Thomas Chippendale was born in Otley in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England in June 1718. He became a cabinet-maker in London, designing furniture in the mid-Georgian, English Rococo, in 1754 he published a book of his designs, titled The Gentleman and Cabinet Makers Director, upon which success he became renowned. The designs are regarded as reflecting the current British fashion for furniture of that period and are today reproduced globally and he was buried 16 November 1779, according to the records of St Martin-in-the-Fields, in the cemetery since built upon by the National Gallery. Chippendale furniture is highly valued, a cabinet that came up for auction by Christies in 2008 sold for £2,729,250. Chippendale was born the child of John Chippendale, joiner. He received an education at Prince Henrys Grammar School. Wood ordered eight copies of the Director, on 19 May 1748 he married Catherine Redshaw at St Georges Chapel and they had five boys and four girls. In 1749 Chippendale rented a modest house in Conduit Court, near Covent Garden, in 1752 he moved to Somerset Court, off the Strand.
In 1754 Chippendale moved to 60–62 St. Martins Lane in London, in 1754 he went into partnership with James Rannie, a wealthy Scottish merchant, who put money into the business at the same time as Chippendale brought out the first edition of the Director. Rannie and his bookkeeper, Thomas Haig, probably looked after the finances of the business and his wife, died in 1772. After James Rannie died in 1766, Thomas Haig seems to have borrowed £2,000 from Rannies widow, which he used to become Chippendales partner. One of Rannies executors, Henry Ferguson, became a partner and so the business became Chippendale, Haig. He moved to what was called Lobs Fields in Kensington, Chippendale married Elizabeth Davis at Fulham Parish Church on 5 August 1777. In 1779 Chippendale moved to Hoxton where he died of tuberculosis and was buried at St Martin-in-the-Fields on 16 November 1779. There is a statue and memorial dedicated to Chippendale outside The Old Grammar School Gallery in Manor Square, in his home town of Otley, near Leeds.
There is a sculpted figure of Thomas Chippendale on the façade of the Victoria and Albert Museum. After working as a cabinet maker in London, in 1754, he became the first cabinet-maker to publish a book of his designs, titled The Gentleman. Chippendale had considerable competition during his years, most notably Ince
John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski, from 1674 until his death King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, was one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Sobieskis military skill, demonstrated in wars against the Ottoman Empire, sobieskis 22-year reign marked a period of the Commonwealths stabilization, much needed after the turmoil of the Deluge and the Khmelnytsky Uprising. Popular among his subjects, he was a military commander. After his victories over them, the Ottomans called him the Lion of Lechistan, official title, Jan III, z łaski bożej, król Polski, wielki książę litewski, pruski, mazowiecki, żmudzki, kijowski, wołyński, podlaski i czernichowski, etc. His father, Jakub Sobieski, was the Voivode of Ruthenia and Castellan of Kraków, his mother, John Sobieski spent his childhood in Żółkiew. After graduating from the Nowodworski College in Kraków in 1643, young John Sobieski graduated from the faculty of the Jagiellonian University in 1646. After finishing his studies, together with his brother Marek Sobieski, John left for western Europe and they visited Leipzig, Paris, London and The Hague.
Both brothers returned to the Commonwealth in 1648, upon receiving the news of the death of king Władysław IV Vasa and the hostilities of the Khmelnytsky Uprising, they volunteered for the army. They both fought in the siege of Zamość and they founded and commanded their own banners of cavalry. Soon, the fortunes of war separated the brothers, in 1649, Jakub fought in the Battle of Zboriv. In 1652, Marek died in Tatar captivity after his capture at the Battle of Batih, John was promoted to the rank of pułkownik and fought with distinction in the Battle of Berestechko. A promising commander, John was sent by King John II Casimir to Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire as one of the envoys in a mission of Mikołaj Bieganowski. There, Sobieski learned the Tatar language and the Turkish language and studied Turkish military traditions and it is likely he participated as part of the briefly allied Polish-Tatar forces in the 1655 Battle of Okhmativ. By 26 May 1656 he received the position of the chorąży koronny, during the three-day-long battle of Warsaw of 1656, Sobieski commanded a 2, 000-man strong regiment of Tatar cavalry.
