Caesars Palace in 2010
|Location||Paradise, Nevada, U.S.|
|Address||3571 South Las Vegas Boulevard|
|Opening date||August 5, 1966|
|No. of rooms||3,976|
|Total gaming space||124,181 sq ft (11,536.8 m2)|
|Signature attractions||Replica ancient Roman, Greek and Renaissance art
The Colosseum at Caesars Palace
The Forum Shops at Caesars
|Notable restaurants||Bacchanal Buffet
Beijing Noodle No. 9
Bobby Flay's Mesa Grill
Gordon Ramsay Pub & Grill
Old Homestead Steakhouse
Payard Pâtisserie & Bistro
Restaurant Guy Savoy
Searsucker Las Vegas
|Owner||Caesars Entertainment Corporation|
|Renovated in||1974, 1979, 1992, 2001, 2005, 2011, 2015|
Caesars Palace is a AAA Four Diamond luxury hotel and casino in Paradise, Nevada, United States. The hotel is situated on the west side of the Las Vegas Strip between Bellagio and The Mirage, it is one of the most prestigious casino hotels in the world and one of Las Vegas's largest and best known landmarks.
Caesars Palace was established in 1966 by Jay Sarno, who sought to create an opulent facility that gave guests a sense of life during the Roman Empire, it contains many statues, columns, and iconography typical of Hollywood Roman period productions including a 20-foot (6.1 m) statue of Julius Caesar near the entrance. Caesars Palace is now owned and operated by Caesars Entertainment Corporation. As of July 2016, the hotel has 3,976 rooms and suites in six towers and a convention facility of over 300,000 square feet (28,000 m2). The hotel has a large range of restaurants, among them are several which serve authentic Chinese cuisine to cater to wealthy East Asian gamblers. From the outset, Caesars Palace has been oriented towards attracting high rollers, the modern casino facilities include table games such as blackjack, craps, roulette, baccarat, Spanish 21, mini-baccarat, Pai Gow, and Pai Gow poker. The casino also features a 4,500-square-foot (420 m2) 24-hour poker room; and a large number of slot machines and video poker machines.
The hotel has operated as a host venue for live music and sports entertainment; in addition to holding boxing matches since the late 1970s, Caesars also hosted the Caesars Palace Grand Prix from 1981 to 1982. Notable entertainers who have performed at Caesars Palace include Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis Jr., Dean Martin, Rod Stewart, Celine Dion, Shania Twain, Bette Midler, Cher, Elton John, Liberace, Diana Ross, Liza Minnelli, Julio Iglesias, Harry Belafonte, Lena Horne, Judy Garland, David Copperfield, Tony Bennett, Gloria Estefan, Luis Miguel, Janet Jackson, Jerry Seinfeld, Mariah Carey, Matt Goss, and Deana Martin. The main performance venue is The Colosseum, the stadium seats 4,296 people and contains a 22,450-square-foot (2,086 m2) stage. The stage was a special construction for Celine Dion's show, A New Day..., in 2003. After departing in 2007, Dion returned to the Colosseum with her new show entitled "Celine" on March 15, 2011, which is under contract through June 9, 2018 for 65 shows per year.
- 1 History
- 2 Architecture
- 3 Entertainment
- 4 Restaurants
- 4.1 Gordon Ramsay Pub & Grill
- 4.2 Bacchanal Buffet
- 4.3 Nobu Restaurant
- 4.4 Old Homestead Steakhouse
- 4.5 Rao's
- 4.6 Bobby Flay's Mesa Grill
- 4.7 Searsucker Las Vegas
- 4.8 Beijing Noodle No. 9
- 4.9 Serendipity 3
- 4.10 Restaurant Guy Savoy
- 4.11 Payard Pâtisserie & Bistro
- 4.12 Spago
- 4.13 Central Michel Richard
- 4.14 Café Americano
- 4.15 Mr. Chow
- 5 In popular culture
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
In 1962, cabana motel owners Jay Sarno and Stanley Mallin applied for a $10.6 million loan from the Teamsters Central States Pension Fund. He began plans to build a hotel on land owned by Kirk Kerkorian. Sarno would later act as designer of the hotel he planned to construct, his vision was to emulate life under the Roman Empire. The objective of the palace was to ensure an atmosphere in which everybody staying at the hotel would feel like a Caesar. Caesars Palace was instrumental in beginning a new era of lavish casinos from the late 1960s onward. Architectural writer, Alan Hess, stated: "Caesars Palace needed only a sumptuous array of Classical statuary and a host of marble-white columns to establish its theme, the visitor's imagination, in league with well-placed publicity, filled in the opulence". Jefferson Graham wrote that the result was "the gaudiest, weirdest, most elaborate, and most talked about resort Vegas had ever seen. [Its] emblem was a chesty female dipping grapes into the waiting mouth of a recumbent Roman, fitted out in toga, laurel wreath, and phallic dagger".
The inauguration ceremony was held on August 5, 1966. Sarno and his partner, Nate Jacobsen, spent one million dollars on the event, the cost included "the largest order of Ukrainian caviar ever placed by a private organization", two tons of filet mignon, 300 pounds (140 kg) of Maryland crabmeat and 50,000 glasses of champagne. Cocktail waitresses in Greco-Roman wigs would greet guests and say "Welcome to Caesars Palace, I am your slave", among the performers at the opening were Andy Williams and Phil Richards. According to author Ovid Demaris, Caesars Palace was "a mob-controlled casino from the day it opened its doors". By the time it opened, the significant publicity of the new hotel had generated $42 million in advanced bookings.
On December 31, 1967, stunt performer Evel Knievel arrived at the hotel to watch a boxing match and convinced Sarno that he could jump over the distance of 140 feet (43 m) over the fountains. ABC came in to film the jump, in which Knievel hit the top of the safety ramp after the jump and flew over his handlebars into the parking lot of neighbouring Dunes. Fracturing his pelvis, several bones and suffering a concussion, he lay in a hospital unconscious for 29 days in a coma before recovering, on April 14, 1989, Knievel's son Robbie successfully completed the jump.
The first casino at the hotel was named Circus Circus, it was intended to be the world's liveliest and most expensive casino, attracting elite gamblers from around the world.  In 1969, a Federal Organized Crime Task Force accused the casino's financial manager, Jerome Zarowitz, of having ties with organized-crime figures in New York and New England, although Zarowitz was never tried, the task force pressured Sarno and his other investors to sell the casino, which led to it being acquired by Lum's restaurant chain owners Stuart and Clifford S. Perlman for $60 million. The company soon shed its restaurant operations and changed its name to Caesars World, on July 15 of that year, executives lay ground on an expansion area of the hotel, and they buried a time capsule in the area.
