, crew seats and sometimes radios, air conditioning and toilets. Different types of locomotive cabs are: Boxcab Steeplecab Turret Hood unit Cowl unit The earliest locomotives, such as Stephenson's Rocket, had no cab. However, to protect locomotive crews against adverse weather conditions, locomotives came to be equipped with a roof and protective walls, the expression "cab" refers to the cabin created by such an arrangement. By about 1850, high speed Crampton locomotives operating in Europe had a much needed windshield giving some protection to the footplate area; some other early locomotives were fitted with a cab as part of a rebuilding program, an example being the locomotive John Bull. In Germany, the locomotive cab was introduced by the Saxon railway director and writer Max Maria von Weber. However, until 1950 the railway directorates of the German-speaking countries continued to believe that a standing posture was essential to maximise crew vigilance.
Steam locomotive drivers, who had to lean out of their cabs for better visibility, therefore developed occupational diseases, along with rheumatism, electric locomotive drivers suffered from wear to the knees. This unsatisfactory situation changed—with few exceptions—only with the construction of the German standard electric locomotives, which for the first time were equipped with crew seats. Meanwhile, the maintenance of crew vigilance became possible by technical means through the use of Sifa devices. Cockpit Control car Control stand Driving Van Trailer Push–pull trainThis article is based upon a translation of the German-language version as at April 2010
A cowl unit is a body style of diesel locomotive. The terminology is a North American one. A cowl unit is one with full-width enclosing bodywork, similar to the cab unit style of earlier locomotives, but unlike the cab unit style, the bodywork is a casing and is not load-bearing. All the strength is in the locomotive's frame, beneath the floor, rather than the bridge-truss load-bearing carbody of the earlier type. Cowl units were produced at the request of the Santa Fe, had a full-width'cowl' body built on a hood unit frame which provided all the structural strength. Most cowl units have been passenger-hauling locomotives. In this service, the cowl unit's full width bodywork and sleek sides match the passenger cars, do not allow unwanted riders, allow the decorative, advertising paintwork desired by passenger operators. An additional benefit is that the locomotive can be more cleaned by going through the passenger-car washers; the cowl unit allows the basic structure of the locomotive to be identical to a freight-oriented hood unit type.
The main disadvantage of the cowl unit is low rear visibility from the cab of the locomotive. The EMD SD50F and SD60F, GE C40-8M and BBD HR-616 were given a Draper Taper where the body is narrower behind the cab, widens further aft, although the roof remains full-width the length of the locomotive; this improves rear visibility somewhat, but the locomotives still cannot lead a train in reverse as a hood unit can. EMD FP45 EMD SDP40F EMD GP40FH-2 EMD F40C EMD F40PH EMD F40PHR EMD F40PH-2 EMD F40PH-2CAT EMD F40PH-2M EMD F125 EMD F59PH EMD F59PHI EMD F69PHAC EMD DE30AC EMD DM30AC GE U30CG GE P30CH GE P40DC GE P42DC GE P32AC-DM MPI MP36PH-3C MPI MP36PH-3S MPI F40PHL-2 MPI F40PH-2C MPI F40PH-3C Siemens Charger EMD F45 EMD SDF40-2 GMD SD40-2F GMD SD50F GMD SD60F GE C40-8M BBD HR-616 EMD AT42C The LMS Diesels 10000 & 10001 classified as British Rail Class D16/1, were introduced in 1947; these were Great Britain's first mainline diesel locomotives, coming about a decade after America's first cab units.
Despite their streamlined exterior, they are cowl units rather than cab units. It is easy to misinterpret this as in North America, cowl designs are more angular, while cab designs have a similar curved streamlining. Pinkepank, Jerry A. and Marre, Louis A.. Diesel Spotter’s Guide Update, pp. 70–79. Kalmbach Publishing Co. ISBN 0-89024-029-9
Rail transport in Australia
Rail transport in Australia is a crucial aspect of the Australian transport network. Rail in Australia is to a large extent state-based; as at 2018, the Australian rail network consisted of a total of 33,168 kilometres of track on three major track gauges. Except for a small number of private railways, most of the Australian railway network infrastructure is government-owned, either at the federal or state level. Most railway operators were once state government agencies, but with privatisation in the 1990s, private companies now operate the majority of trains in Australia; the Australian federal government is involved in the formation of national policies, provides funding for national projects. Rail transport in Australia has been neglected in favour of the Australian road transport network. Little thought was given in the early years of the development of the colony-based rail networks of Australia-wide interests; the most obvious issue to arise was determining a track gauge. Despite advice from London to adopt a uniform gauge, should the lines of the various colonies meet, gauges were adopted in different colonies, indeed within colonies, without reference to those of other colonies.
