Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production. Its key characteristic is that design is separated from manufacture: the creative act of determining and defining a product's form and features takes place in advance of the physical act of making a product, which consists purely of repeated automated, replication; this distinguishes industrial design from craft-based design, where the form of the product is determined by the product's creator at the time of its creation. All manufactured products are the result of a design process, but the nature of this process can take many forms: it can be conducted by an individual or a large team; the role of an industrial designer is to create and execute design solutions for problems of form, usability, physical ergonomics, brand development and sales. For several millennia before the onset of industrialisation, technical expertise, manufacturing were done by individuals craftsmen, who determined the form of a product at the point of its creation, according to their own manual skill, the requirements of their clients, experience accumulated through their own experimentation, knowledge passed on to them through training or apprenticeship.
The division of labour that underlies the practice of industrial design did have precedents in the pre-industrial era. The growth of trade in the medieval period led to the emergence of large workshops in cities such as Florence, Venice and Bruges, where groups of more specialized craftsmen made objects with common forms through the repetitive duplication of models which defined by their shared training and technique. Competitive pressures in the early 16th century led to the emergence in Italy and Germany of pattern books: collections of engravings illustrating decorative forms and motifs which could be applied to a wide range of products, whose creation took place in advance of their application; the use of drawing to specify how something was to be constructed was first developed by architects and shipwrights during the Italian Renaissance. In the 17th century, the growth of artistic patronage in centralized monarchical states such as France led to large government-operated manufacturing operations epitomised by the Gobelins Manufactory, opened in Paris in 1667 by Louis XIV.
Here teams of hundreds of craftsmen, including specialist artists and engravers, produced sumptuously decorated products ranging from tapestries and furniture to metalwork and coaches, all under the creative supervision of the King's leading artist Charles Le Brun. This pattern of large-scale royal patronage was repeated in the court porcelain factories of the early 18th century, such as the Meissen porcelain workshops established in 1709 by the Grand Duke of Saxony, where patterns from a range of sources, including court goldsmiths and engravers, were used as models for the vessels and figurines for which it became famous; as long as reproduction remained craft-based, the form and artistic quality of the product remained in the hands of the individual craftsman, tended to decline as the scale of production increased. The emergence of industrial design is linked to the growth of industrialisation and mechanisation that began with the industrial revolution in Great Britain in the mid 18th century.
The rise of industrial manufacture changed the way objects were made, urbanisation changed patterns of consumption, the growth of empires broadened tastes and diversified markets, the emergence of a wider middle class created demand for fashionable styles from a much larger and more heterogeneous population. The first use of the term "industrial design" is attributed to the industrial designer Joseph Claude Sinel in 1919, but the discipline predates 1919 by at least a decade. Christopher Dresser is considered among the first independent industrial designers. Industrial design's origins lie in the industrialization of consumer products. For instance the Deutscher Werkbund, founded in 1907 and a precursor to the Bauhaus, was a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques, to put Germany on a competitive footing with Great Britain and the United States; the earliest use of the term may have been in The Art Union, A monthly Journal of the Fine Arts, 1839.
Dyce's report to the Board of Trade on foreign schools of Design for Manufactures. Mr Dyces official visit to France and Bavaria for the purpose of examining the state of schools of design in those countries will be fresh in the recollection of our readers, his report on this subject was ordered to be printed some few months since, on the motion of Mr Hume. The school of St Peter, at Lyons was founded about 1750 for the instruction of draftsmen employed in preparing patterns for the silk manufacture, it has been much more successful than the Paris school and having been disorganized by the revolution, was restored by Napoleon and differently constituted, being erected into an Academy of Fine Art: to which the study of design for silk manufacture was attached as a subordinate branch. It appears that all the students who entered the school commence as if they were intended for artists in the higher sense of the word and are not expected to decide as to whether they will devote themselves to the Fine Arts or to Industrial Design, until they have completed their exercises in drawing and p
A handicraft, sometimes more expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made by hand or by using only simple tools. It is a traditional main sector of craft, applies to a wide range of creative and design activities that are related to making things with one's hands and skill, including work with textiles and rigid materials, plant fibers, etc. One of the world's oldest handicraft is Dhokra; the term is applied to traditional techniques of creating items that are both practical and aesthetic. Handicraft industries are those that produces things with hands to meet the needs of the people in their locality. Machines are not used. Collective terms for handicrafts include artisanry, handicrafting and handicraftsmanship; the term arts and crafts is applied in the United States and to hobbyists' and children's output rather than items crafted for daily use, but this distinction is not formal, the term is confused with the Arts and Crafts design movement, in fact as practical as it is aesthetic.
