Aviation Research Centre
The Aviation Research Centre is a part of the Research and Analysis Wing of the Cabinet Secretariat India. The first head of the ARC was R. N. Kao, the founding chief of R&AW. Over the years the ARC has grown into a large operation and flies a large and varied fleet that till included the high-flying Mach 3 capable MIG-25. From its humble origin consisting of Helio Twin Courier loaned from the USAF, ARC today boasts of having fixed-wing transport aircraft like Russian IL-76s and AN-32s, it has General Dynamics Gulfstream III and Global 5000 jets. The helicopter inventory comprises Russian Mil Mi-17s and a mix of locally built Cheetahs and Chetaks; the weapon of choice for ARC was the MIG-25, used for high altitude reconnaissance. Rumors abound that the second strike capability of India vests on the ARC. ARC is believed to be the first wing of Indian intelligence agencies to induct the indigenously built'Pilotless Target Aircraft' Lakshya. Lakshya is equipped with advanced support system to help it perform tactful aerial exploration in the battlefield, including target acquisition.
The 6-foot-long Lakshya is fitted with a digitally controlled engine that can be operated from the ground using a remote. Lakshya had been designed by Bangalore. Lakshya is a surface/ship launched high subsonic reusable aerial target system, remotely piloted from ground, it provides training to air defence pilots for weapon engagement. Although secretive in its operation it is believed that there are five R&AW Aviation Research Centre operating bases: at Charbatia Air Base in Cuttack being the largest. Aerial surveillance, SIGINT operations, photo reconnaissance flights, monitoring of borders, imagery intelligence are the main functions of the Aviation Research Centre; the aircraft are fitted with state-of-the-art electronic surveillance equipment and long range cameras capable of taking pictures of targets from high altitudes. ARC takes the responsibility along with the IAF to transport Special Frontier Force commandos from their trans-location at Sarsawa, 250 km north of New Delhi, though the SFF's own base is in Chakrata in Uttarakhand state.
In 1999 during the Kargil War, after the Pakistani intrusion was detected, ARC was tasked to check if the Pakistanis had indeed crossed the Line of Control to the Indian side and violated the border agreement. A number of missions were flown by the ARC on request from the Indian Army and the PMO. Senior officials of the Indian armed forces including the Chief of Air Staff and Chief of Army staff commended the work done by ARC, quoting "The electronic and optical information provided by the ARC before and during the actual operations was of immense value to the conduct of air strikes." The K. Subrahmanyam committee report into the Kargil war observed that "No intelligence failures had been attributed on account of functioning of RAW and ARC. However, certain equipment inadequacies were highlighted such as satellite imagery and UAVs". ARC is blamed by many for its failure to detect the intrusion by Pakistan in Kargil. There has been rumors about possible split of ARC from R&AW. Moreover, turf battles between the civilian and military intelligence agencies, which had intensified following feeble attempts to revamp the country's information gathering capabilities five years ago, led to difficulties in close cooperation or information sharing between R&AW and the Intelligence Bureau.
There have been reports of turf wars with the newly set up National Technical Research Organisation over airborne intelligence and satellite imagery. Research and Analysis Wing Farkhor Air Base Indian Air Force National Technical Research Organisation List of Indian Intelligence agencies Intelligence Bureau Official website of The Indian Air Force Indian Air Force on bharat-rakshak.com ARC's early days
The Indian rupee is the official currency of India. The rupee is subdivided into 100 paise, though as of 2018, coins of denomination of 50 paise or half rupee is the lowest value in use; the issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. The Reserve Bank manages currency in India and derives its role in currency management on the basis of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. In 2012, a new rupee symbol'₹', was adopted, it was designed by D. Udaya Kumar, it was derived from the combination of the Devanagari consonant "र" and the Latin capital letter "R" without its vertical bar. The parallel lines at the top are said to make an allusion to the tricolour Indian flag, depict an equality sign that symbolises the nation's desire to reduce economic disparity; the first series of coins with the new rupee symbol started in circulation on 8 July 2011. Before this India used to use Rs for Re to depict one rupee. On 8 November 2016 the Government of India announced the demonetisation of ₹500 and ₹1000 banknotes with effect from midnight of the same day, making these notes invalid.
