Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, better known by the nicknames Caesarion and Ptolemy Caesar, was the last Pharaoh of Egypt, reigning with his mother Cleopatra VII from 2 September 44 BC until her death by 12 August 30 BC and as sole ruler until his death was ordered by Octavian, the Roman emperor Augustus. Caesarion was the eldest son of Cleopatra and the only biological son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named, he was the last sovereign member of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. In addition to being co-ruler of Egypt as Pharaoh with his mother, he was expected to be his father's successor as the leader of the Romans. Caesarion was born in Egypt on 23 June 47 BC, his mother Cleopatra insisted that he was the son of Roman politician and dictator Julius Caesar, while he was said to have inherited Caesar's looks and manner, Caesar did not acknowledge him. One of Caesar's supporters, Gaius Oppius wrote a pamphlet which attempted to prove that Caesar could not have fathered Caesarion.
Caesar may have allowed Caesarion to use his name. The matter became contentious when Caesar's adopted son, came into conflict with Cleopatra. In some medical literature, Caesarion is said to have suffered from epilepsy, a neurological condition inherited from his father; this thesis has been disputed by paleopathologist Francesco M. Galassi and surgeon Hutan Ashrafian, who have argued that the first mention of potential epileptic attacks can only be found in 20th-century novels, instead of ancient primary sources. Additionally, they claimed that this controversial assumption had been mistakenly used in the historico-medical debate on Julius Caesar's alleged epilepsy to strengthen the notion that the dictator suffered from that disease. Caesarion spent two of his infant years, from 46 to 44 BC, in Rome, where he and his mother were Caesar's guests at his villa, Horti Caesaris. Cleopatra hoped that her son would succeed his father as the head of the Roman Republic, as well as of Egypt. After Caesar's assassination on 15 March 44 BC, Cleopatra and Caesarion returned to Egypt.
Caesarion was named co-ruler by his mother on 2 September 44 BC at the age of three, although he was pharaoh in name only, with Cleopatra keeping actual authority. Cleopatra compared her relationship to her son with that of the Egyptian goddess Isis and her divine child Horus. There is no historical record of Caesarion between 44 BC until the Donations of Antioch in 36 BC. Two years he appears at the Donations of Alexandria. Cleopatra and Antony staged both "Donations" to donate lands dominated by Rome and Parthia to Cleopatra's children: Caesarion, the twins Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene II, Ptolemy Philadelphus. Octavian gave public approval to the Donations of Antioch in 36 BC, which have been described as an Antonian strategy to rule the East making use of Cleopatra's unique royal Seleucid lineage in the regions donated. In 34 BC, Antony granted further eastern lands and titles to Caesarion and his own three children with Cleopatra in the Donations of Alexandria. Caesarion was proclaimed to be a god, a son of god, "King of Kings".
This grandiose title was "unprecedented in the management of Roman client-king relationships" and could be seen as "threatening the'greatness' of the Roman people". Antony declared Caesarion to be Caesar's true son and heir; this declaration was a direct threat to Octavian. These proclamations caused the fatal breach in Antony's relations with Octavian, who used Roman resentment over the Donations to gain support for war against Antony and Cleopatra. After the defeat of Marc Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, Cleopatra seems to have groomed Caesarion to take over as "sole ruler without his mother", she may have intended to go into exile with Antony, who may have hoped that he would be allowed to retire as Lepidus had. Caesarion reappears in the historical record in 30 BC, when Octavian invaded Egypt and searched for him. Cleopatra may have sent Caesarion, 17 years old at the time, to the Red Sea port of Berenice for safety as part of plans for an escape to India. Plutarch does say that Caesarion was sent to India, but that he was lured back by false promises of the kingdom of Egypt: Caesarion, said to be Cleopatra's son by Julius Caesar, was sent by his mother, with much treasure, into India, by way of Ethiopia.