He took part in a number of engagements over the two years, including in the Siege of Toruń in 1658. In 1659 he was elected a deputy to Sejm, and was one of the Polish negotiators in the Treaty of Hadiach with the Cossacks. In 1660 he took part in the last offensive against the Swedes in Prussia, through personal connections, he became a strong supporter of the French faction in the Polish royal court, represented by Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga. In 1662 he was elected a deputy to the Sejm
A countertop is a horizontal work surface in kitchens or other food preparation areas, bathrooms or lavatories, and workrooms in general. It is frequently installed upon and supported by cabinets, the surface is positioned at an ergonomic height for the user and the particular task for which it is designed. A countertop may be constructed of materials with different attributes of functionality, durability. The countertop may have built-in applicances, or accessory items relative to the intended application. In Australian English, the counter is generally reserved for a surface of this type that forms a boundary between a space for public use and a space for workers to carry out service tasks. In other contexts, the bench or benchtop is used. The common fitted Western-style kitchen, developed in the early 20th century, is typically an arrangement of assembled unit cabinetry covered with a more-or-less continuous countertop work surface. The unfitted kitchen design style exemplified by Johnny Grey may include detached and/or varied countertop surfaces mounted on discrete base support structures, primary considerations of material choice and conformation are durability, hygienics and cost.
When installed in a kitchen on standard wall-mounted base unit cabinets and this allows for a convenient reach to objects at the back of the countertop while protecting the base cabinet faces. In the UK the standard width is 600mm, finished heights from the floor will vary depending on usage but typically will be 35-36, with a material thickness depending on that chosen. They may include an integrated or applied backsplash to prevent spills, the horizontal surface and vertical edges of the countertop can be decorated in manners ranging from plain to very elaborate. They are often conformed to accommodate the installation of sinks, stoves and cooktops, or other such as dispensers, integrated drain boards. Laboratory countertops are countertops used specifically in science fields for educational labs or research purposes and they can be used to place equipments, tools and chemicals. Characteristics of laboratory countertops are generally determined according to what reagents or corrosive chemicals are being used, the purpose of the countertop would be different depending on whether it is used in a chemistry lab, physics lab, food science lab, microbiology or a biology lab.
Common characteristics of preferred laboratory countertops are ones that are strong, depending on the objectives of a lab, they may additionally be required to be resistant to acids or high temperatures. Many laboratory countertops are equipped with drawers that can be used to store materials that might get in the way while conducting an experiment. Materials such as lab notebooks, extra papers and folders are advised and expected to be stored away in the spaces or inside the drawer. The laboratory countertops styles and variations may differ according to where they are and they are often made of different materials depending on their usage
A wardrobe is a standing closet used for storing clothes. The name of wardrobe was given to a room in which the wall-space was filled with closets and lockers. From these cupboards and lockers the modern wardrobe, with its hanging spaces, sliding shelves and drawers, throughout the chronological changes in the form of the enclosure, it more or less retained its preset function as a place to retain a king’s robe. The word has gained coinage over successive generations as an independent store for among others, preserving precious items for a ruler like gold and it is a simple patio where clothes are hung from metal bars or tucked inside utility racks running from up to down. The word wardrobe appeared in the English language in the early 14th century and it originated from Old French words warderobe and garderobe, in which warder meant to keep, to guard and robe meant garment. In the United States, the wardrobe in its form as an oak hanging cupboard dates back to the early 17th century. At that time it was an export product from America to England.
Consequently, the item was sometimes referred to as an Oakley, during a large portion of the 18th century the tallboy was much used for storing clothes. A common feature was to base future size on the eight small men method, a considered good size double wardrobe would thus be able to hold within its capacity, eight small men. In the nineteenth century the wardrobe began to develop into its form, with a hanging cupboard at each side. Where Chippendale and his school had carved, Sheraton and their contemporaries achieved their effects by the employment of deftly contrasted. In the United Kingdom, a more affluent option is custom-fitted wardrobes, kast or kasten is a massive cupboard or wardrobe of Dutch origin similar to an armoire that was popular in the Netherlands and America in the 17th & 18th century. It was fitted with shelves and drawers used to store linen and other valuables and they were status symbols and family heirlooms in the Low Countries and imported luxury goods to the American colonies.
As such they were made of quality wood such as cherry and ebony. Cabinetry Closet Encoignure This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. American kasten, the Dutch-style cupboards of New York and New Jersey, 1650–1800, a catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries
Adirondack Architecture refers to the rugged architectural style generally associated with the Great Camps within the Adirondack Mountains area in New York. The builders of these camps used native building materials and sited their buildings within a wooded landscape. These camps for the wealthy were built to provide a primitive, elements such as whole, split, or peeled logs, bark and burls, along with native granite fieldstone, were used to build interior and exterior components. Massive fireplaces and chimneys built of cut stone are common within the Great Camp architecture. The use of building materials was not only for promoting a natural appearance. The style drew upon Swiss chalet architecture, which had introduced to America by Andrew Jackson Downing around 1850. Log construction was popularized by Downings protégé, Calvert Vaux, in his pattern book Villas, Downings design principles emphasized utility, structural expression, and conformity to natural surroundings. The building form was influenced by Stick style, but using log framing instead of dimensional lumber to express the system of the buildings.