A newly redesigned series of ₹500 banknote, in addition to a new denomination of ₹2000 banknote is in circulation since 10 November 2016. ₹1000 has been suspended. On 25 August 2017, a new denomination of ₹200 banknote was added to Indian currency to fill the gap of notes due to high demand for this note after demonetisation. In July 2018, the Reserve Bank of India released the ₹100 banknote; the word "rupee" was derived from Hindustani rupaya. Panini characterised rūpya as a stamped rūpa. Arthashastra, written by Chanakya, prime minister to the first Maurya emperor Chandragupta Maurya, mentions silver coins as rūpyarūpa. Other types of coins including gold coins, copper coins and lead coins are mentioned; the history of the Indian rupee traces back to Ancient India in circa 6th century BCE, ancient India was one of the earliest issuers of coins in the world, along with the Chinese wen and Lydian staters. Arthashastra, written by Chanakya, prime minister to the first Maurya emperor Chandragupta Maurya, mentions silver coins as rūpyarūpa, other types including gold coins, copper coins and lead coins are mentioned.
Rūpa means example, rūpyarūpa, rūpya -- wrought silver, rūpa -- form. During his five-year rule from 1540 to 1545, Sultan Sher Shah Suri issued a coin of silver, weighing 178 grains, termed the Rupiya. During Babar's time, the brass to silver exchange ratio was 50:2; the silver coin remained in use during Maratha era as well as in British India. Among the earliest issues of paper rupees include; the rupee was a silver coin. This had severe consequences in the nineteenth century when the strongest economies in the world were on the gold standard; the discovery of large quantities of silver in the United States and several European colonies resulted in a decline in the value of silver relative to gold, devaluing India's standard currency. This event was known as "the fall of the rupee." India was unaffected by the imperial order-in-council of 1825, which attempted to introduce British sterling coinage to the British colonies. British India, at that time, was controlled by the British East India Company.
The silver rupee continued as the currency of India through the British Raj and beyond. In 1835, British India adopted a mono-metallic silver standard based on the rupee. Following the First war of Independence in 1857, the British government took direct control of British India. Since 1851, gold sovereigns were produced en masse at the Royal Mint in New South Wales. In an 1864 attempt to make the British gold sovereign the "imperial coin", the treasuries in Bombay and Calcutta were instructed to receive gold sovereigns; as the British government gave up hope of replacing the rupee in India with the pound sterling, it realised for the same reason it could not replace the silver dollar in the Straits Settlements with the Indian rupee. Since the silver crisis of 1873, a number of nations adopted the gold standard. Around 1875, Britain started paying India for exported goods in India Council Bills. "If, the India Council in London should not step in to sell bills on India, the merchants and bankers would have to send silver to make good the balances.
Thus a channel for the outflow of silver was stopped, in 1875, by the India Council in London.""The great importance of these Bills, however, is the effect they have on the Market Price of Silver: and they have in fact been one of the most potent factors in recent years in causing the diminution in the Value of Silver'as compared to Gold.""The Indian and Chinese products for which silver is paid were and are, since 1873–74 low in price, it there fore takes less silver to purchase a larger quantity of Eastern commodities. Now, on taking the several agents into united consideration, it will not seem mysterious why silv
Narendra Damodardas Modi is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014. He was the Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014, is the Member of Parliament for Varanasi. Modi is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party, of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation. Born to a Gujarati family in Vadnagar, Modi helped his father sell tea as a child, has said he ran his own stall, he was introduced to the RSS at the age of eight, beginning a long association with the organisation. Modi left home after finishing high-school in part due to an arranged marriage to Jashodaben Chimanlal, which he abandoned, publicly acknowledged only many decades later. Modi travelled around India for two years and visited a number of religious centres before returning to Gujarat. In 1971 he became a full-time worker for the RSS. During the state of emergency imposed across the country in 1975, Modi was forced to go into hiding; the RSS assigned him to the BJP in 1985, he held several positions within the party hierarchy until 2001, rising to the rank of General Secretary.
Modi was appointed Chief Minister of Gujarat in 2001, due to Keshubhai Patel's failing health and poor public image following the earthquake in Bhuj. Modi was elected to the legislative assembly soon after, his administration has been considered complicit in the 2002 Gujarat riots, or otherwise criticised for its handling of it. A Supreme Court-appointed Special Investigation Team found no evidence to initiate prosecution proceedings against Modi personally, his policies as chief minister, credited with encouraging economic growth, have received praise. His administration has been criticised for failing to improve health and education indices in the state. Modi led the BJP in the 2014 general election, which gave the party a majority in the Indian lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, the first time for any single party since 1984. Modi's administration has tried to raise foreign direct investment in the Indian economy, reduced spending on healthcare and social welfare programmes. Modi has attempted to improve efficiency in the bureaucracy.
