Cabernet Sauvignon

Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most recognized red wine grape varieties. It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates from Canada's Okanagan Valley to Lebanon's Beqaa Valley. Cabernet Sauvignon became internationally recognized through its prominence in Bordeaux wines where it is blended with Merlot and Cabernet Franc. From France, the grape spread across Europe and to the New World where it found new homes in places like California's Santa Cruz Mountains, Paso Robles, Napa Valley, New Zealand's Hawkes Bay, South Africa's Stellenbosch region, Australia's Margaret River and Coonawarra regions, Chile's Maipo Valley and Colchagua. For most of the 20th century, it was the world's most planted premium red wine grape until it was surpassed by Merlot in the 1990s. However, by 2015, Cabernet Sauvignon had once again become the most planted wine grape, with a total of 341,000 hectares under vine worldwide. Despite its prominence in the industry, the grape is a new variety, the product of a chance crossing between Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon blanc during the 17th century in southwestern France.

Its popularity is attributed to its ease of cultivation—the grapes have thick skins and the vines are hardy and low yielding, budding late to avoid frost and resistant to viticultural hazards such as rot and insects—and to its consistent presentation of structure and flavours which express the typical character of the variety. Familiarity and ease of pronunciation have helped to sell Cabernet Sauvignon wines to consumers when from unfamiliar wine regions, its widespread popularity has contributed to criticism of the grape as a "colonizer" that takes over wine regions at the expense of native grape varieties. The classic profile of Cabernet Sauvignon tends to be full-bodied wines with high tannins and noticeable acidity that contributes to the wine's aging potential. In cooler climates, Cabernet Sauvignon tends to produce wines with blackcurrant notes that can be accompanied by green bell pepper notes and cedar which will all become more pronounced as the wine ages. In more moderate climates the blackcurrant notes are seen with black cherry and black olive notes while in hot climates the currant flavors can veer towards the over-ripe and "jammy" side.

In parts of Australia the Coonawarra wine region of South Australia, Cabernet Sauvignon wines tend to have a characteristic eucalyptus or menthol notes. For many years, the origin of Cabernet Sauvignon was not understood and many myths and conjectures surrounded it; the word "Sauvignon" is believed to be derived from the French sauvage meaning "wild" and to refer to the grape being a wild Vitis vinifera vine native to France. Until the grape was rumored to have ancient origins even being the Biturica grape used to make ancient Roman wine and referenced by Pliny the Elder; this belief was held in the 18th century, when the grape was known as Petite Vidure or Bidure a corruption of Biturica. There was belief that Vidure was a reference to the hard wood of the vine, with a possible relationship to Carménère, once known as Grand Vidure. Another theory was. While the period when the name Cabernet Sauvignon became more prevalent over Petite Vidure is not certain, records indicate that the grape was a popular Bordeaux planting in the 18th century Médoc region.

The first estates known to have grown the variety were Château Mouton and Château d'Armailhac in Pauillac. The grape's true origins were discovered in 1996 with the use of DNA typing at the UC Davis Department of Viticulture and Enology, by a team led by Dr. Carole Meredith; the DNA evidence determined that Cabernet Sauvignon was the offspring of Cabernet franc and Sauvignon blanc and was most a chance crossing that occurred in the 17th century. Prior to this discovery, this origin had been suspected from the similarity of the grapes' names and the fact that Cabernet Sauvignon shares similar aromas with both grapes—such as the blackcurrant and pencil box aromas of Cabernet franc and the grassiness of Sauvignon blanc. In 2016 scientists at the UC Davis announced they had sequenced a draft of the whole genome of the Cabernet Sauvignon grape, the first genome of a commercial wine-producing grape to be sequenced. While not as prolific in mutating as Pinot noir, nor as used in production of offspring, Cabernet Sauvignon has been linked to other grape varieties.

In 1961, a cross of Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache produced. Cygne blanc is a white-berried seedling of Cabernet Sauvignon, discovered in 1989 growing in a garden in Swan Valley, Western Australia. Cabernet blanc is a crossing of Cabernet Sauvignon and an unknown hybrid grape variety, discovered in Switzerland in the late 20th century. In 1977 a vine producing'bronze' grapes was found in the vineyards of Cleggett Wines in Australia, they propagated this mutant, registered it under the name of Malian, sold pale red wines under that name. In 1991 one of the Bronze Cabernet vines started producing white grapes. Cleggett registered this "White Cabernet" under the name of Shalistin. Compared to its Cabernet parent, Malian appears to lack anthocyanins in the subepidermal cells but retains them in the epidermis, whereas Shalistin has no anthocyanins in either layer; the team that went on to discover the VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 genes that control grape color have suggested that a gene involved in anthocyanin production has been deleted in the subepidermis of Malian, subepidermal cells