There Rhodon, another tutor like Theodorus, persuaded him to go back, on the ground that Caesar invited him to take the kingdom. Octavian captured the city of Alexandria on 1 August 30 BC, the date that marks the official annexation of Egypt to the Roman Republic. Around this time Mark Antony and Cleopatra died, traditionally said to be by suicide, though murder has been suggested. Details of the narratives in Plutarch are challenged and not taken literally. Caesarion's guardians, including his tutor, were themselves either lured by false promises of mercy into returning him to Alexandria or betrayed him. Octavian is supposed to have had Pharaoh Caesarion executed in Alexandria, following the advice of Arius Didymus, who said "Too many Caesars is not good", it is popularly thought that he was strangled, but the exact circumstances of his death have not been documented. Octavian assumed absolute control of Egypt; the year 30 BC was considered the first year of the new ruler's reign according to the traditional chronological system of Egypt.
Few images of Caesarion su
William Simpson "Bill" McAloney, was a senior engineering officer in the Royal Australian Air Force and an Australian exchange recipient of the George Cross, the highest civil decoration for heroism in the United Kingdom and in the Commonwealth. Born in Adelaide, he worked as a mechanic before enlisting in the RAAF as an aircraft engine fitter in 1936. In August the following year, he attempted to rescue the pilot of a crashed Hawker Demon aircraft engulfed in flames at an airfield in Hamilton, Victoria; the first on scene, McAloney rushed into the wreckage in an effort to extract the unconscious pilot. The pilot's leg was trapped and while struggling to free it one of the wing tanks burst, knocking McAloney unconscious. McAloney was spent the next month in hospital, he was subsequently awarded the Albert Medal for his actions in the rescue attempt. McAloney sufficiently recovered to return to his work in the RAAF, during the Second World War was involved in engine repair and engineering staff work in Australia.
Commissioned as a flying officer in 1942, he saw service in Dutch New Guinea during late 1944. He received a permanent commission in the RAAF in 1948, was advanced to squadron leader in 1950. During the Malayan Emergency, he served as technical officer to both No. 90 Wing and No. 1 Squadron, based in Singapore. In 1960, he was made Officer Commanding Engineering Squadron at the Aircraft Research and Development Unit, was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire for his efforts in the post. McAloney retired in 1966 with the honorary rank of group captain. In 1971, the Albert Medal was discontinued and living recipients of the decoration were invited to exchange their medal for the George Cross, he died in 1995 at the age of 85. McAloney was born on 12 May 1910 in Adelaide, South Australia, the eldest son and second of six children of William Samuel McAloney and his wife Mary; the young McAloney was educated at the Adelaide School of Mines. In 1925, McAloney registered for compulsory military training in the Citizen Military Force, serving as a private with the 43rd Battalion until November 1929.
During this time, he gained employment as an automotive mechanic with Vrai Ltd, where he received on-the-job training in place of a formal apprenticeship. McAloney was employed with Vrai for three years, before he took a position with Adelaide Car Service. In 1931, McAloney purchased a engineering workshop in Wirrulla, he operated the establishment for the next five years, the business conducting work on various types of vehicle including cars and tractors. However, the business experienced financial difficulties and was forced to close. In a ceremony on 24 June 1935, McAloney wed Dora Winifred Johnson; the couple had seven children: sons William and Paul. In light of his business closure, McAloney was forced to seek alternate employment and he enlisted in the Royal Australian Air Force on 1 July 1936. Ranked aircraftman, he completed a fitters course and qualified as an aero fitter and turner before being attached to No. 1 Squadron at RAAF Base Laverton, Victoria, in September. He was employed in a maintenance role within the unit, working on the Jupiter Gipsy and Rolls-Royce Kestrel engines of Bristol Bulldog and Hawker Demon aircraft respectively.
During 1937, McAloney completed a part-time air gunner course. His first child, a son named William, was born that year. On 31 August 1937, three Hawker Demon aircraft of No. 1 Squadron were on a training flight, during which they landed at an air base in Hamilton, Victoria. The exercise coincided with the local agricultural show, the planes provided a stationary display for the public. Recommencing their journey, the first aircraft had taken off when the second was seen to have difficulties; the pilot, Pilot Officer Kenneth McKenzie, had attempted a climbing turn when the aircraft's engine stalled, sending the machine into a dive. McAloney—who was a passenger in the third aircraft—witnessed the incident and signalled for his pilot to stop. On doing this, McAloney leapt out of his plane and ran across the airfield. Out of control, the second aircraft struck the ground and became engulfed in flames; the first on scene, McAloney dashed into the wreckage in an effort to extradite the two crew members, was able to grab hold of McKenzie, sprawled over the flaming main fuel tank.