He began a high-profile sanitation campaign, weakened or abolished environmental and labour laws. He initiated a controversial demonetisation of high-denomination banknotes. Described as engineering a political realignment towards right-wing politics, Modi remains a figure of controversy domestically and internationally over his Hindu nationalist beliefs and his role during the 2002 Gujarat riots, cited as evidence of an exclusionary social agenda. Narendra Modi was born on 17 September 1950 to a family of grocers in Vadnagar, Mehsana district, Bombay State, he was the third of six children born to Damodardas Mulchand Hiraben Modi. Modi's family belonged to the Modh-Ghanchi-Teli community, categorised as an Other Backward Class by the Indian government; as a child, Modi helped his father sell tea at the Vadnagar railway station, said that he ran a tea stall with his brother near a bus terminus. Modi completed his higher secondary education in Vadnagar in 1967, where a teacher described him as an average student and a keen debater, with interest in theatre.
Modi had an early gift for rhetoric in debates, his teachers and students noted this. Modi preferred playing larger-than-life characters in theatrical productions, which has influenced his political image; when eight years old, Modi discovered the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and began attending its local shakhas. There, Modi met Lakshmanrao Inamdar, popularly known as Vakil Saheb, who inducted him as a balswayamsevak in the RSS and became his political mentor. While Modi was training with the RSS, he met Vasant Gajendragadkar and Nathalal Jaghda, Bharatiya Jana Sangh leaders who were founding members of the BJP's Gujarat unit in 1980. In Narendra Modi's childhood, in a custom traditional to his caste, his family arranged a betrothal to a girl, Jashodaben Chimanlal, leading to their marriage when they were teenagers. Sometime thereafter, he abandoned the further marital obligations implicit in the custom, left home, the couple going on to lead separate lives, neither marrying again, the marriage itself remaining unmentioned in Modi's public pronouncements for many decades.
In April 2014, shortly before the national elections that swept him to power, Modi publicly affirmed that he was married and his spouse was Ms Chimanlal. Modi spent the ensuing two years travelling across Northern and North-eastern India, though few details of where he went have emerged. In interviews, Modi has described visiting Hindu ashrams founded by Swami Vivekananda: the Belur Math near Kolkata, followed by the Advaita Ashrama in Almora and the Ramakrishna Mission in Rajkot. Modi remained only a short time at each. Vivekananda has been described as a large influence in Modi's life. In the early summer of 1968, Modi reached the Belur Math but was turned away, after which Modi wandered through Calcutta, West Bengal and Assam, stopping in Siliguri and Guwahati. Modi went to the Ramakrishna Ashram in Almora, where he was again rejected, before travelling back to Gujarat via Delhi and Rajasthan in 1968–69. Sometime in late 1969 or early 1970, Modi returned to Vadnagar for a brief visit before leaving again for Ahmedabad.
There, Modi lived with his uncle, working in the latter's canteen at the Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation. In Ahmedabad, Modi r
International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is based on a scheme that emerged during the nineteenth century from suggestions by Charles Trevelyan, William Jones, Monier Monier-Williams and other scholars, formalised by the Transliteration Committee of the Geneva Oriental Congress, in September 1894. IAST makes it possible for the reader to read the Indic text unambiguously as if it were in the original Indic script, it is this faithfulness to the original scripts that accounts for its continuing popularity amongst scholars. University scholars use IAST in publications that cite textual material in Sanskrit, Pāḷi and other classical Indian languages. IAST is used for major e-text repositories such as SARIT, Muktabodha, GRETIL, sanskritdocuments.org. The IAST scheme represents more than a century of scholarly usage in books and journals on classical Indian studies.
By contrast, the ISO 15919 standard for transliterating Indic scripts emerged in 2001 from the standards and library worlds. For the most part, ISO 15919 follows the IAST scheme, departing from it only in minor ways —see comparison below; the Indian National Library at Kolkata romanization, intended for the romanization of all Indic scripts, is an extension of IAST. The IAST letters are listed with their Devanāgarī equivalents and phonetic values in IPA, valid for Sanskrit and other modern languages that use Devanagari script, but some phonological changes have occurred: The highlighted letters are those modified with diacritics: long vowels are marked with an overline, vocalic consonants and retroflexes have an underdot. Unlike ASCII-only romanizations such as ITRANS or Harvard-Kyoto, the diacritics used for IAST allow capitalization of proper names; the capital variants of letters never occurring word-initially are useful only when writing in all-caps and in Pāṇini contexts for which the convention is to typeset the IT sounds as capital letters.
