Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia and his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesars will as his adopted son and heir, known as Octavianus. He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar, following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvate was eventually torn apart by the ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, in reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.
He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis, the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Pannonia and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, expanding into Germania, beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD14 at the age of 75 and he probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son Tiberius, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life, At birth, he was named Gaius Octavius after his biological father. Historians typically refer to him simply as Octavius between his birth in 63 until his adoption by Julius Caesar in 44 BC, upon his adoption, he took Caesars name and became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in accordance with Roman adoption naming standards.
He quickly dropped Octavianus from his name, and his contemporaries referred to him as Caesar during this period, historians. In 27 BC, following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra and it is the events of 27 BC from which he obtained his traditional name of Augustus, which historians use in reference to him from 27 BC until his death in AD14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri, approximately 40 kilometres from Rome and he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his fathers victory at Thurii over a band of slaves. Due to the nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his fathers home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius only mentions his fathers equestrian family briefly in his memoirs and his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War
The Twelve Caesars
De vita Caesarum, commonly known as The Twelve Caesars, is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire written by Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus. The work, written in AD121 during the reign of the emperor Hadrian, was the most popular work of Suetonius, at that time Hadrians personal secretary and it was dedicated to a friend, the Praetorian prefect Gaius Septicius Clarus. The Twelve Caesars is considered significant in antiquity and remains a primary source on Roman history. The book can be described as racy, packed with gossip, there are times the author subjectively expresses his opinion and knowledge. Though he was never a senator, Suetonius took the side of the Senate in most conflicts with the princeps and that resulted in biases, both conscious and unconscious. Suetonius lost access to the official archives shortly after beginning his work and he was forced to rely on secondhand accounts when it came to Claudius and does not quote the emperor.
Still, it provides information on the heritage, personal habits, physical appearance, lives. It mentions details that other sources do not, for example, Suetonius is the main source on the life of Caligula, his uncle, Claudius as well as the heritage of Vespasian. Suetonius made a reference in this work to Chrestus, which may refer to Christ, during the book on Nero, Suetonius mentions Christians. Like many of his contemporaries, Suetonius took omens seriously and carefully includes reports of omens portending Imperial births, the first few chapters of this section are missing. Suetonius begins this section by describing Caesars conquests, especially in Gaul, Suetonius includes Caesars famous decree, vidi, vici. In discussing Caesars war against Pompey the Great, Suetonius quotes Caesar during a battle that Caesar nearly lost, Suetonius describes an incident that would become one of the most memorable of the entire book. Caesar was captured by pirates in the Mediterranean Sea, Caesar engaged in debate and in philosophical discussion with the pirates while in captivity.
He promised that one day he would find them and crucify them, when told by the pirates that he would be held for a ransom of 20 talents of gold, Caesar laughed, and said that he must be worth at least 50 talents. Just as he had promised, after being released, Caesar captured the pirates and it is from Suetonius that we first learn of another incident during the life of Julius Caesar. While serving as quaestor in Hispania, Caesar once visited a statue of Alexander the Great, upon viewing this statue, Suetonius reports that Caesar fell to his knees, weeping. When asked what was wrong, Caesar sighed, and said that by the time Alexander was his age, Suetonius describes Caesars gift at winning the loyalty and admiration of his soldiers. Suetonius mentions Caesar commonly referring to them as instead of soldiers
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī, known as the Philosopher of the Arabs, was a Muslim Arab philosopher, mathematician and musician. Al-Kindi was a descendant of the Kinda tribe and he was born in Basra and educated in Baghdad. In the field of mathematics, al-Kindi played an important role in introducing Indian numerals to the Islamic and he was a pioneer in cryptanalysis and devised several new methods of breaking ciphers. Using his mathematical and medical expertise, he was able to develop a scale that would allow doctors to quantify the potency of their medication, the central theme underpinning al-Kindis philosophical writings is the compatibility between philosophy and other orthodox Islamic sciences, particularly theology. And many of his works deal with subjects that theology had an immediate interest in and these include the nature of God, the soul and prophetic knowledge. Al-Kindi was born in Kufa to a family of the Kinda tribe, descended from the chieftain al-Ashath ibn Qays.