Frank Sinatra began performing at Caesars Palace in 1967, after a fallout with Howard Hughes and Carl Cohen at The Sands. He signed a three-year contract; in the early morning hours of September 6, 1970, Sinatra was playing a high stakes baccarat at the casino, where he was performing at the time. Normal limits for the game are US$2,000 per hand; Sinatra had been playing for US$8,000 and wanted the stakes to be raised to US$16,000. When Sinatra began shouting after his request was denied, hotel executive Sanford Waterman came to talk with him. Witnesses to the incident said the two men both made threats, with Waterman producing a gun and pointing it at Sinatra. Sinatra walked out of the casino and returned to his Palm Springs home without fulfilling the rest of his three-week engagement there. Waterman was booked on a charge of assault with a deadly weapon, but was released without bail, the local district attorney's office declined to file charges against Waterman for pulling the gun, stating that Sinatra had refused to make a statement regarding the incident. Despite swearing to never perform at Caesars again,  Sinatra returned after his retirement in January 1974, and became a frequent performer at Caesars Palace throughout the decade, he was performing at Caesars when his mother Dolly died in a plane crash in January 1977, and in 1979 he was awarded the Grammy Trustees Award in a party at the hotel, while celebrating 40 years in show business and his 64th birthday. When Sinatra was given back his gaming license by the Nevada Gaming Commission in 1981, he became an entertainment-public relations consultant at the casino for $20,000 a week.
In 1971, some 1500 African American rights activists stormed the hotel in a protest, the National Welfare Rights Organization was involved with a "coalition of welfare mothers, Legal Services lawyers, radical priests and nuns, civil rights leaders, movie stars and housewives". Five years later in the spring of 1976, hundreds of African American workers went on strike at the hotel in the first major strike in Las Vegas history, the entrances to the hotel and casino were blocked, and the hotel lost several million dollars from the strike, including one cancellation worth $500,000. In 1973, the Del Webb corporation was contracted to build a $8 million 16-story building adjacent to the Palace.
In 1981, a fire broke out at the hotel, hospitalizing 16 people, the Perlmans sold their shares in Caesars World that year after trying to get a gaming license for a casino in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The New Jersey Casino Control Commission accused the brothers of doing business with people who had organized-crime connections.
In 1986, the annual Teamsters convention was held at Caesars with a $650,000 party, the lavish feast included caviar, crab claws, roast beef and a range of 15 different desserts. In 1991, Sheila King won a $250,000 jackpot in the casino at Caesars Palace on a $500 machine, and won $50,000 twice soon afterwards, over three years she won $200 million on the machines but kept pumping the money back into the machines. Despite her luck, in 1994 her winnings fell to $500,000, and she spent much of her time over the next four years in the law courts claiming that the casino operators had tampered with her machines and deceived her to keep her winning.
In the 1990s, the hotel's management sought to create more elaborate features to compete with the other modern Las Vegas developments. The Forum Shops at Caesars opened in 1992; it was one of the first venues in the city where shopping, particularly at high-end fashion house stores, was an attraction in itself. A new redevelopment opened on October 22, 2004.
In June 2005, Harrah's Entertainment acquired Caesars Entertainment, Inc. and became the owner of Caesars Palace. In 2010, Caesars Palace was fined $250,000 by the Nevada Gaming Commission for permitting a high-limit baccarat player to dance on the card table while the game was underway; in 2013, Forbes Travel Guide named The Laurel Collection by Caesars Palace and Restaurant Guy Savoy on its "55th annual listing of Star Award-winning hospitality establishments worldwide". In September 2015, Caesars Palace agreed to pay the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network an $8 million civil money penalty for violating the Bank Secrecy Act.
Jeff Campbell of Lonely Planet refers to the hotel as "quintessentially Las Vegas", a "Greco-Roman fantasyland featuring marble reproductions of classical statuary", the art deco style fused with clear influences from Hollywood epic productions dominate. Construction of the 14-story Caesars Palace hotel on the 34-acre (14 ha) site began in 1962, and it opened in 1966. It lay next to Dunes Hotel and opposite the Desert Inn, the original hotel featured lanes of cypresses and marble columns as part of a 900 feet (270 m) frontage, with the hotel set back 475 feet (145 m) . The car park could accommodate up to 1300 cars.
Water is heavily used for at least 18 fountains throughout—the casino resort uses over 240 million gallons a year. A 20 feet (6.1 m) high statue of Julius Caesar hailing a taxi lies in the driveway leading to the entrance, and there are replicas of Rape of the Sabine Women and statues of Venus and David which greet guests as they arrive. Near the entrance is a four-faced, eight-handed Brahma shrine which weighs four tons, It was made in Bangkok, Thailand, with a casting ceremony on November 25, 1983, according to the inscription on it.
Julius Tower (formerly Roman Tower)
A $75 million renovation of the hotel's original Roman Tower, built in 1966 and extended in 1974, is slated for completion in January 2016, the 14-story Tower, last renovated in 2001, will have 20 rooms added for a total of 587 rooms and suites, and will be renamed the Julius Tower. Entertainment Close-Up wrote that the Julius Tower is the "latest piece of a $1 billion investment to cement Caesars Palace as the premier resort at the center of the Las Vegas Strip".
Nobu Tower (formerly Centurion Tower)
The 14-story Centurion Tower was completed in 1970 at a cost of $4.2 million. In 2011 it was announced that the tower would be renovated and be renamed to Nobu, and to operate as the first Nobu Hotel with a restaurant, the concept was that the tower was to be a boutique hotel within the resort. Because the exterior was unchanged, the interior with only 181 rooms, small by Vegas standards, is more spacious with bigger rooms than the standard hotel, the motif is Asian luxury with high end amenities, including a sake bar and strict security which uses optical scanners. Each room has a sitting area, a spacious bedroom with black lacquered furniture and artworks, the bathroom contains a double-sized stall with a teak shower stall, black tiles and a large rain-style showerhead. Luxury toiletries like razors and shaving cream, dental kit and other high-end products exceed the usual offerings at US hotels. Electronics include charging devices and flat screen TVs with multiple outlets throughout the room.
At check-in a dedicated bellhop staff will retrieve a customer's luggage from their prior hotel, airport, etc. so that the customer is not left waiting for luggage arrival. A complimentary Japanese tea service greets each guest upon check-in, featuring green tea and special rice crackers, as a security feature, the elevators must be operated from the outside with a room key. There are no buttons inside the elevators themselves. Other services include 24-hour in-room dining and access to the spa. WiFi access and shoeshine services are available for an additional charge.
Rooms in the Forum Tower, opened in 1979, are furnished with queen- or king-size beds, a writing desk with a leather chair, and armchairs. There are two LCD televisions in each room, one in the sitting area and one in the bathroom. A two-floor Emperors Suite includes two master bedrooms and a dining area.