For the most part, IAST is a subset of ISO 15919 that merges: the retroflex liquids with the vocalic ones. The following seven exceptions are from the ISO standard accommodating an extended repertoire of symbols to allow transliteration of Devanāgarī and other Indic scripts, as used for languages other than Sanskrit; the most convenient method of inputting romanized Sanskrit is by setting up an alternative keyboard layout. This allows one to hold a modifier key to type letters with diacritical marks. For example, alt+a = ā. How this is set up varies by operating system. Linux Modern Linux systems allow one to set up custom keyboard layouts and switch them by clicking a flag icon in the menu bar. MacOS One can use the pre-installed US International keyboard, or install Toshiya Unebe's Easy Unicode keyboard layout. A revision of this is Shreevatsa R's EasyIAST. Microsoft Windows Windows allows one to change keyboard layouts and set up additional custom keyboard mappings for IAST. Many systems provide a way to select Unicode characters visually.
ISO/IEC 14755 refers to this as a screen-selection entry method. Microsoft Windows has provided a Unicode version of the Character Map program since version NT 4.0 – appearing in the consumer edition since XP. This is limited to characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane. Characters are searchable by Unicode character name, the table can be limited to a particular code block. More advanced third-party tools of the same type are available. MacOS provides a "character palette" with much the same functionality, along with searching by related characters, glyph tables in a font, etc, it can be enabled in the input menu in the menu bar under System Preferences → International → Input Menu or can be viewed under Edit → Emoji & Symbols in many programs. Equivalent tools – such as gucharmap or kcharselect – exist on most Linux desktop environments. Users of SCIM on Linux based platforms can have the opportunity to install and use the sa-itrans-iast input handler which provides complete support for the ISO 15919 standard for the romanization of Indic languages as part of the m17n library.
Only certain fonts support all Latin Unicode characters for the transliteration of Indic scripts according to the ISO 15919 standard. For example, Tahoma supports all the characters needed. Arial and Times New Roman font packages that come with Microsoft Office 2007 and also support most Latin Extended Additional characters like ḍ, ḥ, ḷ, ḻ, ṁ, ṅ, ṇ, ṛ, ṣ and ṭ. However, the growing trend amongst academics working in the area of Sanskrit studies is towards using Gentium font which has complete support for all the conjoined diacritics used in the IAST character set. Reddy, Shashir. "Shashir's Notes: Modern Transcription of Sanskrit". Retrieved 2016-12-02. Stone, Anthony. "Transliteration of Indic Scripts: How to use ISO 15919". Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Wujastyk, Dominik. "Transliteration of Devanagari". INDOLOGY. Retrieved 2016-12-02. Typing a macron - page from Penn State University about typing with accents International Phonetic Alphabet chart with pronunciation guide A visual chart which shows 1.
Which part of the mouth for each sound 2. The 3 groups where the 12 diacritics appear. - from
Secretary to the Government of India
Secretary to the Government of India abbreviated as secretary, GoI, or as secretary, is a post and a rank under the Central Staffing Scheme of the Government of India. The authority for the creation of this post rests with the Union Council of Ministers; the position holder is a career civil servant from the Indian Administrative Service, a government official of high seniority. The post of the secretary, however, is an ex-cadre post, anyone can occupy it, but the office-bearers are either from All India Services or Central Civil Services. All promotions and appointments to this rank and post are directly made by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet. In the structure of the Indian government, a secretary is the administrative head of a ministry or department, is equivalent to chief secretaries of state governments and Vice Chief of the Army Staff, officers of the rank of full four-star general and their equivalents in the Indian Armed Forces, are listed as such on the Indian order of precedence, ranking twenty-third.
In mid-1930s, the Central Secretariat contained only twenty-nine secretaries, who were all members of the Indian Civil Service. The salary for a member of this rank and post was fixed at Rs. 48,000 per annum in the 1930s. As per warrant or precedence of 1905, secretaries to the Government of India was listed together with joint secretaries to the Government of India and were ranked above the rank of chief secretaries of provincial governments. N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar had once suggested "A secretary should not be immersed in files and burdened with routine, it is essential that he should have time to grasp the overall picture, size up the problems facing the government in the field allotted to his charge, think and plan ahead. All these must be efficiently performed. Failure to make adequate provision in this respect cannot be compensated by a mere increase in the establishment under his control."The Administrative Reforms Commission visualised the role of secretary as one of "coordinator, policy guide and evaluator."
