SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cadastre

A cadastre is a comprehensive land recording of the real estate or real property's metes-and-bounds of a country. In most countries, legal systems have developed around the original administrative systems and use the cadastre to define the dimensions and location of land parcels described in legal documentation. A land parcel or cadastral parcel is defined as "a continuous area, or more appropriately volume, identified by a unique set of homogeneous property rights". In the United States, Cadastral Survey within the Bureau of Land Management maintains records of all public lands; such surveys require detailed investigation of the history of land use, legal accounts, other documents. The cadastre is a fundamental source of data in lawsuits between landowners. Land registration and cadastre complement each other. A cadastre includes details of the ownership, the tenure, the precise location, the dimensions, the cultivations if rural, the value of individual parcels of land. Cadastres are used by many nations around the world, some in conjunction with other records, such as a title register.

The International Federation of Surveyors defines cadastre as follows: A Cadastre is a parcel based, up-to-date land information system containing a record of interests in land. It includes a geometric description of land parcels linked to other records describing the nature of the interests, the ownership or control of those interests, the value of the parcel and its improvements; the word cadastre came into English through French from the Greek katástikhon, a list or register, from katà stíkhon —literally, " line by line". Some of the earliest cadastres were ordered by Roman Emperors to recover state owned lands, appropriated by private individuals, thereby recover income from such holdings. One such cadastre was done in AD 77 in Campania, a surviving stone marker of the survey reads "The Emperor Vespasian, in the eighth year of his tribunician power, so as to restore the state lands which the Emperor Augustus had given to the soldiers of Legion II Gallica, but which for some years had been occupied by private individuals, ordered a survey map to be set up with a record on each'century' of the annual rental".

In this way Vespasian was able to reimpose taxation uncollected on these lands. With the fall of Rome the use of cadastral maps discontinued. Medieval practice used written descriptions of the extent of land rather than using more precise surveys. Only in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries did the use of cadastral maps resume, beginning in the Netherlands. With the emergence of capitalism in Renaissance Europe the need for cadastral maps reemerged as a tool to determine and express control of land as a means of production; this took place first in land disputes and spread to governmental practice as a means of more precise tax assessment. Cadastral surveys document the boundaries of land ownership, by the production of documents, sketches, plans and maps, they were used to ensure reliable facts for land valuation and taxation. An example from early England is the Domesday Book in 1086. Napoleon established a comprehensive cadastral system for France, regarded as the forerunner of most modern versions.

The Public Lands Survey System is a cadastral survey of the United States originating in legislation from 1785, after international recognition of the United States. The Dominion Land Survey is a similar cadastral survey conducted in Western Canada begun in 1871 after the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. Both cadastral surveys are made relative to principal meridian and baselines; these cadastral surveys divided the surveyed areas into townships, square land areas of 36 square miles. These townships are divided into sections, each one-mile square. Unlike in Europe this cadastral survey preceded settlement and as a result influenced settlement patterns. Properties are rectangular, boundary lines run on cardinal bearings, parcel dimensions are in fractions or multiples of chains. Land descriptions in Western North America are principally based on these land surveys. Cadastral survey information is a base element in Geographic Information Systems or Land Information Systems used to assess and manage land and built infrastructure.

Such systems are employed on a variety of other tasks, for example, to track long-term changes over time for geological or ecological studies, where land tenure is a significant part of the scenario. A cadastral map is a map; some cadastral maps show additional details, such as survey district names, unique identifying numbers for parcels, certificate of title numbers, positions of existing structures, section or lot numbers and their respective areas and adjacent street names, selected boundary dimensions and references to prior maps. The U. S. NOAA Coastal Services Center has released a cadastre web tool to illustrate offshore wind power suitability of Eastern seaboard areas. Cadastral documentation comprises the documentary materials submitted to cadastre or land administration offices for renewal of cadastral recordings. Cadastral documentation is kept in paper and/or electronic form. Jurisdiction statutes and further provisions specify th

Beaver Area Memorial Library

The Beaver Area Memorial Library is part of the Beaver County Library System in Beaver County, Pennsylvania. It is located on College Avenue in Pennsylvania; the Beaver Area Memorial Library started as a small collection of books in the basement of the Beaver Trust Co. in the 1940s and was run by the Beaver Civic Club. It moved into the basement of a former high school on College Avenue in Beaver. In 1948, the Beaver County courts granted a charter for the official formation of the Beaver Memorial Library. In early 1949, an old house on the corner of Insurance and Fourth Streets was leased from the Beaver Area school district for the price of one dollar per year. With the help of local merchants who donated materials and labors, the old house was renovated; the library was open to the public on September 17, 1949 with Mrs. W. Wallace Rinehart as its librarian and Miss Jean Sebring as her assistant. By April 1950, the library had a reported collection of over 4,000 books. By 1959, the expanding library had outgrown its quarters on Insurance and Fourth, so the Board of Trustees purchased property on River Road and College Avenue to be used for a new building.