Handicrafting has its roots in the rural crafts—the material-goods necessities—of ancient civilizations, many specific crafts have been practiced for centuries, while others are modern inventions, or popularizations of crafts which were practiced in a limited geographic area. Many handicrafters use natural entirely indigenous, materials while others may prefer modern, non-traditional materials, upcycle industrial materials; the individual artisanship of a handicrafted item is the paramount criterion. Seen as developing the skills and creative interests of students and sometimes towards a particular craft or trade, handicrafts are integrated into educational systems, both informally and formally. Most crafts require the development of skill and the application of patience, but can be learned by anyone. Like folk art, handicraft output has cultural and/or religious significance, may have a political message as well, as in craftivism. Many crafts become popular for brief periods of time, spreading among the crafting population as everyone emulates the first examples their popularity wanes until a resurgence.
The Arts and Crafts movement originated as a late 19th-century design reform and social movement principally in Europe, North America and Australia, continues today. Its proponents are motivated by the ideals of movement founders such as William Morris and John Ruskin, who proposed that in pre-industrial societies, such as the European Middle Ages, people had achieved fulfillment through the creative process of handicrafts; this was held up in contrast to. These activities were called crafts because many of them were professions under the guild system. Adolescents were apprenticed to a master craftsman, refined their skills over a period of years in exchange for low wages. By the time their training was complete, they were well equipped to set up in trade for themselves, earning their living with the skill that could be traded directly within the community for goods and services; the Industrial Revolution and the increasing mechanisation of production processes reduced or eliminated many of the roles professional craftspeople played, today many handicrafts are seen when no longer the mainstay of a formal vocational trade, as a form of hobby, folk art and sometimes fine art.
The term handicrafts can refer to the products themselves of such artisanal efforts, that require specialized knowledge, may be technical in their execution, require specialized equipment and/or facilities to produce, involve manual labor or a blue-collar work ethic, are accessible to the general public, are constructed from materials with histories that exceed the boundaries of Western "fine art" tradition, such as ceramics, textiles and wood. These products are produced within a specific community of practice, while they differ from the products produced within the communities of art and design, the boundaries overlap, resulting in hybrid objects. Additionally, as the interpretation and validation of art is a matter of context, an audience may perceive handicrafted objects as art objects when these objects are viewed within an art context, such as in a museum or in a position of prominence in one's home. Simple "arts and crafts" projects are a common elementary and middle school activity in both mainstream and alternative education systems around the world.
In some of the Scandinavian countries, more advanced handicrafts form part of the formal, compulsory school curriculum, are collectively referred to as slöjd in Swedish, käsityö or veisto in Finnish. Students learn how to work with metal and wood, not for professional training purposes as in American vocational–technical schools, but with the aim to develop children's and teens' practical skills, such as everyday problem-solving ability, tool use, understanding of the materials that surround us for economical and environmental purposes. Secondary schools and college and university art departments provide elective options for more handicraft-based arts, in addition to formal "fine arts", a distinction that continues to fade throughout the years with the rise of studio craft, i.e. the use of traditi
Lock and key
A lock is a mechanical or electronic fastening device, released by a physical object, by supplying secret information, or by a combination thereof. A key is a device, used to operate a lock. A typical key is a small piece of metal consisting of two parts: the bit or blade, which slides into the keyway of the lock and distinguishes between different keys, the bow, left protruding so that torque can be applied by the user. In its simplest implementation, a key operates one lock or set of locks that are keyed alike, a lock/key system where each keyed lock requires the same, unique key; the key serves. In more complex mechanical lock/key systems, two different keys, one of, known as the master key, serve to open the lock. Common metals include brass, plated brass, nickel silver, steel; the earliest known lock and key device was discovered in the ruins of Nineveh, the capital of ancient Assyria. Locks such as this were developed into the Egyptian wooden pin lock, which consisted of a bolt, door fixture or attachment, key.