A secretary to the Government of India is the administrative head of a ministry or department and is the principal adviser to the minister-in charge on all matters of policy and administration within the ministry or department. The role of a secretary is as follows: To act as the administrative head of the ministry or department; the responsibility in this regard is undivided. To act as the chief adviser to the minister on all aspects of policy and administrative affairs. To represent the ministry or department before the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament of India; the prime minister-led Appointments Committee of the Cabinet is the final authority on posting and transfer of officers of secretary level. Secretaries report to the prime minister. In the Indian government, secretaries head departments or ministries of the government and hold positions such as Finance Secretary, Defence Secretary, Foreign Secretary, Home Secretary, Defence Production Secretary, emissaries in the foreign missions/embassies, members of the Railway Board and members of the Telecom Commission.
According to the report of the Seventh Central Pay Commission of India, seventy-three out of ninety-one secretaries to the Government of India are from the Indian Administrative Service. All secretaries to the Government of India are eligible for a diplomatic passport. Secretaries are allotted either type-VII or type-VIII bungalows in areas like New Moti Bagh and Lutyens' across Delhi by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs' Directorate of Estates; the salary and emolument in this rank is equivalent to chief secretaries of state governments and to Vice Chief of the Army Staff and officers in the rank of full general, its equivalents, in the Indian Armed Forces. Out of the secretaries to the Government of India, most are IAS officers, twelve are either from scientific or from legal background, four are Indian Foreign Service officers, two are Indian Police Service officers and one officer belongs to the Indian Postal Service while two secretary-level positions are vacant. Additionally, the chairman of Railway Board is ex-officio Principal Secretary to the Government of India, while the members of the Railway Board are ex-officio secretaries to the Government of India.
In addition, the members of the Telecom Commission are ex-officio secretaries to the Government of India. Media articles and others have argued in favour of lateral entrants being recruited to this rank/post to infuse fresh energy and thinking into an insular and archaic bureaucracy. Non-IAS civil services have complained to the Government of India because of lack of empanelment in the rank/post of secretary on numerous occasions. Federal Secretary
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India. The foundation stone of the city was laid by Emperor George V during the Delhi Durbar of 1911, it was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin. Although colloquially Delhi and New Delhi are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi; the National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire NCT along with adjoining districts in neighboring states. Calcutta was the capital of India during the British Raj, until December 1911. Calcutta had become the centre of the nationalist movements since the late nineteenth century, which led to the Partition of Bengal by Viceroy of British India, Lord Curzon; this created massive political and religious upsurge including political assassinations of British officials in Calcutta.
The anti-colonial sentiments amongst the public led to complete boycott of British goods, which forced the colonial government to reunite Bengal and shift the capital to New Delhi. Old Delhi had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient India and the Delhi Sultanate, most notably of the Mughal Empire from 1649 to 1857. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire, as India was named, from Calcutta on the east coast, to Delhi; the Government of British India felt that it would be logistically easier to administer India from Delhi, in the centre of northern India. The land for building the new city of Delhi was acquired under the Land Acquisition Act 1894. During the Delhi Durbar on 12 December 1911, George V Emperor of India, along with Queen Mary, his consort, made the announcement that the capital of the Raj was to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, while laying the foundation stone for the Viceroy's residence in the Coronation Park, Kingsway Camp.
The foundation stone of New Delhi was laid by King George V and Queen Mary at the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911 at Kingsway Camp on 15 December 1911, during their imperial visit. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by Edwin Lutyens, who first visited Delhi in 1912, Herbert Baker, both leading 20th-century British architects; the contract was given to Sobha Singh. The original plan called for its construction in Tughlaqabad, inside the Tughlaqabad fort, but this was given up because of the Delhi-Calcutta trunk line that passed through the fort. Construction began after World War I and was completed by 1931; the city, dubbed "Lutyens' Delhi" was inaugurated in ceremonies beginning on 10 February 1931 by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy. Lutyens designed the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial aspirations. Soon Lutyens started considering other places. Indeed, the Delhi Town Planning Committee, set up to plan the new imperial capital, with George Swinton as chairman, John A. Brodie and Lutyens as members, submitted reports for both North and South sites.