Opened in 1998, the 29-story Palace Tower, adjacent to the Garden of the Gods pool oasis, mirrors the Greco-Roman theme of the hotel with fluted columns and Corinthian columns and pediments on its facade and fountains and statues scattered around its interior space. Its 1,134 rooms and suites range from 500–750 square feet (46–70 m2) in size, each with 9 feet (2.7 m) high ceilings, a sitting area, a writing desk and chair, and spa tub. The lower levels of the Palace Tower house the spa and fitness center, and 110,000 square feet (10,000 m2) of banquet and meeting space, including a 30,000 square feet (2,800 m2) ballroom.
Plans for the Augustus Tower began in 2003 and were consolidated in 2004 with the architects Bergman Walls Associates, the expansion at a cost of $289 million US included a 26-story, 345-foot-tall tower, as well as an addition of new convention and meeting facilities at the resort. A restaurant located on the ground floor, serving breakfast, lunch and dinner features the first restaurant located outside of Paris for Michelin starred chef Guy Savoy. The tower also includes terraces overlooking the Roman plaza, night clubs and three wedding chapels.
The Augustus opened in 2005 with 949 rooms, which were designed for more upscale luxury and service than the other parts of the resort, it is accessed through a private small lobby separate from the main Caesars' entrance. The rooms feature 9-foot ceilings with hotel chambers beginning at about 650 square feet (60 m2), and going up to 2470 square feet for the largest suites. All feature spa tubs and televisions in the bathrooms. One of the highlights of the space is that the rooms view the Garden of the Gods pool area, on the second floor of the tower is a spa containing Roman baths of hot, cold and tepid pools; relaxing chaise longues sculpted of stone, which are underwater in the heated pool; and 51 separate therapy rooms. This tower, along with the Octavius Tower, forms a part of the 'Laurel Collection', Caesars boutique experience on the property, it features private elevator banks and exclusive Laurel Collection key cards.
The Octavius Tower opened in January 2012, the 668-room tower was added as part of a $860-million expansion. The tower shares a lobby with the Augustus Tower, the smallest rooms in the tower start at 550 square feet (51 m2). According to Forbes they "feel modern and spacious, with an earthy palette of brown, taupe and gray accented by splashes of lime green and bright red. Bathrooms are spacious and loaded with marble floors, whirlpool tubs and double sinks, along with flatscreen TVs."
The pools at Caesars Palace are unlike others in Las Vegas and are modeled after the Roman baths, the main pool is the Garden of the Gods, an oasis that the Palace website describes as a "collection of exclusive watering holes, decadent cabanas and lavish sunbathing spots". The Temple Pool is known for its central statuary and columns, while the Neptune Pool features eight cabanas and 12 daybeds and chaise longue chairs, the Apollo Pool in the southwest is one of the most exposed pools to the sun and has five cabanas and four daybeds and the Bacchus Pool with eight daybeds and eight cabanas, named after the Roman God of Wine. The most exclusive pool is the Venus Pool, a 10,000 square feet (930 m2) retreat with 14 cabanas, 16 daybeds, 10 couches and numerous lounge chairs.
The Forum Shops
The mall's spiral staircase consists of spiral escalators and is one of 103 similar escalators in the world, the mall also contains many replicas of famous fountains. The Fall of Atlantis fountain uses special effects and 9 feet (2.7 m) animated figures to tell the story of the Myth of Atlantis.
With many high-end boutiques including Cartier, Chanel, Calvin Klein, Dior, Emporio Armani, Gucci, Ted Baker, Tiffany and Co, Valentino and Versace, it is the highest grossing mall in the United States, with higher sales per square foot than Rodeo Drive in Beverly Hills, California. The mall, which was 280,000 square feet at its 1992 opening, was expanded by 500,000 square feet in 1997. A third expansion, which began in 2002, added another 200,000 square feet to the property, the Forum Shops property is considered to be the most valuable real estate in Las Vegas.
The original hotel tower had 680 rooms, and each featured a room with one wall which was fully mirrored from floor to ceiling, the hotel featured an 800-seat theatre restaurant and three public dining areas, two health clubs, an epicurean room, a convention hall of up to 2000 people and 20 separate halls and committee rooms, accommodating up to 5000 people in total. Marble was imported from Italy, rosewood from Brazil, with gold leafing throughout the place.
As of 2015, the hotel has 3,960 rooms and suites in six towers and a convention facility of over 300,000 square feet (28,000 m2). In addition to its regular rooms and suites, Caesars Palace offers penthouse suites, with a living room, dining room, and up to four bedrooms, and 14 villa suites named after notable Romans. Amenities include "billiard tables, Yamaha pianos, DirecTV, XM satellite radio, and JBL surround stereo systems". Villa suites, encompassing more than 9,000 square feet (840 m2) of floor space, include luxurious furnishings, private swimming pools, and butler service. Each villa has its own theme, including "a Spanish villa, a Greek palace, and a villa decorated to look like an expensive Paris apartment". Notwithstanding the $35,000 per night tariff, the villas are in high demand during peak season.
A number of Roman statues were imported from Florence, Italy, valued at over $150,000. Statues of Julius Caesar and emperors such as Augustus and Nero are particularly common at the Palace. There are many variations of Augustus throughout, including two copies of the Prima Porta Augustus. Author Margaret Malamud notes the contrast between his "sober and pious figure" in the Olympic Lounge and the "statue of Nero and his lyre with which it is paired". There is a 25 feet (7.6 m) statue of the goddess Fortuna. One statue of David in the interior is an exact replica of an early 16th-century Michelangelo masterpiece, standing 18 feet (5.5 m) high and weighing over nine tons.
Caesars Forum and gambling facilities
Caesars Forum is the original casino of the hotel which opened in 1966 with 30 gaming tables and 250 slot machines, it contains 20 black Italian marble columns with white marble and gold leaf trimmings. Friezes and statues depict Roman conquests, and women motifs are prevalent; in the centre is a flat ornate dome with an "enormous chandelier in the shape of a Roman medallion, made of 100,000 handmade and handpolished crystals" on the ceiling. It reportedly held the world record at the time for the world's largest crystal ceiling fixture, the cocktail waitresses, as of 2005, still wear the same uniform which was designed by Jay Sarno: white, off-the-shoulder mini-tunics with high-heeled Roman sandals.
From the outset, Caesars Palace has been oriented towards attracting the high rollers, and like many of the other top Las Vegas casinos attracts the elite of the elite who stop in on weekends with hundreds of thousands of dollars at their disposal. The modern casino facilities include table games such as Blackjack, Craps, Roulette, Baccarat, Spanish 21, Mini-Baccarat, Pai Gow and Pai Gow poker. Caesars Palace's 4,500 square feet (420 m2) 24-hour poker room currently lies in heart of the gaming floor between The Colosseum and the Race & Sports Book, where racing and sports bets are put on. It moved there in June 2014, when Pure Nightclub underwent an expansion and annexed its space, as of December 2015 it contains 16 tables with free Wi-Fi and USB charging ports. There are a large number of traditional reel-type slot machines, video reels machine, video poker games, video blackjack or keno, in which participants can play from 1¢ to $500. One author noted that due to the combination of darkness and enclosure of the gambling room, never being lit with light from the outside, it "disorients the occupant in space and time", and one "loses track of where he is and when it is".