When the key was inserted, pins within the fixture were lifted out of drilled holes within the bolt, allowing it to move. When the key was removed, the pins fell part-way into the bolt; the warded lock was present from antiquity and remains the most recognizable lock and key design in the Western world. The first all-metal locks appeared between the years 870 and 900, are attributed to the English craftsmen, it is said that the key was invented by Theodorus of Samos in the 6th century BC. Affluent Romans kept their valuables in secure locked boxes within their households, wore the keys as rings on their fingers; the practice had two benefits: It kept the key handy at all times, while signaling that the wearer was wealthy and important enough to have money and jewelry worth securing. With the onset of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century and the concomitant development of precision engineering and component standardization and keys were manufactured with increasing complexity and sophistication.
The lever tumbler lock, which uses a set of levers to prevent the bolt from moving in the lock, was invented by Robert Barron in 1778. His double acting lever lock required the lever to be lifted to a certain height by having a slot cut in the lever, so lifting the lever too far was as bad as not lifting the lever far enough; this type of lock is still used today. The lever tumbler lock was improved by Jeremiah Chubb in 1818. A burglary in Portsmouth Dockyard prompted the British Government to announce a competition to produce a lock that could be opened only with its own key. Chubb developed the Chubb detector lock, which incorporated an integral security feature that could frustrate unauthorized access attempts and would indicate to the lock's owner if it had been interfered with. Chubb was awarded £ 100. In 1820, Jeremiah joined his brother Charles in starting Chubb. Chubb made various improvements to his lock: his 1824 improved design didn't require a special regulator key to reset the lock.
The Chubb brothers received a patent for the first burglar-resisting safe and began production in 1835. The designs of Barron and Chubb were based on the use of movable levers, but Joseph Bramah, a prolific inventor, developed an alternative method in 1784, his lock used a cylindrical key with precise notches along the surface. The lock was at the limits of the precision manufacturing capabilities of the time and was said by its inventor to be unpickable. In the same year Bramah started the Bramah Locks company at 124 Piccadilly, displayed the "Challenge Lock" in the window of his shop from 1790, challenging "...the artist who can make an instrument that will pick or open this lock" for the reward of £200. The challenge stood for over 67 years until, at the Great Exhibition of 1851, the American locksmith Alfred Charles Hobbs was able to open the lock and, following some argument about the circumstances under which he had opened it, was awarded the prize. Hobbs' attempt required some 51 hours, spread over 16 days.
The earliest patent for a double-acting pin tumbler lock was granted to American physician Abraham O. Stansbury in England in 1805, but the modern version, still in use today, was invented by American Linus Yale, Sr. in 1848. This lock design used pins of varying lengths to prevent the lock from opening without the correct key. In 1861, Linus Yale, Jr. was inspired by the original 1840s pin-tumbler lock designed by his father, thus inventing and patenting a smaller flat key with serrated edges as well as pins of varying lengths within the lock itself, the same design of the pin-tumbler lock which still remains in use today. The modern Yale lock is a more developed version of the Egyptian lock. Despite some improvement in key design since, the majority of locks today are still variants of the designs invented by Bramah and Yale; each locks combination is determined by the off-set of two small wheel-like apparatus. The change in position of the wheels on top of each other creates a unique combination for the lock.
A warded lock uses a set of obstruct
A countertop is a horizontal work surface in kitchens or other food preparation areas, bathrooms or lavatories, workrooms in general. It is installed upon and supported by cabinets; the surface is positioned at an ergonomic height for the user and the particular task for which it is designed. A countertop may be constructed of various materials with different attributes of functionality and aesthetics; the countertop may have built-in appliances, or accessory items relative to the intended application. In Australian English and British English, the term counter is reserved for a surface of this type that forms a boundary between a space for public use and a space for workers to carry out service tasks. In other contexts, the term bench or benchtop is used; the common fitted Western-style kitchen, developed in the early 20th century, is an arrangement of assembled unit cabinetry covered with a more-or-less continuous countertop work surface. The "unfitted" kitchen design style exemplified by Johnny Grey may include detached and/or varied countertop surfaces mounted on discrete base support structures.
