Cadbury Cadbury's and Cadbury Schweppes, is a British multinational confectionery company wholly owned by Mondelez International since 2010. It is the second largest confectionery brand in the world after Mars. Cadbury is internationally headquartered in Uxbridge, west London, operates in more than 50 countries worldwide, it is known for its Dairy Milk chocolate, the Creme Egg and Roses selection box, many other confectionery products. One of the best-known British brands, in 2013 The Daily Telegraph named Cadbury among Britain's most successful exports. Cadbury was established in Birmingham, England in 1824, by John Cadbury who sold tea and drinking chocolate. Cadbury developed the business with his brother Benjamin, followed by his sons George. George developed the Bournville estate, a model village designed to give the company's workers improved living conditions. Dairy Milk chocolate, introduced in 1905, used a higher proportion of milk within the recipe compared with rival products. By 1914, the chocolate was the company's best-selling product.

Cadbury, alongside Rowntree's and Fry, were the big three British confectionery manufacturers throughout much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Cadbury was granted its first Royal Warrant from Queen Victoria in 1854, it has been a holder of a Royal Warrant from Elizabeth II since 1955. Cadbury merged with J. S. Fry & Sons in 1919, Schweppes in 1969, known as Cadbury Schweppes until 2008, when the American beverage business was split as Dr Pepper Snapple Group. Cadbury was a constant constituent of the FTSE 100 on the London Stock Exchange from the index's 1984 inception until the company was bought by Kraft Foods in 2010. In 1824, John Cadbury, a Quaker, began selling tea and drinking chocolate in Bull Street in Birmingham, England. From 1831 he moved into the production of a variety of cocoa and drinking chocolates, made in a factory in Bridge Street and sold to the wealthy because of the high cost of production. In 1847, John Cadbury became a partner with his brother Benjamin and the company became known as "Cadbury Brothers".

In 1847, Cadbury's competitor Fry's of Bristol produced the first chocolate bar. Cadbury introduced his brand of the chocolate bar in 1849, that same year and Fry's chocolate bars were displayed publicly at a trade fair in Bingley Hall, Birmingham; the Cadbury brothers opened an office in London, in 1854 they received the Royal Warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria. The company went into decline in the late 1850s. John Cadbury's sons Richard and George took over the business in 1861. At the time of the takeover, the business was in rapid decline: the number of employees had reduced from 20 to 11, the company was losing money. By 1866, Cadbury was profitable again; the brothers had turned around the business by moving the focus from tea and coffee to chocolate, by increasing the quality of their products. The firm's first major breakthrough occurred in 1866 when Richard and George introduced an improved cocoa into Britain. A new cocoa press developed in the Netherlands removed some of the unpalatable cocoa butter from the cocoa bean.

The firm began exporting its products in the 1850s. In 1861, the company created Fancy Boxes — a decorated box of chocolates — and in 1868 they were sold in boxes in the shape of a heart for Valentine's Day. Boxes of filled chocolates became associated with the holiday. Manufacturing their first Easter egg in 1875, Cadbury created the modern chocolate Easter egg after developing a pure cocoa butter that could be moulded into smooth shapes. By 1893, Cadbury had 19 different varieties of chocolate Easter egg on sale. In 1878, the brothers decided to build new premises in countryside four miles from Birmingham; the move to the countryside was unprecedented in business. Better transport access for milk, inward shipped by canal, cocoa, brought in by rail from London and Liverpool docks was taken into consideration. With the development of the Birmingham West Suburban Railway along the path of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, they acquired the Bournbrook estate, comprising 14.5 acres of countryside 5 miles south of the outskirts of Birmingham.

Located next to the Stirchley Street railway station, which itself was opposite the canal, they renamed the estate Bournville and opened the Bournville factory the following year. In 1893, George Cadbury bought 120 acres of land close to the works and planned, at his own expense, a model village which would'alleviate the evils of modern more cramped living conditions'. By 1900 the estate included 314 houses set on 330 acres of land; as the Cadbury family were Quakers there were no pubs in the estate. In 1897, following the lead of Swiss companies, Cadbury introduced its own line of milk chocolate bars. In 1899 Cadbury became a private limited company. In 1905, Cadbury launched its Dairy Milk bar, a production of exceptional quality with a higher proportion of milk than previous chocolate bars. Developed by George Cadbury Jr, it was the first time a British company had been able to mass-produce milk chocolate. From the beginning, it had the distinctive purple wrapper, it was a great sales success, became the company's best selling product by 1914.