Music and showmanship
Many top international performers, such as Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis Jr., Rod Stewart, Celine Dion, Cher, Bette Midler, Liberace, Liza Minnelli, Elton John, George Burns, Pat Cooper, Diana Ross, Paul Anka, Julio Iglesias, Judy Garland, David Copperfield, Stevie Nicks, Dolly Parton, Tony Bennett, Gloria Estefan, Phyllis Diller, Luis Miguel, Janet Jackson, Shania Twain, Jerry Seinfeld, Harry Belafonte, Louie Anderson, Ricky Martin, Mariah Carey, Deana Martin, B.B. King, Pilita Corrales and Matt Goss have performed at the hotel.
Caesars Magical Empire
In mid-1996, a new venue known as "Caesars Magical Empire" was created on the property, showcasing major magicians such as Michael Ammar, Jon Armstrong, Lee Asher, Whit Haydn,, Jeff "Magnus" McBride, and Alain Nu . The "Empire" was an extravagantly-themed immersive dining and entertainment experience, housed in a 66,000 sq ft (6,100 m2) specially-built building, designed to serve 2,400 people daily. The interior of the entire complex was decorated in a combination of pseudo cave-and-classic architecture, with faux rock-work and stone, passageways, and real marble floors, it closed on November 30, 2002, after which the structure was razed to make room for a large concert hall created for singer Celine Dion.
The Colosseum at Caesars
The Colosseum at Caesars Palace is a 4,296-seat entertainment venue with a 22,450 square feet (2,086 m2)stage, which was originally built at a cost of $95-million for Celine Dion's show, A New Day..., in 2003. An enormous success, the Colosseum show was soon earning almost $175,000 on average per night and grossed $500 million in four years, the venue has since hosted performances by numerous other artists. Gloria Estefan performed a special seven-day concert in October 2003 for the launch of her album Unwrapped, titled Live & Unwrapped. In May 2007, Bette Midler was announced as Dion's formal replacement, performing 100 shows a year, with Elton John continuing to perform his popular Red Piano show 50 nights a year while Midler was on hiatus. After taking a three-year hiatus, Cher, following her Farewell Tour, returned to Caesars Palace with a three-year contract, performing 200 shows beginning May 6, 2008.
On May 26, 2009, U.S President Barack Obama performed in the Colosseum in the one-night show A Good Fight alongside Sheryl Crow, Bette Midler and Rita Rudner to fundraise for Nevada's senator Harry Reid re-election campaign. Several streets were closed and the Augustus tower was blocked as security precautions by the Secret Service during the visit; in March 2011, Celine Dion returned to The Colosseum with her new show entitled "Celine", which is under contract for 70 shows per year, through 2017.
Absinthe is a live show that premiered on April 1, 2011 on the forecourt of the hotel. The show is hosted by The Gazillionaire, played by actor and former Cirque du Soleil clown Voki Kalfayan and his assistant, Penny Pibbets, portrayed by actress Anais Thomassian. A contemporary circus, the show is described by Stage and Cinema as "an uneasy cross between terrific variety acts and a stag party" and Lonely Planet as an "experimental new breed of raucous variety show with an explicitly erotic vibe", which "mixes bawdy and surreal comedy with burlesque, cabaret and Cirque du Soleil-style acrobatics, all roped together by the foul-mouthed emcee Gazillionaire". The show is performed outside in a Spiegeltent on a 9 feet (2.7 m) diameter stage. The tent accommodates 600 persons who are seated on folding chairs circled around the stage.
The Pussycat Dolls Lounge
The Pussycat Dolls Lounge, an adjunct of the Pure Nightclub, opened at Caesars Palace in 2005. The lounge was patterned after a vintage strip club, the club's center was a stage where dancers called the Pussycat Girls clad in fishnet hose and corsets, began a new dance show every half hour. Celebrities like Paris Hilton and Christina Aguilera occasionally danced as "guest pussycats".
In 2007, Caesars Palace opened a Pussycat Dolls Casino directly across from the Pussycat Dolls Lounge, some of the casino's gaming tables featured legs made to resemble a woman's leg with high heels and fishnet hose. Casino dealers wore custom-designed costumes, but the main attraction was the oval pit at the casino's center, where two go-go dancers in cages performed in response to the music, at the end of February 2010, the Pussycat Dolls left the Pure nightclub for a new lounge at the Chateau nightclub, which is part of Paris Las Vegas.
The Omnia (Latin for "[the sum of] all things") nightclub, opened in March 2015, replaces the Pure nightclub which operated here for over a decade, the $107 million expansion and redesign incorporates both the 34,000 square feet (3,200 m2) Pure facility and the adjacent World of Poker tournament room to create a 75,000 square feet (7,000 m2) space that can accommodate 3,500 people. Designed by the Rockwell Group, the club is outfitted with high-tech theatrical lighting, sound, and climate-control systems, along with extensive rigging and catwalks for aerial performers. Two bars overlook the dance floor, while the terrace affords views of the Las Vegas Strip, the nightclub-within-a-nightclub concept has "super DJs" performing on their own stages while "special DJs" perform in a mini-nightclub called the "Heart of Omnia". The top DJs performing in 2015 included Afrojack, Armin van Buuren, Chuckie, Nicky Romero, Krewella, Calvin Harris, and Steve Angello.
The much-photographed replica of Cleopatra's Barge houses a bar and lounge that opened at Caesars Palace in 1970, the venue offers an opportunity to experience classic Las Vegas; Rat Pack members Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin often visited the Barge, with Sinatra occasionally singing there after his own shows.
Cleopatra's Barge opens at noon and functions as a lounge until 9:15pm; it then becomes a nightclub with no cover charge until 2:15 am. Resident headliner Matt Goss has worked at the Barge since 2010.; Goss performs on the Barge on Tuesdays, Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays; on those days the lounge is renamed The Gossy Room.
The Caesars Palace Grand Prix car race (a Formula One World Championship event) was held at the car park of Caesars Palace in 1981 and 1982. The new race proved to be a financial disaster, and was not popular among the drivers, primarily because of the desert heat and its counter-clockwise direction, which put a tremendous strain on the drivers' necks. When Nelson Piquet clinched his first World Championship by finishing fifth in 1981, it took him fifteen minutes to recover from heat exhaustion, the 1982 race was won by Michele Alboreto in a Tyrrell, but the race was not renewed for the following season due to poor attendance; the following two years a CART (IndyCar) event was run, with Mario Andretti and Tom Sneva winning, before the open-wheel event was permamently dropped.