Primary considerations of material choice and conformation are durability, hygienics and cost. When installed in a kitchen on standard wall-mounted base unit cabinets, countertops are about 25-26 inches from front to back and are designed with a slight overhang on the front edge; this allows for a convenient reach to objects at the back of the countertop while protecting the base cabinet faces. In the UK the standard width is 600 mm. Finished heights from the floor will vary depending on usage but will be 35-36", with a material thickness depending on that chosen, they may include an integrated or applied backsplash to prevent spills and objects from falling behind the cabinets. Kitchen countertops may be installed on freestanding islands, dining areas or bars and table tops, other specialized task areas; the horizontal surface and vertical edges of the countertop can be decorated in manners ranging from plain to elaborate. They are conformed to accommodate the installation of sinks, stoves and cooktops, or other accessories such as dispensers, integrated drain boards, cutting boards.
Laboratory countertops are countertops used in science fields for educational labs or research purposes. They can be used to place equipments, tools and chemicals. Characteristics of laboratory countertops are determined according to what reagents or corrosive chemicals are being used; the purpose of the countertop would be different depending on whether it is used in a chemistry lab, physics lab, food science lab, microbiology or a biology lab. Common characteristics of preferred laboratory countertops are ones that are strong and water-, moisture- or chemical resistant. Depending on the objectives of a lab, they may additionally be required to be resistant to acids or high temperatures. Many laboratory countertops are equipped with drawers that can be used to store materials that might get in the way while conducting an experiment. Materials such as lab notebooks, extra papers and folders are advised and expected to be stored away in the provided spaces or inside the drawer; the laboratory countertops' styles and variations may differ according to where they are and what labs they are being used for.
They are often made of different materials depending on their usage. The most common and durable type of material used is phenolic resin because they are lightweight, strong and moisture resistant, it can handle heat exposure up beyond this temperature Epoxy Resin is used. Phenolic Resin and Epoxy Resin are both functionally equivalent, but differ in their heat handling abilities. Other materials to build laboratory countertops may include plastic laminate, stainless steel and wood. Countertops can be made from a wide range of materials and the cost of the completed countertop can vary depending on the material chosen; the durability and ease of use of the material rises with the increasing cost of the material but some costly materials are neither durable nor user-friendly. Some common countertop materials are as follows: Natural stones Granite Limestone Marble Soapstone Gabbro Slate Silicate mineral Travertine Quartz Wood Hardwood Softwood Metals Stainless steel Copper Zinc Aluminium Crafted glass Manufactured materials Concrete Cast-in-place Precast Processed slabs Compressed paper or fiber Cultured marble High-pressure laminates Post-formed high-pressure decorative laminates Self-edged high-pressure decorative laminates Quartz surfacing or engineered stone is 99.9% solid @ 93% aggregate / 7% polyester resin and binders Recycled Glass surface either with concrete or polyester resin binders Solid-surface acrylic plastic materials Solid-surface polyester acrylic Terrazzo Tile Cast-in-place materials Natural stone suspended in a resin Post-consumer glass suspended in a resin Epoxy Phenolic resin Natural stone is one of the most used materials in countertops.
Natural stone or dimension stone slabs are shaped using cutting and finishing equipment in the shop of the fabricator. The edges are put on by hand-held routers, grinders, or CNC equipment. If the stone has a variegated pattern, the stone may be laid out in final position in the shop for the customer's inspection, or
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal regions of the Earth. Spruces are large trees, from about 20–60 m tall when mature, have whorled branches and conical form, they can be distinguished from other members of the pine family by their needles, which are four-sided and attached singly to small persistent peg-like structures on the branches, by their cones, which hang downwards after they are pollinated. The needles are shed. In other similar genera, the branches are smooth. Spruce are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, such as the eastern spruce budworm, they are used by the larvae of gall adelgids. In the mountains of western Sweden, scientists have found a Norway spruce, nicknamed Old Tjikko, which by reproducing through layering, has reached an age of 9,550 years and is claimed to be the world's oldest known living tree; the word spruce comes from a Middle English adjective spruse which meant from Prussia.