The stronger Bournville Cocoa line was introduced in 1906. Cadbury Dairy Milk and Bournville Cocoa were to provide the basis for the company's rapid pre-war expansion. In 1910, Cadbury sales overtook those of Fry for the first time. Cadbury's Milk Tray was first produced in 1915 and continued in production throughout t

Johann Anton Güldenstädt

Johann Anton Güldenstädt was a Baltic German naturalist and explorer in Russian service. Güldenstädt lost both his parents early, from 1763 onwards studied pharmacy and natural history in Berlin. At the age of 22, he obtained his doctorate in medicine at the University of Frankfurt in 1767. In the following year, he joined the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences' expedition sent by Catherine II of Russia to explore the Russian empire's southern frontier. Güldenstädt travelled through Ukraine and the Astrakhan region, as well as the northern Caucasus and Georgia, both of which were entirely beyond the borders of the Russian empire. In March 1775 he returned to St Petersburg; the results of the expedition and Güldenstädt's edited expedition journal were published after his death by Peter Simon Pallas in Reisen durch Russland und im Caucasischen Gebürge. The expedition contributed to the fields of biology, geology and linguistics. Güldenstädt took detailed notes on the languages of the region. After the expedition, which definitively established Güldenstädt's reputation at the Academy, he continued to work as a naturalist.

Güldenstädt's expedition was the first systematic study of the Caucasus. As was typical of contemporary expeditions organized in the spirit of the Enlightenment, it was tasked with the observation and description of every aspect of the region under study; this included both its "natural" attributes — flora, fauna and geology — and its peoples and government. In this sense it was both a scientific expedition and a mission of reconnaissance to learn more about a region, important in the simultaneous Russian war with the Ottomans, of which the Caucasus was a theater, with the Georgians acting as Russian allies. Following the expedition, Russian interest in the region Georgia, grew markedly, culminating in the Treaty of Georgievsk, which made East Georgia a Russian protectorate. In 1781, he died from an outbreak of fever in St. Petersburg. Güldenstädt first described the jungle cat in 1776 in his article Chaus – Animal feli adfine descriptum, he is commemorated in the names of: Güldenstädt's redstart Chaus – Animal feli adfine descriptum.

Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae Volume 20, St. Petersburg 1776. Pp. 483 Reisen durch Rußland und im Caucasischen Gebürge. Russisch-Kayserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften. St. Petersburg, Volume 1, 1787. Путешествие по Кавказу в 1770–1773 гг. Translated by T. K. Shafranovskaia. St. Petersburg: Peterburgskoe Vostokovedenie, 2002. List of Baltic German explorers Google Books Gnucheva, V. F. et al. 1940. Materialy dlia istorii ekspeditsii Akademii nauk v XVIII i XIX vekakh: khronologicheskie obzory i opisanie arkhivnykh materialov. Moscow: Izdatelstvo Akademii nauk SSSR. Kopelevich, Iudif’ Khaimovna 1997. Iogann Anton Gil’denshtedt, 1745-1781. Moscow: Nauka. Kosven, Mark Osipovich 1955. “Materialy po istorii etnografii Kavkaza v russkoi nauke”. Kavkazskii etnograficheskii sbornik. Vols. I, III. Ed. V. K. Gardanov. Moscow: Izdatelstvo Akademii nauk SSSR. I, Pp. 272–290. II, Pp. 267–281 Lavrov, L. I. 1976. “K 250-letiiu akademicheskogo kavkazovedeniia v Rossii.” Kavkazskii etnograficheskii sbornik.

Vol. VI. Ed. V. K. Gardanov. Moscow: Izdatelstvo Akademii nauk SSSR. Pp. 3–10

Peter Waldor

Peter Waldor is an American poet and insurance executive. He is the author of Door to a Noisy Room, The Wilderness Poetry of Wu Xing, Who Touches Everything, The Unattended Harp. Who Touches Everything won the National Jewish Book Award for poetry in 2013. Waldor served as the San Miguel County, Colorado poet laureate for 2014 and 2015. Publishers Weekly praised Door to a Noisy Room as being "familial and loyal to the good people and the simple delights of this world." Waldor earned his B. A. from Tufts University, received an undergraduate award from the American Academy of Poets. He earned his M. F. A. from the Iowa Writers’ Workshop, served as poet-in-residence at Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, PA, before beginning his career in the insurance business. Waldor was born in Newark, grew up in South Orange, lives in Short Hills, New Jersey with his wife, Jody Miller, their three children, he is a member of the Alice James Books Cooperative Board. Audio: The Cortland Review > January 10, 2010 > “Passing Through a Sleeve” by Peter Waldor Audio: The 2River View > 11.2 > Peter Waldor Reading Three Poems Poems: Mudlark Poster No. 63 > Five Poems by Peter Waldor Poem: The American Poetry Review > Vol. 36, No. 1 > Perfect Islamic Bliss by Peter Waldor Author Page: Alice James Books > Peter Waldor Author Page