However, it was rejected by the Viceroy when the cost of acquiring the necessary properties was found to be too high. The central axis of New Delhi, which today faces east at India Gate, was meant to be a north-south axis linking the Viceroy's House at one end with Paharganj at the other. Owing to space constraints and the presence of a large number of heritage sites in the North side, the committee settled on the South site. A site atop the Raisina Hill Raisina Village, a Meo village, was chosen for the Rashtrapati Bhawan known as the Viceroy's House; the reason for this choice was that the hill lay directly opposite the Dinapanah citadel, considered the site of Indraprastha, the ancient region of Delhi. Subsequently, the foundation stone was shifted from the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911–1912, where the Coronation Pillar stood, embedded in the walls of the forecourt of the Secretariat; the Rajpath known as King's Way, stretched from the India Gate to the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The Secretariat building, the two blocks of which flank the Rashtrapati Bhawan and houses ministries of the Government of India, the Parliament House, both designed by Baker, are located at the Sansad Marg and run parallel to the Rajpath.
In the south, land up to Safdarjung's Tomb was acquired to create what is today known as Lutyens' Bungalow Zone. Before construction could begin on the rocky ridge of Raisina Hill, a circular railway line around the Council House, called the Imperial Delhi Railway, was built to transport construction material and workers for the next twenty years; the last stumbling block was the Agra-Delhi railway line that cut right through the site earmarked for the hexagonal All-India War Memorial and Kingsway, a problem because the Old Delhi Railway Station served the entire city at that time. The line was shifted to run along the Yamuna river, it began operating in 1924; the New Delhi Railway Station opened in 1926, with a single platform at Ajmeri Gate near Paharganj, was completed in time for the city's inauguration in 1931. As construction of the Viceroy's House, Central Secretariat, Parliament House, All-India War Memorial was winding down, the building of a shopping district and a new plaza, Connaught Place, began in 1929, was completed by 1933.
Named after Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught, it was designed by Robert Tor Russell, chief architect to the P
State Emblem of India
The State Emblem of India, as the national emblem of India is called, is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, preserved in the Sarnath Museum near Varanasi, India. A representation of Lion Capital of Ashoka was adopted as the emblem of the Dominion of India in December 1947; the current version of the emblem was adopted on 26 January 1950, the day that India became a republic. In 1947, as the date of independence for India and Pakistan approached, Jawaharlal Nehru gave charge of finding a suitable national emblem to Badruddin Tyabji, a civil servant, freedom fighter and member of the Constituent Assembly. Art schools all over the country were approached for designs, but none of them were found suitable as most were similar to the emblem of British Raj. Along with the Flag Committee headed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad and his wife suggested to use the Ashoka Capital, with four lions on top and the Ashoka Chakra flanked by a bull and horse below. Tyabji's wife Surayya Tyabji drew it and sent it to the printing press at Viceregal lodge for printing.
This design was selected and has remained the emblem of the Indian government since. The emblem forms a part of the official letterhead of the Government of India and appears on all Indian currency as well, it functions as the national emblem of India in many places and appears prominently on Indian passports. The Ashoka Chakra on its base features in the centre of the national flag of India; the usage of the emblem is regulated and restricted under State Emblem of India Act, 2005. No individual or private organisation is permitted to use the emblem for official correspondence; the actual Sarnath capital features four Asiatic lions standing back to back, symbolizing power, courage and pride, mounted on a circular base. At the bottom is a horse and a bull, at its center is a wheel; the abacus is girded with a frieze of sculptures in high relief of The Lion of the North, The Horse of the West, The Bull of the South and The Elephant of the East, separated by intervening wheels, over a lotus in full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead of life and creative inspiration.
Carved from a single block of sandstone, the polished capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law. In the emblem adopted, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view; the wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus, with a bull on the right and a galloping horse on the left, outlines of Dharma Chakras on the extreme right and left. The two animals and bull, represented right below the abacus hold a great significance; the bull represents hard work and steadfastness, while the horse represents loyalty and energy. The bell-shaped lotus beneath the abacus has been omitted. Forming an integral part of the emblem is the motto inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script: Satyameva Jayate सत्यमेव जयते; this is a quote from the concluding part of the sacred Hindu Vedas. List of Indian state emblems National symbols of India List of symbols of Indian states and territories