Charles Eastlakes book Hints on Household Taste in Furniture, interior decorations such as rustic and Mission Style furniture, mounted trophies of fish and game, Japanese fans and screens, and American Indian artifacts were influenced by Eastlakes ideas. Camp Santanoni, New York, built for Robert C, pruyn of Albany, was the first Adirondack camp to be comprehensively designed as a unit by a professional architect, Robert Henderson Robertson of New York, who designed the Main Camp Complex. The Adirondacks buildings were recognized for their finish and outstanding craftsmanship especially by the wealthy locals. The Adirondacks style of architecture can be specialized into custom homes, rugged roofing, log cabins, boat houses, rustic furnishing, rustic kitchen and cedar furniture and this style of architecture is found most prominently in and around the area of Adirondack Park. Adirondack Architectural Heritage Vernacular architecture Great Camps Sagamore Camp Santanoni Preserve Adirondack Park
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and most of the important technological innovations were British, aided by these legal and cultural foundations, an entrepreneurial spirit and consumer revolution drove industrialisation in Britain, which would be emulated in countries around the world. A change in marrying patterns to getting married made able to accumulate more human capital during their youth. The Industrial Revolution marks a turning point in history, almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth, mechanised textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles and coal emerging in Belgium, and in France. Since industrialisation has spread throughout much of the world, the precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes.
Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants. The term Industrial Revolution applied to change was becoming more common by the late 1830s. Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of an industrial revolution, although Engels wrote in the 1840s, his book was not translated into English until the late 1800s, and his expression did not enter everyday language until then. Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee, some historians, such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts, have argued that the economic and social changes occurred gradually and the term revolution is a misnomer. This is still a subject of debate among some historians, the commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations, beginning in the second half of the 18th century. By the 1830s the following gains had been made in important technologies, Textiles – mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water greatly increased the output of a worker, the power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over 40.
The cotton gin increased productivity of removing seed from cotton by a factor of 50, large gains in productivity occurred in spinning and weaving of wool and linen, but they were not as great as in cotton. Steam power – the efficiency of steam engines increased so that they used between one-fifth and one-tenth as much fuel, the adaptation of stationary steam engines to rotary motion made them suitable for industrial uses. The high pressure engine had a power to weight ratio. Steam power underwent an expansion after 1800. Iron making – the substitution of coke for charcoal greatly lowered the fuel cost for pig iron, using coke allowed larger blast furnaces, resulting in economies of scale. The cast iron blowing cylinder was first used in 1760 and it was improved by making it double acting, which allowed higher furnace temperatures
The Victorian era was the period of Queen Victorias reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a period of peace, refined sensibilities. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities, the era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period. The half of the Victorian age roughly coincided with the first part of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe, culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and arts. The end of the saw the Boer War. Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of political reform, industrial reform. Two especially important figures in period of British history are the prime ministers Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone. Disraeli, favoured by the queen, was a gregarious Conservative and his rival Gladstone, a Liberal distrusted by the Queen, served more terms and oversaw much of the overall legislative development of the era.
The population of England and Wales almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotlands population rose rapidly, from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Irelands population decreased sharply, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901, mostly due to the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrants departed the UK permanently, in search of a life in the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia. During the early part of the era, politics in the House of Commons involved battles between the two parties, the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Disraeli, Victoria became queen in 1837 at age 18. Her long reign until 1901 was mainly a time of peace, Britain reached the zenith of its economic, political and cultural power. The era saw the expansion of the second British Empire, Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era as Britains Golden Years.
There was prosperity, as the income per person grew by half. There was peace abroad, and social peace at home, opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter. The Chartist movement peaked as a movement among the working class in 1848, its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
One of the worlds oldest handicraft is Dhokra, this is a sort of metal casting has been used in India for over 4,000 years and is still used. Collective terms for handicrafts include artisanry, crafting, many handicrafters use natural, even entirely indigenous, materials while others may prefer modern, non-traditional materials, and even upcycle industrial materials. The individual artisanship of an item is the paramount criterion. Most crafts require the development of skill and the application of patience, like folk art, handicraft output often has cultural and/or religious significance, and increasingly may have a political message as well, as in craftivism. The Arts and Crafts movement originated as a late 19th-century design reform and social movement principally in Europe, North America and Australia and this was held up in contrast to what was perceived to be the alienating effects of industrial labor. These activities were called crafts because originally many of them were professions under the guild system, adolescents were apprenticed to a master craftsman, and refined their skills over a period of years in exchange for low wages.
