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Caernarfon is a royal town and port in Gwynedd, with a population of 9,852. It lies along the A487 road, on the eastern shore of the Menai Strait, opposite the Isle of Anglesey; the city of Bangor is 8.6 miles to the north-east, while Snowdonia fringes Caernarfon to the east and south-east. Carnarvon and Caernarvon are Anglicised spellings that were superseded in 1926 and 1974 respectively; the town is noted for its high percentage of native Welsh speakers. Due to this, Welsh is the predominant language of the town. Abundant natural resources in and around the Menai Strait enabled human habitation in prehistoric Britain; the Ordovices, a Celtic tribe, lived in the region during the period known as Roman Britain. The Roman fort Segontium was established around AD 80 to subjugate the Ordovices during the Roman conquest of Britain; the Romans occupied the region until the end of Roman rule in Britain in 382, after which Caernarfon became part of the Kingdom of Gwynedd. In the late 11th century, William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a motte-and-bailey castle at Caernarfon as part of the Norman invasion of Wales.

He was unsuccessful, Wales remained independent until around 1283. In the 13th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, ruler of Gwynedd, refused to pay homage to Edward I of England, prompting the English conquest of Gwynedd; this was followed by the construction of Caernarfon Castle, one of the largest and most imposing fortifications built by the English in Wales. In 1284, the English-style county of Caernarfonshire was established by the Statute of Rhuddlan; the ascent of the House of Tudor to the throne of England eased hostilities between the English and resulted in Caernarfon Castle falling into a state of disrepair. The city has flourished, leading to its status as a major tourist centre and seat of Gwynedd Council, with a thriving harbour and marina. Caernarfon experienced heavy suburbanisation, its population includes the largest percentage of Welsh-speaking citizens anywhere in Wales. The status of Royal Borough was granted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1963 and amended to Royal Town in 1974; the castle and town walls are part of a World Heritage Site described as the Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd.

The present city of Caernarfon grew up around and owes its name to its Norman and late Medieval fortifications. The earlier British and Romano-British settlement at Segontium was named for the nearby Afon Seiont. After the end of Roman rule in Britain around 410, the settlement continued to be known as Cair Segeint and as Cair Custoient, of the History of the Britons, cited by James Ussher in Newman's life of Germanus of Auxerre, both of whose names appear among the 28 civitates of sub-Roman Britain in the Historia Brittonum traditionally ascribed to Nennius; the work states that the inscribed tomb of "Constantius the Emperor" was still present in the 9th century. The medieval romance about Maximus and Elen, Macsen's Dream, calls her home Caer Aber Sein and other pre-conquest poets such as Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd used the name Caer Gystennin; the Norman motte was erected apart from the existing settlement and came to be known as y gaer yn Arfon, "the fortress in Arfon". A 1221 charter by Llywelyn the Great to the canons of Penmon priory on Anglesey mentions Kaerinarfon.

In 1283, King Edward I completed his conquest of Wales which he secured by a chain of castles and walled towns. The construction of a new stone Caernarfon Castle seems to have started as soon as the campaign had finished. Edward's architect, James of St. George, may well have modelled the castle on the walls of Constantinople being aware of the town's legendary associations. Edward's fourth son, Edward of Caernarfon Edward II of England, was born at the castle in April 1284 and made Prince of Wales in 1301. A story recorded in the 16th century suggests that the new prince was offered to the native Welsh on the premise "that was borne in Wales and could speake never a word of English", however there is no contemporary evidence to support this. Caernarfon was constituted a borough in 1284 by charter of Edward I; the charter, confirmed on a number of occasions, appointed the mayor of the borough Constable of the Castle ex officio. The former municipal borough was designated a royal borough in 1963.

The borough was abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in 1974, the status of "royal town" was granted to the community which succeeded it. Caernarfon was the county town of the historic county of Caernarfonshire. In 1911, David Lloyd George Member of Parliament for Caernarfon boroughs, which included various towns from Llŷn to Conwy, agreed to the British Royal Family's idea of holding the investiture of the Prince of Wales at Caernarfon Castle; the ceremony took place on 13 July, with the royal family visiting Wales, the future Edward VIII was duly invested. In 1955 Caernarfon was in the running for the title of Capital of Wales on historical grounds but the town's campaign was defeated in a ballot of Welsh local authorities, with 11 votes compared