His father Ishaq was the governor of Kufa, and al-Kindi received his education there. He went to complete his studies in Baghdad, where he was patronized by the Abbasid caliphs al-Mamun and he was well known for his beautiful calligraphy, and at one point was employed as a calligrapher by al-Mutawakkil. When al-Mamun died, his brother, al-Mutasim became Caliph, al-Kindis position would be enhanced under al-Mutasim, who appointed him as a tutor to his son. But on the accession of al-Wathiq, and especially of al-Mutawakkil, henry Corbin, an authority on Islamic studies, says that in 873, al-Kindi died a lonely man, in Baghdad during the reign of al-Mutamid. After his death, al-Kindis philosophical works quickly fell into obscurity and many of them were lost even to Islamic scholars, felix Klein-Franke suggests a number of reasons for this, aside from the militant orthodoxy of al-Mutawakkil, the Mongols destroyed countless libraries during their invasion. Al-Kindi was a master of different areas of thought and was held to be one of the greatest Islamic philosophers of his time.
The Italian Renaissance scholar Geralomo Cardano considered him one of the twelve greatest minds of the Middle Ages, according to Ibn al-Nadim, al-Kindi wrote at least two hundred and sixty books, contributing heavily to geometry and philosophy, and physics. His influence in the fields of physics, medicine and music were far-reaching and his greatest contribution to the development of Islamic philosophy was his efforts to make Greek thought both accessible and acceptable to a Muslim audience. Al-Kindi carried out this mission from the House of Wisdom, an institute of translation and learning patronized by the Abbasid Caliphs, in Baghdad. In his writings, one of al-Kindis central concerns was to demonstrate the compatibility between philosophy and natural theology on the one hand, and revealed or speculative theology on the other. Despite this, he did make clear that he believed revelation was a source of knowledge to reason because it guaranteed matters of faith that reason could not uncover.
This was an important factor in the introduction and popularization of Greek philosophy in the Muslim intellectual world
Cryptography or cryptology is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce. Cryptography prior to the age was effectively synonymous with encryption. The originator of an encrypted message shared the decoding technique needed to recover the information only with intended recipients. The cryptography literature often uses Alice for the sender, Bob for the intended recipient and it is theoretically possible to break such a system, but it is infeasible to do so by any known practical means. The growth of technology has raised a number of legal issues in the information age. Cryptographys potential for use as a tool for espionage and sedition has led governments to classify it as a weapon and to limit or even prohibit its use. In some jurisdictions where the use of cryptography is legal, laws permit investigators to compel the disclosure of encryption keys for documents relevant to an investigation, Cryptography plays a major role in digital rights management and copyright infringement of digital media.
Until modern times, cryptography referred almost exclusively to encryption, which is the process of converting ordinary information into unintelligible text, decryption is the reverse, in other words, moving from the unintelligible ciphertext back to plaintext. A cipher is a pair of algorithms that create the encryption, the detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and in each instance by a key. The key is a secret, usually a short string of characters, ciphers were often used directly for encryption or decryption without additional procedures such as authentication or integrity checks. There are two kinds of cryptosystems and asymmetric, in symmetric systems the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt a message. Data manipulation in symmetric systems is faster than asymmetric systems as they generally use shorter key lengths, asymmetric systems use a public key to encrypt a message and a private key to decrypt it. Use of asymmetric systems enhances the security of communication, examples of asymmetric systems include RSA, and ECC.
Symmetric models include the commonly used AES which replaced the older DES, in colloquial use, the term code is often used to mean any method of encryption or concealment of meaning. However, in cryptography, code has a specific meaning. It means the replacement of a unit of plaintext with a code word, English is more flexible than several other languages in which cryptology is always used in the second sense above. RFC2828 advises that steganography is sometimes included in cryptology, the study of characteristics of languages that have some application in cryptography or cryptology is called cryptolinguistics
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London, England. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently and have only had common ownership since 1967 and its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in touch with 10 Downing Street. In these countries, the newspaper is often referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope, in November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in a new font, Times Modern.
The Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, the Sunday Times remains a broadsheet. The Times had a daily circulation of 446,164 in December 2016, in the same period. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006 and it has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning. The Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he was working went bankrupt because of the complaints of a Jamaican hurricane. Being unemployed, Walter decided to set a new business up and it was in that time when Henry Johnson invented the logography, a new typography that was faster and more precise. Walter bought the patent and to use it, he decided to open a printing house. The first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785, unhappy because people always omitted the word Universal, Ellias changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times.