The adjective comes from an unknown alteration of an Old French form of Prussia - Pruce, which itself comes from New Latin, which adapted it from Old Prussian. Spruce and Sprws seem to have been generic terms for commodities brought to England by Hanseatic merchants, the tree thus was believed to be particular to Prussia, which for a time was figurative in England as a land of luxuries. DNA analyses have shown that traditional classifications based on the morphology of needle and cone are artificial. A recent study found that P. breweriana had a basal position, followed by P. sitchensis, the other species were further divided into three clades, suggesting that Picea originated in North America. Spruce has been found in the fossil record from the early Cretaceous, 136 million years ago. Thirty-five named species of spruce exist in the world; the Plant List has 59 accepted spruce names. Basal species: Picea breweriana – Brewer's spruce, Klamath Mountains, North America. Beyond that, determination can become more difficult.
Intensive sampling in the Smithers/Hazelton/Houston area of British Columbia showed Douglas, according to Coates et al. that cone scale morphology was the feature most useful in differentiating species of spruce. Daubenmire, after range-wide sampling, had recognized the importance of the 2 latter characters. Taylor had noted that the most obvious morphological difference
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Door furniture or door hardware refers to any of the items that are attached to a door or a drawer to enhance its functionality or appearance. Design of door furniture is an issue to disabled persons who might have difficulty opening or using some kinds of door, to specialists in interior design as well as those usability professionals which take their didactic examples from door furniture design and use. Items of door furniture fall into several categories, described below. A hinge is a component that attaches one edge of a door to the frame, while allowing the other edge to swing from it, it consists of a pair of plates, each with a set of open cylindrical rings attached to them. The knuckles of the two plates are mesh together. A hinge pin is placed through the two sets of knuckles and fixed, to combine the plates and make the hinge a single unit. One door has about three hinges, but it can vary. Doors have at least one fixed handle accompanied with a latch. A typical "handle set" is composed of the exterior handle, escutcheon, an independent deadbolt, the interior package.
On some doors the latch is incorporated into a hinged handle. See also: Doorknob – A knob or lever on an axle, rotated to release the bolt. A lock is a device that prevents access by those without a key or combination by preventing one or more latches from being operated. Accompanied by an escutcheon; some doors older ones, will have a keyhole accompanying the lock. Most doors make use of one or more fasteners to hold the door closed. Typical or common fasteners include: Latch – A device that allows one to fasten a door, but doesn't require an external handle Bolt – A metal shaft internal to the door, attached by cleats or a specific form of bracket, that slides into the jamb to fasten a door. Latchbolt – A bolt that has an angled surface which acts as a ramp to push the bolt in while the door is being closed. By the use of a latchbolt, a door can be closed without having to operate the handle. Deadbolt – Deadbolts extend deeper into the frame and are not automatically retractable the way latchbolts are.
They are manipulated with a lock on the outside and either a lock or a latch on the inside. Deadbolts are used for security purposes on external doors in case somebody tries to kick the door in or use a tool such as a crowbar or a hammer and screwdriver etc. Strike plate – A plate with a hole in the middle made to receive a bolt. If the strike is for a latchbolt, it also includes a small ramped area to help the bolt move inward while the door is being closed. It's available as electric strike which allows you to open the door though the mechanical lock is locked. Dust Socket - A plastic socket that sits under the Strike plate concealing the rough wood of the mortise. Numerous devices exist to serve specific purposes related to. See: Door chain - A device to secure door opening Door closer – Mechanical or electromagnetic device to close an open door Door opener - Automatic door opening device activated by motion sensors or pressure pads Door damper – A hydraulic device employed to slow the door's closure Door knocker Door stop – used to prevent the door from opening too far or striking another object Espagnolette Fingerplate Letter box or mail slot PeepholeA number of items accompany doors but are not mounted on the door itself, such as doorbells.