The New Yorker writes that Caesars Palace was "dubbed the Home of Champions after hosting decades of events like boxing matches, auto races, and volleyball tournaments". Many championship boxing matches have been held in Caesars Outdoor Arena since the late 1970s, it hosted fights between George Foreman and Ron Lyle in January 1976, Roberto Durán and Esteban de Jesús in January 1978, Larry Holmes and Muhammad Ali in October 1980, Holmes and Gerry Cooney in June 1982, and an amateur fight between Shane Mosley and Shannan Taylor in March 1984 In April 1987, the 15,356-seat arena at Caesars Palace hosted "The Super Fight" boxing match between Sugar Ray Leonard and Marvin Hagler. Two bouts between Evander Holyfield and Riddick Bowe were contested here, including Evander Holyfield vs. Riddick Bowe in November 1992, and a revenge match a year later in which Holyfield took the title, and he had several bouts with Michael Moorer at Caesars Palace, including Evander Holyfield vs. Michael Moorer in April 1994 for the WBA, IBF and Lineal Heavyweight Championships. On October 2, 2004, big-time boxing returned to the Palace, when Wladimir Klitschko and former Olympian Jeff Lacy headlined a card televised on Showtime at the Palace's new outdoor amphitheatre.
Caesars Palace has played host to a number of professional wrestling events throughout the 1990s, the most notable of which is WWE's WrestleMania IX in April 1993 which capitalized on the Roman theme of the venue. Billed as the "Worlds Largest Toga Party" it remains to this day the only WrestleMania with a particular theme. WCW also held a series of events at Caesars Palace, including Clash of the Champions XXX in January 1995 as well as COTC XXXII and an episode of WCW Monday Nitro, each in January 1996.
The arena also held one of its more interesting events during the summer of 1991: a pre-season game between the New York Rangers and Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League. A rink was laid out over the parking lot and held firm despite 95-degree temperatures. Behind a goal from Wayne Gretzky, the Kings came back from a 2–0 deficit to win 5–2 before a crowd of over 13,000, the game served as a predecessor to both the Frozen Fury (the Kings' annual preseason game in Las Vegas that began in 1997) and the Winter Classic (the annual regular season game played outdoors on New Year's Day that began in 2008).
||This article contains content that is written like an advertisement. (February 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Gordon Ramsay Pub & Grill
Gordon Ramsay Pub & Grill is an upscale English pub environment featuring casual dining and sporting events aired on satellite equipment. The 290 cover restaurant opened in December 2012 next to the Colosseum, replacing a restaurant by chef Bradley Ogden. Ramsay said of the decision to launch the pub and grill and his BurGR restaurant at the Planet Hollywood Resort & Casino: "The two things missing on the strip were a great burger restaurant and an authentic pub & grill, so we're very excited to offer these two very different, but equally vibrant new restaurants in Vegas for guests to enjoy". There are approximately 100 different beers served and the cuisine is designed to pair well with beer. Classic pub-style dishes favored by Ramsay include fish and chips, bangers and mash, English ale onion soup, shepherd's pie, as well as grilled offerings including aged beef rib eye, brick pressed Cornish chicken, lamb T-bone, and Scottish salmon, the featured desert is spotted dog.
Seating up to 600.
The Nobu Restaurant features an Asian motif and is spaciously arranged with only round tables, granting larger aisles than square tables would. Large paper lamps in jellyfish images hang from the ceiling. Seating is available in the main dining area, the sushi bar, along a couple of high kitchen tables, or in a private dining area. There are also two teppanyaki grill tables, which serve as either a traditional grill or in combination with the menu and dishes from the main kitchen; in addition to chef Nobu Matsuhisa's signature dishes featuring black cod in miso sauce, rock shrimp tempura, and yellowtail sashimi the menu has variations on the dishes which are not available at other Nobu restaurants, as well as an exclusive list of sakes available nowhere else in the U.S.
Old Homestead Steakhouse
The Old Homestead Steakhouse is the first west-coast location of a New York institution which has been open for 140 years. Designed by San Francisco architects, EDG Interior Architecture + Design 250 to reflect its original roots in the Meatpacking District of New York City, the iconic spotted cow, Annabelle, which greets customers in New York, has also been replicated. Dark woods and leather booths set the ambiance of the 250-seat dining room, private dining area, lounge and bar in a space of approximately 6,000 square feet (560 m2). Signature dishes from New York, including a 32-ounce Gotham rib steak, a dry-aged porterhouse, filet mignon and an 18-ounce empire cut of prime rib, are featured, as well as a raw bar with an assortment of seafood dishes. Just-for-Vegas entrees include Kobe meatballs and a prime short rib in wine sauce. Sides feature duck fat fries, mashed potatoes with truffles or lobster meat, tater tots with Fat Boy sauce (sour cream mixed with cheese and bacon bits) and desserts like doughnut bread pudding, chocolate cake, or a chocolate chip cookie "baked in a cast iron skillet". The restaurant also has a full wine bar with over 15,000 bottles to choose from as well as cocktails.
Rao's opened in 2006, the second branch of the restaurant after New York City to open, the New York institution which is practically a private club in New York City, is available to the public at Caesars. Rao's in Vegas is owned by the same cousins who own the New York establishment and is not a franchise, the food is traditional Italian fare, hearty, reliably good, and fresh. Signature dishes include orange-sized, "lighter than air" meatballs in tomato sauce, lemon chicken, a veal chop with spicy cherry peppers, a roasted red-pepper and raisin salad and a seafood salad that won on the television program Throwdown! with Bobby Flay.
Bobby Flay's Mesa Grill
Flay's first restaurant venture outside New York, Bobby Flay's Mesa Grill was opened at Caesars in 2004 and features bold, southwestern cuisine. Serving lunch and dinner, the menu includes shrimp and roasted corn or sweet potato and pecan tamales, spice-rubbed pork tenderloin with ancho chili sauce and a variety of steak, seafood and duck dishes, it has room for 200 covers in the main dining room, with an additional 50 seats in a private dining room. The entire space, including the kitchen area comprises 9,000 square feet (840 m2). The interior of the main dining room is designed by David Rockwell and features a rotisserie reaching a height of 20 feet (6.1 m) above the diners.
Since first opening, the menu at the restaurant has continued to be tweaked and updated. Following the 10 year anniversary of the opening of the restaurant, Flay explained that he hadn't simply copied his New York-based restaurant and placed it in Caesars Palace but instead sought to create a "sort of Las Vegas version of the concept" featuring more luxury items on the menus and with more unusual combinations of food as he feels that diners in Vegas expect more.