Simple arts and crafts projects are an elementary and middle school activity in both mainstream and alternative education systems around the world. e. The use of traditional handicrafting techniques by professional fine artists, many community centers and schools run evening or day classes and workshops, for adults and children, offering to teach basic craft skills in a short period of time. If sold, they are sold in Direct sales, Gift shops, Public markets, in developing countries, handicrafts are sold to locals and as Souvenirs to tourists. Sellers tend to speak at least a few words of common tourist languages
Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production. This distinguishes industrial design from craft-based design, where the form of the product is determined by the creator at the time of its creation. The role of a designer is to create and execute design solutions for problems of form, usability, physical ergonomics, brand development, sustainability. The division of labour that underlies the practice of design did have precedents in the pre-industrial era. The use of drawing to specify how something was to be constructed was first developed by architects and shipwrights during the Italian Renaissance. The emergence of industrial design is linked to the growth of industrialisation and mechanisation that began with the industrial revolution in Great Britain in the mid 18th century. The first use of the industrial design is often attributed to the industrial designer Joseph Claude Sinel in 1919. Christopher Dresser is considered among the first independent industrial designers, Industrial designs origins lie in the industrialization of consumer products.
The earliest use of the term may have been in The Art Union, the Practical Draughtsmans Book of Industrial Design by Jacques-Eugène Armengaud was printed in 1853. The subtitle of the work explains, that it wants to offer a course of mechanical, engineering. The study of those types of drawing, according to Armengaud. This work paved the way for a big expansion in the drawing education in France, the United Kingdom. Robert Lepper helped to establish one of the countrys first industrial design programs at Carnegie Institute of Technology. Product design and industrial design overlap in the fields of user interface design, information design, except for certain functional areas of overlap between industrial design and engineering design, educational programs in the U. S. Most industrial designers complete a design or related program at a school or university. Diplomas and degrees take two to four years of study, the study results in a Bachelor of Industrial Design, Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Fine Arts.
Afterwards, the programme can be extended to postgraduate degrees such as Master of Design, Master of Fine Arts. Industrial design studies function and form—and the connection between product and environment, industrial design professionals work in small scale design, rather than overall design of complex systems such as buildings or ships
A log cabin is a dwelling constructed of logs, especially a less finished or architecturally sophisticated structure. Log cabins have an ancient history in Europe, and in America are often associated with first generation home building by settlers, construction with logs was described by Roman architect Vitruvius Pollio in his architectural treatise De Architectura. He noted that in Pontus, dwellings were constructed by laying logs horizontally overtop of each other and filling in the gaps with chips, historically log cabin construction has its roots in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. Although their origin is uncertain, the first log structures were probably being built in Northern Europe by the Bronze Age. C. A. Weslager describes Europeans as having. accomplished in building several forms of log housing, having different methods of corner timbering, Log saunas or bathhouses of this type are still found in rural Finland. By stacking tree trunks one on top of another and overlapping the logs at the corners and they developed interlocking corners by notching the logs at the ends, resulting in strong structures that were easier to make weather-tight by inserting moss or other soft material into the joints.
As the original coniferous forest extended over the coldest parts of the world, the insulating properties of the solid wood were a great advantage over a timber frame construction covered with animal skins, boards or shingles. Over the decades, increasingly complex joints were developed to ensure more weather tight joints between the logs, but the profiles were still based on the round log. It was common to replace individual logs damaged by dry rot as necessary, the Wood Museum in Trondheim, displays fourteen different traditional profiles, but a basic form of log construction was used all over North Europe and Asia and imported to America. Log construction was especially suited to Scandinavia, where straight, tall tree trunks are readily available, with suitable tools, a log cabin can be erected from scratch in days by a family. As no chemical reaction is involved, such as hardening of mortar, many older towns in Northern Scandinavia have been built exclusively out of log houses, which have been decorated by board paneling and wood cuttings.
Today, construction of log cabins as leisure homes is a fully developed industry in Finland. Modern log cabins often feature fiberglass insulation and are sold as prefabricated kits machined in a factory, Log cabins are mostly constructed without the use of nails and thus derive their stability from simple stacking, with only a few dowel joints for reinforcement. This is because a log cabin tends to compress slightly as it settles, nails would soon be out of alignment and torn out. In the present-day United States, settlers may have first constructed log cabins by 1638, historians believe that the first log cabins built in North America were in the Swedish colony of Nya Sverige in the Delaware River and Brandywine River valleys. Many of its colonists were actually Forest Finns, because Finland was a part of Sweden at that time. New Sweden only briefly existed before it became the Dutch colony of New Netherland, the Swedish-Finnish colonists quick and easy construction techniques not only remained, but spread.
Later German and Ukrainian immigrants used this technique, the Scots and Scots-Irish had no tradition of building with logs, but they quickly adopted the method