In 1803, Walter handed ownership and editorship to his son of the same name, the Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its life, the profits of The Times were very large. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig, in 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed editor in 1817
British Airways, often shortened to BA, is the flag carrier and the largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size. When measured by passengers carried, it is second-largest in the United Kingdom behind easyJet, the airline is based in Waterside near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. On 31 March 1974, all four companies were merged to form British Airways, after almost 13 years as a state company, British Airways was privatised in February 1987 as part of a wider privatisation plan by the Conservative government. The carrier soon expanded with the acquisition of British Caledonian in 1987, followed by Dan-Air in 1992, British Airways is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance, along with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific and the now defunct Canadian Airlines. The alliance has since grown to become the third-largest, after SkyTeam, IAG is listed on the London Stock Exchange and in the FTSE100 Index. A long-time Boeing customer, British Airways ordered 59 Airbus A320 family aircraft in August 1998, in 2007 it purchased 12 Airbus A380s and 24 Boeing 787 Dreamliners, marking the start of its long-haul fleet replacement.
The centrepiece of the airlines fleet is the Boeing 777. British Airways is the largest operator of the Boeing 747-400, with 51 registered to the airline, on 1 September 1972 the management service functions of both BOAC and BEA were combined under the newly formed British Airways Group. British Airways was established as an airline on 31 March 1974 by the dissolution of BOAC, British Airways and Air France operated the supersonic airliner Aerospatiale-BAC Concorde, and the worlds first supersonic passenger service flew in January 1976 from London Heathrow to Bahrain. Services to the US began on 24 May 1976 with a flight to Washington Dulles airport, service to Singapore was established in co-operation with Singapore Airlines as a continuation of the flight to Bahrain. The final commercial Concorde flight was BA002 from New York JFK to London Heathrow on 24 October 2003, in 1981 the airline was instructed to prepare for privatisation by the Conservative Thatcher government. Sir John King, Lord King, was appointed chairman, while many other large airlines struggled, King was credited with transforming British Airways into one of the most profitable air carriers in the world.
The flag carrier was privatised and was floated on the London Stock Exchange in February 1987, British Airways effected the takeover of the UKs second airline, British Caledonian, in July of that same year. The formation of Richard Bransons Virgin Atlantic Airways in 1984 created a competitor for BA and this campaign included allegations of poaching Virgin Atlantic customers, tampering with private files belonging to Virgin and undermining Virgins reputation in the City. As a result of the case BA management apologised unreservedly, Lord King stepped down as chairman in 1993 and was replaced by his deputy, Colin Marshall, while Bob Ayling took over as CEO. Virgin filed an action in the US that same year regarding BAs domination of the trans-Atlantic routes. In 1992 British Airways expanded through the acquisition of the financially troubled Dan-Air, British Asia Airways, a subsidiary based in Taiwan, was formed in March 1993 to operate between London and Taipei. That same month BA purchased a 25% stake in the Australian airline Qantas and, with the acquisition of Brymon Airways in May, in September 1998, British Airways, along with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific and Canadian Airlines, formed the Oneworld airline alliance
Orthodox Judaism includes movements such as Modern Orthodox Judaism and Ultra-Orthodox or Haredi Judaism. As of 2001, Orthodox Jews and Jews affiliated with an Orthodox synagogue accounted for approximately 50% of British Jews,26. 5% of Israeli Jews, among those affiliated to a synagogue body, Orthodox Jews represent 70% of British Jewry, and 27% of American Jewry. Orthodoxy is not one single movement or school of thought, there is no single rabbinical body to which all rabbis are expected to belong, or any one organization representing member congregations. In the 20th century, a segment of the Orthodox population disagreed with Modern Orthodoxy, such rabbis viewed innovations and modifications within Jewish law and customs with extreme care and caution. This form of Judaism may be referred to as Haredi Judaism or Ultra-Orthodox Judaism, several local Jewish papers, including New Yorks Jewish Week and Philadelphias Jewish Exponent have dropped use of the term. According to Rabbi David Bar-Hayim, the term Orthodox Judaism was coined as a response to the rise of Reform Judaism in early 19th century Germany, some researchers attempted to argue that the importance of daily practice and punctilious adherence to Jewish Law relegated theoretical issues to an ancillary status.
Others dismissed this view entirely, citing the many debates in ancient rabbinic sources which castigated various heresies without any reference to observance, while lacking a uniform doctrine, Orthodox Judaism is basically united in affirming several core beliefs, disavowal of which is considered major blasphemy. As in other aspects, Orthodox positions reflect the mainstream of traditional Rabbinic Judaism through the ages, attempts to codify these were undertaken by several medieval authorities, including Saadia Gaon and Joseph Albo. Yet the 13 Fundamentals expounded by Maimonides in his Commentary on the Mishnah, but in recent centuries the 13 Principles became standard, and are considered binding and cardinal by Orthodox authorities in a virtually universal manner. More specific doctrines refer to the times of Godly salvation and afterlife – in Judaism, Olam haBa and these include belief in divine reward for those who observe the Lords commandments and likewise, punishment meted unto the transgressors.