Spridlington is a village and civil parish in the West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. It is situated 8 miles north from the city and county town of Lincoln, just off the A15 road. According to the 2001 Census the village had a population of 194, increasing to 213 at the 2011 census> The parish church of St Hilary's dates from 1875. It replaced an earlier church dedicated to St Hilary and St Albinus – there were two churches in the village, but the site of St Albinus is unrecorded. By July 2007, St Hilary's had raised enough money to have its organ renovated; the restoration project was completed and the historic Thomas Nicholson organ was re-dedicated by the Bishop of Lincoln on St Hilary’s Day, 13 January 2008. There is a village hall. Media related to Spridlington at Owmby Group of Parishes. Retrieved 12 August 2011

North Woods and North Meadow

North Woods and North Meadow are two interconnected features in the northern section of Central Park, New York City, close to the neighborhoods of the Upper West Side and Harlem in Manhattan. The 90-acre North Woods, in the northwestern corner of the park, is a rugged woodland that contains a forest called the Ravine, as well as two water features called the Loch and the Pool; the western portion of the North Woods includes Great Hill, the third highest point in Central Park. North Meadow, a recreation center and sports complex, is southeast of the North Woods. Completed in the 1860s, North Woods and North Meadow were among the last parts of Central Park to be built. North Woods and North Meadow, located between 97th and 110th Streets in Central Park, were among the last parts of the park to be built. While construction on the southern part of the park started in 1857, the northernmost four blocks between 106th and 110th Streets were not purchased until 1859. At the time, the northwestern corner of the park was a rocky forest, while the northeastern corner was a swamp.

The Pool and Loch in the North Woods were proposed by Central Park commissioner Robert J. Dillon, who included it as one of seventeen amendments to the Greensward Plan, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux's original design for Central Park. Work had started on the northern section of the park by 1864, but was complicated by a need to preserve the historic McGowan's Pass on the northeastern corner of the park; the topography in the northern section of Central Park was not altered as much as that in the southern section of the park: workers created drives and paths, as well as the Pool and Harlem Meer, but did not modify much of the landscape. North Woods and North Meadow were completed by the late 1860s. In 1870–1871, the Tammany Hall political machine, the largest political force in New York at the time, took control of Central Park for a brief period, they proposed building a zoo at the site of the current North Woods, but the proposal was not implemented. Olmsted and Vaux proposed an observation tower atop Great Hill, though this was never completed, either.

For the first few decades of Central Park's existence, it was forbidden to play most sports in Central Park, because Olmsted and Vaux believed that the park should be used for scenic enjoyment rather than recreation. However, because of growing recreational pressures, the Central Park commission opened North Meadow to sports by the late 19th century; the first recorded cricket matches were played in North Meadow by 1885, immigrant families began hosting picnics in North Meadow by the 1920s. In addition, there was a proposal to move the Central Park Zoo to the North Meadow in the 1890s, though this was controversial and opposed. In 1902, the Interborough Rapid Transit Company excavated a subway tunnel at a deep level underneath the North Woods and North Meadow, as part of its Lenox Avenue Line. In 1910, in conjunction with Central Park's growing recreational use, New York City Board of Aldermen president John Purroy Mitchel suggested placing a swimming pool and recreational center in the North Meadow.

However, parks commissioner Charles Stover opposed the plan, it was dropped. After the plan was cancelled, another proposal was made that would replace the "comfort station", refreshment stand, storage shed in North Meadow with a single recreational center. Around this time, in 1911, North Meadow was temporarily closed for reseeding, to mitigate damage caused by heavy usage. During the project, North Meadow was fenced in, new trees and shrubs were added; the work took about four years. Another plan in the 1920s called for a playground in the northern section of Central Park, near the North Woods; the West 110th Street Playground was built at the site. Under NYC Parks commissioner Robert Moses, athletic fields were constructed in the North Meadow in the 1930s, bocce and volleyball facilities for adults were installed in the Great Hill; the North Meadow was thus designated as an adults' play area, while the Great Lawn further south was reserved for children. In 1962, the city announced; when completed in 1966, the facility served as an ice rink in winter and Central Park's only swimming pool in summer.

By the late 1960s, the Loch had deteriorated to such an extent that the cascades along its route had dried up, the stream was jokingly referred to as "the Trickle". The Great Hill was rundown, as was the North Woods. By 1987, the Central Park Conservancy had raised $2.5 million to build a tennis house, the current recreation center, in the North Meadow. However, these plans were opposed by some tennis players, who stated that the existing tennis house on the southern edge of the meadow was located on a hill that afforded better views of the surrounding area, while the proposed tennis house would be located in a depression; the area gained notoriety in April 1989 due to the Central Park jogger case. A white female jogger was badly beaten and raped at night in the North Woods, when 30-32 youths from East Harlem were known to have been roaming through the park, accosting and sometimes assaulting eight other persons. According to The New York Times, the attack was "one of the most publicized crimes of the 1980s".

A group of four black and one Hispanic teenagers, who became known as the "Central Park Five", were convicted of this and another assault, sentenced to years in prison. Their convictions were vacated after another man confessed to the crime in 2002, his DNA matched that found in semen at the scene, the DA's office conducted an investigation of other elements of the evidence. Following the female jogger attack and other ass