Searsucker Las Vegas
Chef Brian Malarkey opened Searsucker Las Vegas – the fourth branch of the restaurant after San Diego, Del Mar, California, and Austin, Texas – in March 2015. The 7,500 square feet (700 m2) dining area has a "retro Americana" theme, with "cowboy culture" motifs reflected throughout the furnishings and paintings designed by Thomas Schoos. With signature dishes such as "green eggs and ham" ("braised pork belly with a soft-poached egg on brioche with a brown butter hollandaise"), "38-ounce bone-in ribeye tomahawk steak", "beer-braised short rib", and "shrimp and grits", the restaurant stresses a social dining atmosphere with dishes that are meant to be shared. Located next to the Omnia nightclub, the restaurant is also taking reservations until 2:00–2:30 AM on weekends and developing a late-night menu with smaller portions, including "hamachi tostada", "cucumber jalapeno ceviche", and "shrimp ceviche". There is seating for 170, including a private dining room and bar.
Beijing Noodle No. 9
Due to a significant wealthy East Asian clientele of gamblers which the casino attracts, it is a restaurant with Chinese chefs serving authentic Chinese cuisine, the bright and luminous interior contains no direct lighting; rather, an overhead metal-cut white screen and large aquariums filled with goldfish are all backlit by LED bulbs. Halogen track lighting spotlights each table. The lighting system won a commendation from Architectural Lighting magazine in its 2009 AL Design Awards, the authors of Eating Las Vegas 2012 wrote: "Combining classic Chinese peasant and street food with a super-cool design, the place looks like it's been draped in a gigantic white, transparent metal doily, and is meant to resemble either inverted Chinese lace cut into an arabesque pattern or the inside of an inverted bird's nest – all very symbolic and all very Chinese. The food is fabulous, especially the Imperial seafood-soup dumplings (which everyone comes for) and the Chef's Special beef pancake".
Serendipity 3 was a 1950s style diner, featuring burgers, fries and ice cream delicacies. Portions were extremely large, the ice cream parlor themed restaurant, which was a branch of the New York City Serendipity 3 establishment, opened in 2009. In addition to seating in the dining area and counter seating, there was a patio with views of the Strip and the Caesars Palace fountains. Besides its giant hamburger, the restaurant was known for its Triple Decker Grilled Cheese sandwich and a The Hangover omelet made with bacon, cheese, French fries, and mushrooms. Ice cream sundaes featured a choice of toppings including butterscotch sauce, chocolate sauce, hot fudge, marshmallow sauce, Oreo kisses, peanut butter sauce, rainbow sprinkles, raspberry sauce, etc. Other options included Fried Twinkies, brownies, and the Golden Opulence sundae, an indulgent $1,000 US sundae, which holds the Guinness World Record for the Most Expensive Ice Cream Sundae in the World. It closed on January 2, 2017.
Restaurant Guy Savoy
The "culinary jewel" of the Augustus Tower is the Restaurant Guy Savoy, namesake of the three-star Michelin chef, whose restaurant in Paris has been ranked as one of the finest dining establishments in the world. When Savoy was approached to open a second restaurant in Vegas, he initially said no, until Caesars told him they wanted him to recreate what he had done in Paris with the same ambiance, quality and cuisine, his request was that to maintain quality, the restaurant must be limited to service five days a week, to which the management agreed. The restaurant opened in 2006 and in 2008, Savoy brought his executive chef from the Paris restaurant to Vegas, the establishment is managed by Savoy's son, Franck Savoy. The menu features signature dishes including artichoke and black truffle soup; buttered, roasted veal sweetbreads; crispy sea bass; and pan-seared quail, as main courses and dessert of chocolate ganache served with tonka beans. The wine cellar features 15,000 bottles from which to select and it is the only Champagne Krug Chef's Table restaurant in the United States.
By Vegas standards, the 75-seat restaurant is small, and the decor is understated, keeping the focus on the food. No flowers are allowed nor are the staff permitted to wear perfumes to eliminate competition with the aromas of the cuisine, the restaurant is open Wednesday through Sunday and closed on Monday and Tuesday. It has been rated with two Michelin stars, ranked as one of the best 101 Hotel Restaurants, been voted Restaurant of the year, and in 2015 was ranked by Gayot in its Top 40 Restaurants.
Payard Pâtisserie & Bistro
Under the direction of pastry chef and chocolatier François Payard, Payard Pâtisserie & Bistro at Caesars Palace encompasses a pastry shop, chocolate shop, and restaurant serving breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The interior of the 46-seat bistro was designed by the Rockwell Group with "hand-crafted woodwork, crystal, blown glass and leather banquettes"; in 2008 the bistro installed a 16 feet (4.9 m) high "chocolate clock" that releases three chocolate truffles every quarter-hour. Signature dishes include "croque monsieur, croque madame, chocolate French toast with Nutella and banana, Black Angus beef burger with green peppercorn sauce, [and] house-made kettle chips and mixed greens". Custom-made crepes, sandwiches, cookies, and gelato may also be ordered for take away or to eat in a green area adjoining the pastry shop, the bistro was listed in Eating Las Vegas 2013: The 50 Essential Restaurants and its croque madame was named one of the 10 Best Sandwiches in Las Vegas by Las Vegas Weekly in 2012.
In December 1992 Wolfgang Puck was the first celebrity chef to open an upscale restaurant in a Las Vegas gambling resort with Spago at Caesars Palace. Located in The Forum Shops arcade, the restaurant is divided into a cafe facing the shopping mall serving lighter, lower-cost dishes, and a more formal dining room to the rear. Under the direction of Executive Chef Eric Klein, the menu changes daily with seasonal American fare, such as "Roasted Organic Baby Beet and Goat Cheese Salad, Handmade Agnolotti, and Kobe Flat Iron Steak 'Hunan Style'", the restaurant has long been lauded for its pizzas, pastas, homemade sausages, burgers and braised ribs.
Central Michel Richard
Central Michel Richard was a 24-hour restaurant situated in the hotel lobby from 2011 to 2014; in addition to a bar, it featured indoor and outdoor dining, with menu offerings varying by the time of day. Established in 2011, it cost US$4.5 million to build-out and measured 10,000 square feet (930 m2) in size. Todd Harrington, executive chef, was chosen by Michel Richard, himself a James Beard Foundation Award-winning chef, to run the kitchen. Harrington had been the executive chef of Augustus Café, the restaurant which had previously operated in that location. Harrington left in December 2013, and in July 2014, the restaurant filed for bankruptcy protection, the restaurant closed in late 2014.
Café Americano occupies the former premises of Central Michel Richard, it was launched without an announcement or any mention on the hotel website in May 2015, in partnership with the V&E Restaurant Group of Miami. The 3,585 square feet (333.1 m2) restaurant and bar in the hotel lobby, open 24 hours, serves seven kinds of pizza, including the Whole Hog pizza made with "pork belly, andouille, pulled pork, pecan-smoked bacon, house-pickled jalapeños, mozzarella, cheddar and a lightly sweet guava barbecue sauce", an octopus-inspired pizza made with "octopus cured in olive oil, pesto, mozzarella, arugula, Grana Pedano and roasted cipollini onions", and a meat and cheese creation with "San Marzano tomatoes, hand-cut pepperoni, andouille sausage, braised short ribs, vinegar peppers, whiskey onions, mozzarella and a fried egg". The "diverse" menu also includes soups, sandwiches, burgers, and a "skinny menu" with under-500-calorie entrées.