Maimonides reserved one article for this tenet, oft mentioned in sources, stating merely that God rewards. This issue has been subject to debate and interpretation. Nahmanides offered a comprehensive system, with divine remuneration for better or worse both in this world, via natural means, and in a celestial heaven and hell. One of the most important teachings concerning afterlife in Judaism is the Resurrection of the Dead, the Talmud listed deniers of this faith as heretics who shall have no part in the World to Come. Maimoindes specified it apart as a separate article and this particular notion is closely linked with Reward and Punishment. They will live ordinary, corporeal life but will not die, all mankind shall be resuscitated and be given each his just due. The eternal reward shall be preserved for their soul, as beforehand, preceding the miraculous events linked with afterlife is the Advent of the Messiah, independently listed among Maimonides Thirteen as a tenet of faith. Orthodox Judaism maintains the historical understanding of Jewish identity, a Jew is someone who was born to a Jewish mother, or who converts to Judaism in accordance with Jewish law and tradition
Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is an autonomous Region of Italy, along with surrounding minor islands, Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, the island has a typical Mediterranean climate. The earliest archaeological evidence of activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region after the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially regard to the arts, literature, cuisine. It is home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples, Sicily has a roughly triangular shape, earning it the name Trinacria.
To the east, it is separated from the Italian mainland by the Strait of Messina, about 3 km wide in the north, and about 16 km wide in the southern part. The northern and southern coasts are each about 280 km long measured as a line, while the eastern coast measures around 180 km. The total area of the island is 25,711 km2, the terrain of inland Sicily is mostly hilly and is intensively cultivated wherever possible. Along the northern coast, the ranges of Madonie,2,000 m, Nebrodi,1,800 m. The cone of Mount Etna dominates the eastern coast, in the southeast lie the lower Hyblaean Mountains,1,000 m. The mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta districts were part of a leading sulphur-producing area throughout the 19th century and its surrounding small islands have some highly active volcanoes. Mount Etna is the largest active volcano in Europe and still casts black ash over the island with its ever-present eruptions and it currently stands 3,329 metres high, though this varies with summit eruptions, the mountain is 21 m lower now than it was in 1981.
It is the highest mountain in Italy south of the Alps, Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km. This makes it by far the largest of the three volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. In Greek Mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under the mountain by Zeus, Mount Etna is widely regarded as a cultural symbol and icon of Sicily. The Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the northeast of mainland Sicily form a volcanic complex, the three volcanoes of Vulcano and Lipari are currently active, although the latter is usually dormant
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers. It was developed from the general-purpose UUCP dial-up network architecture, tom Truscott and Jim Ellis conceived the idea in 1979, and it was established in 1980. Users read and post messages to one or more categories, known as newsgroups, Usenet resembles a bulletin board system in many respects and is the precursor to Internet forums that are widely used today. Discussions are threaded, as with web forums and BBSs, though posts are stored on the server sequentially, the name comes from the term users network. One notable difference between a BBS or web forum and Usenet is the absence of a server and dedicated administrator. Usenet is distributed among a large, constantly changing conglomeration of servers that store, individual users may read messages from and post messages to a local server operated by a commercial usenet provider, their Internet service provider, employer, or their own server. Usenet has significant cultural importance in the world, having given rise to, or popularized, many widely recognized concepts and terms such as FAQ, flame.
The name Usenet emphasized its creators hope that the USENIX organization would take a role in its operation. The articles that users post to Usenet are organized into topical categories called newsgroups, for instance, sci. math and sci. physics are within the sci. * hierarchy, for science. Or, talk. origins and talk. atheism are in the talk. * hierarchy, when a user subscribes to a newsgroup, the news client software keeps track of which articles that user has read. In most newsgroups, the majority of the articles are responses to some other article, the set of articles that can be traced to one single non-reply article is called a thread. Most modern newsreaders display the articles arranged into threads and subthreads, when a user posts an article, it is initially only available on that users news server. Each news server talks to one or more servers and exchanges articles with them. In this fashion, the article is copied from server to server, the peer-to-peer networks operate on a similar principle, but for Usenet it is normally the sender, rather than the receiver, who initiates transfers.