A fundraiser was started in Beaver County in 1961 to raise the $130 thousand to build the new establishment. Due to the support of citizens county wide, the name of the library was changed in 1961 to the Beaver Area Memorial Library to reflect this support; the new building, which continues to serve as the public library today, was dedicated on April 8, 1962 and open to the public. Over the next fourteen years, the library continued to expand. By 1974 library services and clientele had increased by five-fold; because of this growth, the Board of Trustees put into work an expansion of this building, finished in 1980. This addition added 2,500 square feet at a cost of nearly $140 thousand; the library soon outgrew this new addition, the necessity for yet another addition arose. This time, 4,200 square feet was added to the library. During this addition and the exterior appearance of the library underwent significant improvements. In total, the new renovations costs a total of $1 million; the last and latest addition added to the library was completed in 2003 with the addition of a new wing in the library.

Planned for the spring of 1998, unforeseen delays stalled the project until early 2001. This new facility was dedicated on May 13, 2003. 1948- A small collection of books in the basement of the Beaver Trust Co. run by the Beaver Civic Club. A charter was granted to the Beaver Civic Club to found the Library.1949- A house was leased to the newly established library on the corner of Insurance and Fourth Streets. The house underwent renovations to make it suitable to serve as a small library.1950- Reported collection of 4,000 books.1959- Land purchased on the corner of River Road and College Avenue to be used as a site for a new library.1961- Fundraiser was launched to raise money for the new library building.1961- The name of the library is changed to the Beaver Area Memorial Library.1962- The new library building was dedicated.1974- Services and clientele have increased five-fold from 1960.1980- 2,500 square foot expansion is completed, costing just under $140 thousand.1998- Board of Trustees plan to renovate the library.2001- Renovations are started.2003- Renovations are completed, adding a new wing to the library.

Over 56,000 books One hundred various magazine and newspaper subscriptions Over 9,000 registered borrowers Loaned over 179,000 materials to individuals Have had over 142,000 visitors A collection of The Beaver County Times on microfilm, dating back to July 1991 A selection of several computers for public use A large CD-Rom database A vast collection of audio cassettes, DVDs, video cassettes, audio CDs, reading materials for the visually impaired Photocopiers, FAX machines A meeting room for non-profit organizations A large selection of programs throughout the year for both adults and children http://www.beaverlibraries.org/beaverarea.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20110724160654/http://www.beaverlibraries.org/documents/BEhistory.pdf

Volcanic crater

A volcanic crater is an circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity. It is a bowl-shaped feature within which occurs a vent or vents. During volcanic eruptions, molten magma and volcanic gases rise from an underground magma chamber, through a tube-shaped conduit, until they reach the crater's vent, from where the gases escape into the atmosphere and the magma is erupted as lava. A volcanic crater can be of large dimensions, sometimes of great depth. During certain types of explosive eruptions, a volcano's magma chamber may empty enough for an area above it to subside, forming a type of larger depression known as a caldera. In most volcanoes, the crater is situated at the top of a mountain formed from the erupted volcanic deposits such as lava flows and tephra. Volcanoes that terminate in such a summit crater are of a conical form. Other volcanic craters may be found on the flanks of volcanoes, these are referred to as flank craters; some volcanic craters may fill either or with rain and/or melted snow, forming a crater lake.

A crater may be breached during an eruption, either by explosions or by lava, or through erosion. Breached craters have a much lower rim on one side; some volcanoes, such as maars, consist of a crater alone, with scarcely any mountain at all. These volcanic explosion craters are formed when magma rises through water-saturated rocks, which causes a phreatic eruption. Volcanic craters from phreatic eruptions occur on plains away from other obvious volcanoes. Not all volcanoes form craters. Caldera – Cauldron-like volcanic feature formed by the emptying of a magma chamber Volcanic Features and Landforms: Craters by US National Park Service