A Mr. Chow restaurant opened at the hotel on December 15, 2015. The 277-seat Chinese fine dining establishment, which accommodates diners in a main room, two private rooms, and terrace seating, occupies the second floor of the hotel and has a view of the Garden of the Gods pool area, it features living room-style furnishings and a "suspended kinetic sculpture" design element beneath a 60 feet (18 m) high domed ceiling. The food, prepared by chefs native to Hong Kong, is served communal-style in the pattern of a traditional family banquet, with one person placing the orders for everyone. Signature dishes include "Beijing duck, fried Gambei seaweed, and Mr. Chow Noodles".
In popular culture
Caesars Palace has been a location in numerous films, it has appeared in films such as Hells Angels on Wheels (1967), Where It's At (1969), The Only Game in Town (1970), The Electric Horseman (1979), Rocky III (1982), Oh, God! You Devil (1984), You Ruined My Life (1987), Rain Man (1988), Hearts Are Wild (1992), Fools Rush In (1997), The Strip (1999), Ocean's Eleven (2001), Intolerable Cruelty (2003), Dreamgirls (2006), Iron Man (2008), The Hangover (2009) The Hangover Part III (2013) and Step Up: All In (2014). In television it has appeared in series such as The Partridge Family, the Viva Ned Flanders episode of The Simpsons, The Sopranos, Friends and Keeping Up With the Kardashians. It houses the studio of the American version of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire since 2016.
- Caesars Atlantic City
- Caesars Windsor
- Caesars Entertainment Corporation
- List of Caesars Entertainment properties
- Germain 1998, p. 68.
- Rich 2005, p. 201.
- "Caesars Palace". Casinotop10.net. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Vanderwilt 2007, p. 107.
- Land & Land 2004, p. 159.
- Schwartz 2013, p. 133.
- Hess 1993, p. 84.
- Land & Land 2004, p. 160.
- Joshel, Malamud & McGuire, Jr. 2005, p. 249.
- Papa 2009, p. 92.
- Gordon 2015, p. 18.
- Land & Land 2004, p. 162.
- Earley 2000, p. 66.
- Karasik, Ellen (April 28, 1979). "Getting a N.J. gambling license is not easy". Montreal Gazette. Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Jones, Chris (July 21, 2004). "Caesars Earns Niche in Gaming Pantheon". Casino City Times. Gaming Wire. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Browning, Norma Lee (July 21, 1969). "Hollywood Today". Chicago Tribune. p. 7. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Sheridan 2011, p. 54.
- Snyder, Jimmy "the Greek" (July 3, 1975). "Jimmy Despises Casino Gambling". San Antonio Express. p. 8. Retrieved December 4, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Ex-Casino Executive Carl Cohen; Noted for Punching Frank Sinatra". Los Angeles Times. December 30, 1986. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- New York. New York Magazine Company. 1974.
- "At Gunpoint Sinatra Ousted". The Odessa American (Odessa, Texas). September 7, 1970. p. 11. Retrieved October 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Caesars Palace Boss Arrested for Pulling Gun on Sinatra". The Evening Times (Sayre, Pennsylvania). September 8, 1970. p. 5. Retrieved October 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "No Charges Will be Filed in Sinatra Gun Incident". The Bridgeport Telegram (Bridgeport, Connecticut). September 17, 1970. p. 45. Retrieved October 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Kelley 1986, p. 436.
- Goldstein 1982, p. 123; Turner 2004, p. 173.
- Kelley 1986, p. 505.
- "Trustees Award". Grammy.org. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- "Gaming License In Nevada Goes to Sinatra With Praise". The New York Times. February 20, 1981. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Orleck 2005, p. 1.
- Orleck 2005, p. 245.
- Volume Feeding Institutions. Cahners. 1973. p. 27.
- "Three Injured In Vegas Fire Are Still Hospitalized". Santa Cruz Sentinel (Santa Cruz, California). April 2, 1981. p. 45. Retrieved December 4, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Lyall, Sarah (January 6, 1988). "Stuart Perlman, 60, Co-Founder Of Caesars World With Brother". New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Joshel, Malamud & McGuire, Jr. 2005, p. 256.
- Pulley, Brett (March 19, 1998). "Gambler Learns She Can't Beat the House in Court". The New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Mall of the Roman Empire – Vegas as Shopping Destination? Welcome to Caesar's New. . .". The Los Angeles Times. May 24, 1992. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "The Forum Shops at Caesars Palace". Business.simon.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Plunkett 2007, p. 218.
- "Card table dance costs Caesars Palace $250K". AP Worldstream, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). August 26, 2010. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Caesars Palace Gets 2 Forbes Star Awards". Travel & Leisure Close-Up, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). March 4, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Fincen Reaches $8 Million Settlement with Caesars Palace for Lax Anti-Money Laundering Controls on High Rollers". States News Service, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). September 8, 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Campbell 2008, p. 812.
- Malamud 2009, p. 238.
- Carey, William C. (April 9, 1967). "Caesar's Palace Latest Addition on Las Vegas' Fabulous Gaming Strip". The Post-Crescent (Appleton, Wisconsin). p. 7. Retrieved December 4, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- TOUR BOOK. 2003. p. 232.
- Ewing, McGowan & Speed 2010, p. 27.
- The Brahma Shrine at Caesars Palace, Markslasvegas.com, retrieved December 11, 2015
- Curtis, Anthony (November 6, 2015). "Vegas: Caesars tower gets $75 million renovation". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- Piercea, Kimberley (October 23, 2015). "Caesars Palace getting $75 million update despite bankruptcy". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- "Caesars Palace Las Vegas Introduces New $75 Million Julius Tower". Entertainment Close-Up, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). October 30, 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Las Vegas Hotels / Casinos: By Name". University of Nevada, Las Vegas Libraries. August 23, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Oskar Garcia (March 7, 2011). "Caesars Palace to revamp 180-room tower as Nobu". The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Olmsted, Larry (13 February 2013). "Hotel Test Drive: First Look At Nobu Hotel Las Vegas". Forbes. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- Potter, Heather. "Types of Rooms Available at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas". USA Today. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- 100 Hotels and Resorts: Destinations That Lift the Spirit. Images Publishing. p. 296. ISBN 1864701609.
- Smith, Rod (27 October 2004). "The $289 million 949-room Augustus Tower Will Boost Caesar Palace's Room Count to 3,349; Part of a Refurbishing Plan for the 37-year-old Megaresort". Las Vegas, Nevada: Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- Bickford 2006, p. 11.
- "Caesars Palace's New Luxury Tower Opens On The Strip". Forbes. January 17, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Sandler 2007, p. 54.