This has caused problems since. Attempts to fix the gauge problem are by no means complete. For example, the Mount Gambier line is isolated of no operational value. With the electrification of suburban networks, which began in 1919, a consistent electric rail traction standard was not adopted. Electrification began in Melbourne in 1919 using 1500 V DC. Sydney's lines were electrified from 1926 using 1500 V DC, Brisbane's from 1979 using 25 kV AC, Perth's from 1992 using 25 kV AC. There has been extensive non-urban electrification in Queensland using 25 kV AC during the 1980s for the coal routes. From 2014 Adelaide's lines are being electrified at 25 kV AC. 25 kV AC voltage has now become the international standard. The first railways in Australia were built by private companies, based in the colonies of New South Wales and South Australia; the first railway was owned and operated and commissioned by the Australian Agricultural Company in Newcastle in 1831, a cast-iron fishbelly rail on an inclined plane as a gravitational railway servicing A Pit coal mine.
The first steam-powered line opened in Victoria in 1854. The 4 km long Flinders Street to Sandridge line was opened by the Hobsons Bay Railway Company at the height of the Victorian gold rush. In these early years there was little thought of Australia-wide interests in developing the colony-based networks; the most obvious issue to arise was determining a uniform gauge for the continent. Despite advice from London to adopt a uniform gauge, should the lines of the various colonies meet, gauges were adopted in different colonies, indeed within colonies, without reference to those of other colonies; this example has caused problems since at the national level. In the 1890s, the establishment of an Australian Federation from the six colonies was debated. One of the points of discussion was the extent. A vote to make it so was lost narrowly, instead the new constitution allows "the acquisition, with the consent of a State, of any railways of the State on terms arranged between the Commonwealth and the State" and "railway construction and extension in any State with the consent of that State".
However, the Australian Government is free to provide funding to the states for rail upgrading projects under Section 96. Suburban electrification began in Melbourne in 1919. Sydney's lines were electrified from 1926, Brisbane's from 1979, Perth's from 1992. Mainline electrification was first carried out in Victoria in 1954 followed by New South Wales which continued to expand their network; these networks have fallen into decline, in contrast to Queensland where 25 kV AC equipment was introduced from the 1980s for coal traffic. Diesel locomotives were introduced to Australian railways from the early 1950s. Most units were of local design and construction, using imported British or American technology and power equipment; the three major firms were Clyde Engineering partnered with GM-EMD, Goninan with General Electric, AE Goodwin with the American Locomotive Company. The major British company was English Electric, with Swiss firm Sulzer supplying some equipment; this continues today, with Downer Rail and UGL Rail the modern incarnations of Clyde and Goninan respectively.
Note: Narrow gauge below is 1,067 mm, standard gauge below is 1,435 mm and broad gauge below is 1,600 mm 1831 – New South Wales – Australian Agricultural Company's cast-iron fishbelly rail on an inclined plane as a gravitational railway servicing A Pit coal mine. 1837 – New South Wales – Australian Agricultural Company's cast-iron fishbelly rail on an inclined plane as a gravitational railway servicing B Pit coal mine. 1842 – New South Wales – Australian Agricultural Company's cast-iron fishbelly rail on an inclined plane as a gravitational railway servicing C Pit coal mine. 1854 – South Australia – Goolwa to Port Elliot 1854 – Victoria – First steam powered railway from Melbourne to Sandridge. 1855 – New South Wales – standard gauge steam powered railway from Sydney to Parramatta opened. 1856 – South Australia – broad gauge Adelaide to Port Adelaide railway opened 1865 – Queensland – narrow gauge Ipswich to Bigges Camp on the way to Toowoomba railwa