Edwin Hale

Edwin Whitfield "Goat" Hale was an American football player for the Mississippi College Collegians, elected to the College Football Hall of Fame. After playing, he served many years as a coach. Hale was born in Jackson and played high school football at its Central High School. Hale got the nickname "Goat" playing there against Brookhaven in 1914, he battered through the line, scoring a touchdown, ran past the end zone until his head hit a wooden building, loosening several planks. "Goat" played quarterback at Mississippi College from 1915 to 1916 and again from 1920 to 1921, after serving in World War I. He was nominated, he was elected to the Mississippi Sports Hall of Fame in 1961, the College Football Hall of Fame in 1963. Hale was inducted into the Millsaps College Sports Hall of Fame in 1970, he is the name sake of the Hale in Robinson-Hale Stadium, wherein Mississippi College plays it home games. He stood 5'11" and weighed 170 pounds. During the war he was wounded, reported missing, found in a hospital in France.

In 1921, Hale gained 2,160 yards as he was selected All-Southern. "Ten other players are on Hale's teams, but they are there to conform with gridiron rules." Hale died in 1983. Edwin Hale at the College Football Hall of Fame

Ying Chongfu

Ying Chongfu or C. F. Ying was a Chinese acoustical physicist, the founder and pioneer of ultrasonics research in China. Specializing in dispersion of ultrasonics in solids, ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers, ultrasonic propagation in soft tissues, power ultrasonics, laser ultrasound and acoustic cavitation. An academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ying was a research professor at Institute of Acoustics of CAS, inaugural Chairman of the Acoustical Society of China and Editor-in-Chief of the academic journal Applied Acoustics. Ying was born in 1918 in Ningbo, China to a middle-class family, his father was an accountant working for a British firm in China. Ying grew up in Wuhan and was taught English since young. In 1940, he graduated from the Christian missionary college Huachung University and received his master's degree from Physics Department of Tsinghua University in 1945. Ying went to the U. S. in 1948 with a scholarship of Huachung University. He studied electronics with Prof. H. E. Farnsworth in Brown University where he received the Ph.

D. degree in 1951. In 1951, Ying started to work for Prof. Rohn Truell's Metals Research Laboratory of Brown University and co-authored with Prof. Truell a series of research papers. Three of them are regarded as laying the foundation for the development of ultrasonics, according to the Institute of Acoustics of CAS and some researchers around the world: "Complicated Domain Patterns on Iron‐Silicon Single Crystals", published in Journal of Applied Physics "The Effect of Hydrogen on Ultrasonic Attenuation and Velocity Measurements in Titanium", published in Acta Metallurgica "Scattering of a Plane Longitudinal Wave by a Spherical Obstacle in an Isotropically Elastic Solid", published in Journal of Applied Physics In 1956, Ying came back to China and entered into the Chinese Academy of Sciences, served as researcher at Institute of Applied Physics, he dedicated himself in promoting the research and applications of ultrasonics in China despite the turbulences of the political movements beginning to overwhelm the Chinese society since early 1960s.

During the Cultural Revolution, Ying was tortured, saw his liberty denied during 8 months and once attempted suicide in 1968, while his first spouse died of cancer in a camp in southern China. Ying was appointed the deputy director of the Institute of Acoustics in 1978 when the IOA was reconstituted in the aftermath of the Cultural Revolution. From 1978 to his death in 2011, Ying made numerous breakthroughs in research and was granted national awards for 4 times by the Chinese government, he has multiplied the international interactions in the fields of ultrasonics with researchers from western countries. In 1980, he was named overseas editor by the British scientific journal "Ultrasonics" and American "Wave Motion". In 1990, Ying published another influential research paper "Photoelastic Visualization and Theoretical Analyses of Scatterings of Ultrasonic Pulses in Solids" in the scientific journal Physical Acoustics and a 600-page treatise in Chinese entitled Ultrasonics. In October 1993, Ying was elected academician of CAS.

Ying dedicated the last decade of his life to the research of acoustic cavitation, in which China considered itself lagged behind

Tioga Commissary

Tioga Commissary is located in Tioga, Louisiana. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 16, 1986. Located north of Alexandria the Commissary is part of the Tioga Heritage Park and MuseumIn 1905 Stephen Lee purchased a sawmill, built by Julius Levin, surrounding land from Daniel F. Clark, owner of Union Lumber Company. Lee constructed the rural Commissary to meet the needs of his employees at Lee Lumber Company and Tioga & Southeastern Railway Company; the building served as a department store, post office, general gathering place for decades. The Tioga Commissary was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 16, 1986. According to the Historic Landmark plaque, after the sawmill's closure in 1925 the Commissary was sold to Sam Allen, who operated it until 1947. Soon after, it was sold to longtime employee Rudolph Merritt, who operated the community store until its closure in 1981; the 1986 Registry Nomination form lists the then-owner as Fred Price.