Usenet was designed under conditions when networks were much slower and not always available, many sites on the original Usenet network would connect only once or twice a day to batch-transfer messages in and out. This is largely because the POTS network was used for transfers. The format and transmission of Usenet articles is similar to that of Internet e-mail messages, Usenet has diminished in importance with respect to Internet forums and mailing lists. The groups in alt. binaries are still used for data transfer
Arabs are an ethnic group inhabiting the Arab world. They primarily live in the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Arabs are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people dwelling in the central Arabian Peninsula. The Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, tradition holds that Arabs descend from Ishmael, the son of Abraham. The Arabian Desert is the birthplace of Arab, there are other Arab groups as well that spread in the land and existed for millennia. Before the expansion of the Caliphate, Arab referred to any of the largely nomadic Semitic people from the northern to the central Arabian Peninsula and Syrian Desert. Presently, Arab refers to a number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to spread of Arabs throughout the region during the early Arab conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries. The Arabs forged the Rashidun and the Abbasid caliphates, whose borders reached southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north, and this was one of the largest land empires in history.
The Great Arab Revolt has had as big an impact on the modern Middle East as the World War I, the war signaled the end of the Ottoman Empire. They are modern states and became significant as distinct political entities after the fall and defeat, following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. The Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland whilst respecting the sovereignty of its member states. Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can be found in the global diaspora, the ties that bind Arabs are ethnic, cultural, identical, nationalist and political. The Arabs have their own customs, architecture, literature, dance, cuisine, society, the total number of Arabs are an estimated 450 million. This makes them the second largest ethnic group after the Han Chinese. Arabs are a group in terms of religious affiliations and practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions, some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism, and a few individuals, the hanifs, apparently observed monotheism.
Today, Arabs are mainly adherents of Islam, with sizable Christian minorities, Arab Muslims primarily belong to the Sunni, Ibadi, Alawite and Ismaili denominations. Arab Christians generally follow one of the Eastern Christian Churches, such as the Maronite, Coptic Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic, or Chaldean churches. Listed among the booty captured by the army of king Shalmaneser III of Assyria in the Battle of Qarqar are 1000 camels of Gi-in-di-buu the ar-ba-a-a or Gindibu belonging to the Arab
A mezuzah comprises a piece of parchment called a klaft inscribed with specific Hebrew verses from the Torah. These verses consist of the Jewish prayer Shema Yisrael, beginning with the phrase, Hear, O Israel, the LORD our God, the LORD is One. In mainstream Rabbinic Judaism, a mezuzah is affixed to the doorpost of Jewish homes to fulfill the mitzvah to write the words of God on the gates and doorposts of your house. Some interpret Jewish law to require a mezuzah in every doorway in the home except bathrooms laundry rooms and closets, if they are too small to qualify as rooms. The klaft parchment is prepared by a scribe who has undergone many years of meticulous training. The parchment is rolled up and placed inside the case and this article deals mainly with the mezuzah as it is used in Rabbinic Judaism. Karaite Judaism and Samaritanism have their own distinct traditions, in Karaite Judaism the deuteronomic verse And you shall write them on the doorposts of your houses and your gates is interpreted to be a metaphor and not as referring to the Rabbanite mezuzah.
Thus Karaites do not traditionally use mezuzot, but put up a plaque in the shape of the two Tables of the Law with the Ten Commandments. In Israel, where they try not to make other Jews feel uncomfortable, many Karaites make an exception. The Karaite version of the mezuzah is fixed to the doorways of public buildings and sometimes to private buildings, the Samaritans interpret the deuteronomic commandment to mean displaying any select text from the Samaritan version of the five Books of Moses. This can contain a blessing or a holy or uplifting message. Nowadays a Samaritan mezuzah is usually made of marble, a wooden plate, or a sheet of parchment or high quality paper. This they place either above the door, or inside the house. These mezuzot are found in every Samaritan household as well as in the synagogue, today some Samaritans would use a Jewish-style mezuzah case and place inside it a small written Samaritan scroll, i. e. a text from the Samaritan Torah, written in the Samaritan alphabet.
The more such mezuzot there are in the house, the better it is considered to be. According to halakha, the mezuzah should be placed on the side of the door or doorpost, in the upper third of the doorpost. Care should be taken to not tear or damage the parchment or the wording on it, as this will invalidate the mezuzah, halakha requires that mezuzot be affixed within 30 days of moving into a rented house or apartment. This applies to Jews living in the Diaspora, for a purchased home or apartment in the Diaspora, or a residence in Israel, the mezuzah is affixed immediately upon moving in