McAloney pulled McKenzie free of the cockpit and down on to the aircraft's wing, though McKenzie's leg became trapped in the wreckage. Despite this, McAloney continued his efforts to free McKenzie, burning his hands on the pilot's smouldering clothes. At this point, one of the wing tanks burst, he was pulled from the aircraft suffering severe burns, spent the next four weeks in hospital undergoing treatment. Both McKenzie and his observer-gunner, Sergeant Norman Torrens-Witherow, perished and it was ascertained that, owing to the injuries sustained on impact, they would not have survived if the rescue attempt had been successful. Although McAloney's rescue attempt was unsuccessful, the president of the RAAF court of inquiry into the incident, Squadron Leader Charles Eaton, noted his "conspicuous gallantry" and the coroner publicly commended McAloney's actions. McAloney's efforts that day were recognised with the award of the Albert Medal, the announcement of, circulated in the press; the notification and accompanying citation for the decoration was published in the London Gazette on
The Sabancı family is one of the wealthiest families in Turkey according to the Forbes billionaires list of 2016, with an estimated fortune ranging between $20–30 billion. The family's main business entity was founded in the 1930s. Hacı Ömer Sabancı, the progenitor of the Sabancı family, moved from his native Kayseri to Adana in the early 1920s, his business grew, in part, due to reduced business competition as a result of the Armenian Genocide. Some second and third generation members of the family today control a group of companies under Sabanci Holding. Most of the companies were established by the efforts of the second generation members of the family, Sakıp Sabancı, Hacı Sabancı, Şevket Sabancı, Erol Sabancı, Özdemir Sabancı. After the death of Sakıp Sabancı known as Sakip Aga, in 2004, the granddaughter of the founder, Güler Sabancı, was chosen to run Sabancı Holding. Today, some second and third generation members of the family have left their managerial positions at the Sabanci Group and established their own companies such as Densa and Esas Holding which owns Pegasus Airlines.
Hacı Arap Sabancı, Hacı Ömer, Hacı Mehmet and Hacı Ali Sabancı's father. Hacı Ömer Sabancı married Sadıka Sabancı İhsan Sabancı married Yüksel Tarcan Güler Sabancı Ahmet Yakup Sabancı İhsan Erol Sabancı Nur Sabancı Children of Neven Tenik: Sevgi Sabancı İhsan John Mashari Serra Mariam Mashari Murat Sabancı Eren Sabancı Sakıp Sabancı married Türkan Civelek Dilek Sabancı Metin Sabancı Sevil Sabancı was married to Eran Tapan Melissa Tapan Hacı Sabancı married Özcan Sabancı Ömer Sabancı married Arzu Hacı Sabancı Hakan Sabancı Kerim Sabancı Demet Çetindoğan married Cengiz Çetindoğan Pırıl Çetindoğan Merve Çetindoğan Cevdet Çetindoğan Mehmet Sabancı married Zeynep Sabancı Faruk Sabancı Burak Sabancı Şevket Sabancı married Hayırlı Zerrin Emine Sabancı Kamışlı married Erhan Kamışlı Fethi Ali Sabancı Kamışlı Kerem Sabancı Kamışlı Ali İhsan Sabancı married Vuslat Doğan Sabancı Şevket Emrecan Sabancı Kaan Ali Sabancı Sadıka Sabancı married Aziz Köseoğlu Kazım Köseoğlu Erol Sabancı married Belkıs Suzan Sabancı Dinçer married Haluk Dinçer Haluk Sabancı Dinçer Ceyda Sabancı Dinçer Çiğdem Sabancı Bilen married Faruk Bilen Gizem Bilen Gözdem Bilen Özdemir Sabancı married Sevda Girişken Demir Sabancı married Aslıhan Oya Sabancı Bora Sabancı Serra Sabancı Hacı Mehmet Sabancı Yalçın Sabancı Kaya Sabancı Özcan Sabancı Gülten Sabancı Pembe Sabancı Hacı Ali Sabancı Sakıp Sabancı Museum Sakıp Sabancı Museum Sabancı University