In 2009, through the efforts of Tioga Historical Society, the building opened as part of the Louisiana Museum System. Exhibits focused on early life in Tioga, timber business, railroad line, the Louisiana Maneuvers that trained soldiers for combat during World War II. An undated “news” page announced the Museum's closure due to unstable conditions of building and lack of funding from the State for repair. Memories and photos of the Commissary can still be shared on their social media page


A smallholding is a small farm. Smallholdings are farms supporting a single family with a mixture of cash crops and subsistence farming; as a country becomes more affluent, smallholdings may not be self-sufficient but are valued for the rural lifestyle that they provide for the owners, who do not earn their livelihood from the farm. There are an estimated 500 million smallholder farms in the world, supporting two billion people. Today some companies try to include smallholdings into their value chain, providing seed, feed or fertilizer to improve production; some say. In British English usage, a smallholding is a piece of land and its adjacent living quarters for the smallholder and stabling for farm animals, it is smaller than a farm but larger than an allotment under 50 acres. It is established for breeding farm animals organically on free-range pastures. Alternatively, the smallholder may concentrate on growing vegetables by traditional methods or, in a more modern way, using plastic covers, polytunneling or cloches for quick growth.

A smallholding offers its owner a means of achieving self-sufficiency for its family's needs. They may be able to supplement their income by selling surplus produce at a farmers' market or at a permanent shop on the smallholding. In Western Australia, many small acre farms were established under the Agricultural Land Purchase Act to encourage settlement; the government purchased large land grants held by absentee owners and subdivided them according to the best use for the land: the development of orchids in Coondle, horse breeding, sheep grazing, high density crops like corn, broad acre crops like wheat. A hobby farm in Australia is a variety of smallholding that may be as small as 2 hectares up to a self-sustaining farm size, that allows the "city farmer" to have a house and a small number of animals or small crop fields or grape vines. In Western Australia, they are termed Special Rural Properties for planning purposes. In New Zealand, a lifestyle block is a smallholding valued for the rural lifestyle it affords.

Planning restrictions on subdividing farm land lead to the creation of lifestyle blocks of minimum permissible size near urban areas. In many developing countries, a smallholding is a small plot of land with low rental value, used to grow crops. By some estimates, there are 525 million smallholder farmers in the world. Smallholders dominate production in certain key sectors such as cocoa. Various types of agribusinesses work with smallholding farmers in a range of roles including buying crops, providing seed, acting as financial institutions. Urban agriculture Small-scale agriculture Graham, Peter Anderson. "Allotments and Small Holdings". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 699–704. This provides an extensive global view as of the early 20th century. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation's videos on Smallscale and Family Farms Challenges and Opportunities

Josef von Halban

Josef von Halban was an Austrian obstetrician and gynecologist. He was the husband of opera singer Selma Kurz. In 1894, he obtained his medical doctorate at Vienna, where from 1898 to 1903, he worked as an assistant under Friedrich Schauta. In 1903 he became privat-docent for OB/GYN, becoming an associate professor in 1909. From 1910 to 1937, he was director of gynecology at the Wiedner Spital in Vienna. Halban is known for his pioneer research involving inner secretions of the ovaries, he provided an early description on the endocrine function of the placenta. His name is associated with the following two medical terms: Halban's disease: persistent cystic corpus luteum. Halban's pregnancy sign: indicator concerning increased hair-growth of pregnant women. Topographie des weiblichen Ureters, 1901 – Topography of female ureters. Anatomie und Ätiologie der Genitalprolapse beim Weibe, 1907 – Anatomy and etiology of female genital prolapse. Die pathologische Anatomie des Puerperalprozesses und ihre Beziehungen zur Klinik und Therapie – 1919 Pathological anatomy involving puerperal processes, etc.

Gynäkologische operationslehre, 1932 – Gynecological surgery lessons. Biologie und Pathologie des Weibes ein Handbuch der Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe. Silló-Seidl, Georg. Pioniere der modernen Medizin: Jüdische Ärzte deutscher Sprache. Koblenz: D. Fölbach. ISBN 3-923532-08-3. Works by or about Josef von Halban at Internet Archive