- Sehlinger et al. 2011, p. 91.
- Sehlinger et al. 2011, p. 92.
- "Garden of the Gods Pool Oasis". Caesars.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Caesars Palace". LinkedIn. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Moran, Lee (March 18, 2015). "world’s largest spiral escalator". New York Daily News. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- "Fall of Atlantis at Caesars Forum Shops Details & Tips". Vegas.com. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Esquire: The Magazine for Men. Esquire, Incorporated. November 2008. p. 106.
- Benson 2008, p. 115.
- Said, Sammy (July 10, 2013). "The 10 Most Profitable Shopping Centers in the World". The Richest. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Newman, Rick (June 26, 2009). "America's Most Profitable Malls". U.S. & World Report News. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Simon Property Group and Park Place Entertainment Announce Expansion of the Forum Shops At Caesars". Business Wire. April 22, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Jaschke & Ötsch 2003, p. 122.
- "Cleopatra’s Barge". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Alindahao, Karla (12 February 2015). "Inside Caesars Palace's Secret $35,000 Villas". Forbes. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "David". Statue of David plaque at Caesars Palace, Flickr photograph. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Joshel, Malamud & McGuire, Jr. 2005, p. 254.
- Joshel, Malamud & McGuire, Jr. 2005, p. 255.
- The United States Patents Quarterly. Associated Industry Publications. 1986. p. 596.
- "Las Vegas high rollers". Discovery. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Table games". Caesars.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Caesars Palace Poker Room Reopens". Uspoker.com. June 6, 2014. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Poker". Caesars.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Slots". Caesars.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- New York Magazine. New York Media, LLC. 15 July 1974. p. 36. ISSN 0028-7369.
- Ebony. Johnson Publishing Company. February 1976. p. 156. ISSN 0012-9011.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. July 2011. p. 3. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Herczog 2008, p. 248.
- Pyron 2013, p. 378.
- Balboni & Edwards 2006, p. 77.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media. 15 May 2004. p. 18. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Epstein 2011, p. 183.
- Bluestein, p. 240.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 1 June 1974. p. 49. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 11 November 1972. p. 13. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Figueroa 2004, p. 5.
- Schechter 2006, p. 344.
- Rothman 2015, p. 43.
- Architectural Digest. John C. Brasfield Publishing Corporation. November 2007. p. 72.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 2 October 2004. p. 17. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Bennett 2012.
- Hispanic network magazine. Olive Tree Publishing, Incorporated. 2003. p. 177.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. p. 6. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 28 November 1970. p. 8. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Market Watch. M. Shanken Communications. 1991. p. 77.
- Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 15 May 2004. p. 18. ISSN 0006-2510.
- "Biography". Deanamartin.com. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- "Timeline". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Pilita Corrales brings classic hits to US". ABS-CBN News. October 10, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Smith 2011.
- "Michael Ammar". Michaelammar.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Jon Armstrong". Magician-directory.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "How I created Thunderbird: The Modern Ace Production". Leeasher.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Whit Haydn interview". Insidemagic.com. November 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Jeff McBride" (PDF). Mcbridemagic.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Alain Nu, The Man Who Knows: Biography". themanwhoknows.tv. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
- Shemiligian, Rob (June 14, 1996). "New Caesars venue blends food, magic". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Caesars Magical Empire". Magic Times. December 3, 2002. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Guest Star: Estefan's 'Live & Unwrapped' production visits Caesars". Las Vegas Sun. October 9, 2003. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Céline Dion opened floodgates for pop stars in Las Vegas". Montreal Gazette. August 28, 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "New Performance Venue at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas Boosts Company's Revenue". Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). February 21, 2004. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Midler Replacing Dion At Caesars Palace". Billboard. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Weatherford, Mike (February 8, 2008). "Cher's got Vegas, babe, for three years at Caesars". Las Vegas Review Journal. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Leach, Robin (May 26, 2009). "Obama to attend Harry Reid fundraiser at Caesars Palace amid tight security". Vegas Deluxe. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Celine Dion". Caesarspalace.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Pibbets, Penny (July 7, 2011). "Penny Pibbets' Las Vegas includes magic, clowns and 'Absinthe'". The Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Domanick, Andrea (April 1, 2012). "A day in the life of the Gazillionaire and Penny Pibbets of 'Absinthe'". The Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Katsilometes, John (November 5, 2011). "Skating skirmish, too much anatomy raise eyebrows at returning 'Absinthe'". The Las Vegas Sun.
- Pibbets, Penny (July 2, 2013). "Penny Pibbets: 'Absinthe' = 'Cosby Show' – sweaters + more unicorns". The Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Zeff, Dan. "Las Vegas Theater Review: ABSINTHE (Caesars Palace)". Stage and Cinema. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Gleeson 2015, pp. 45-6.
- Katsilometres, John (November 28, 2015). "It’s a spin through the circus as Jerry Lewis hits 'Absinthe'". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Weatherford, Mike (April 8, 2011). "Raunchy 'Absinthe" doubles as Cirque parody". Las Vegas Review Journal. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Night Club & Bar. Opportunities Publishing. July 2007. p. 138.
- "Pussycat Dolls Lounge". Best of Vegas. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Caesars Palace Loosens Its Buttons With New Pussycat Dolls Casino (January 17, 2007), PR Newswire. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Leach, Robin (February 15, 2010). "Pussycat Dolls Are Leaving Pure for Paris". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Leach, Robin (12 March 2015). "Preview: $107 million Omnia Nightclub opens with Calvin Harris, Justin Bieber". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Stapleton, Susan (20 January 2015). "Afrojack, Van Buuren to deejay at Omnia at Caesars Palace Las Vegas move over from Light Nightclub". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Simoneau, Ryan (5 October 2015). "Haute Spots: OMNIA Reinvents The Las Vegas Strip Nightclub Experience". Haute Living. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "OMNIA Night Club – Caesars Palace". Braun Productions. 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Katsilometes, John (January 28, 2010). "Livin’ Large at the Barge; Matt Goss sets sights on Caesars Palace". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- "Cleopatra’s Barge". Caesars Palace. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Moreton, Cole (September 11, 2010). "How Matt Goss went from Bros to being Las Vegas' new Frank Sinatra". Daily Mail. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Lovell 2009, p. 214.
- "F1 Vegas Grand Prix". F1.co.uk. February 7, 2014. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- "Las Vegas". F1pulse.com. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- Woron 1983, p. 86.
- "Caeser's Palace". Champcarstats.com. 8 October 1983. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "1983 Caesar's Palace Grand Prix III". Champcarstats.com. 8 October 1983. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "1984 Caesar's Palace Grand Prix IV". Champcarstats.com. 11 November 1984. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "AutoMatters: Stadium SUPER Trucks at Caesars Palace". Del Mar Times. November 22, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
- The New Yorker. F-R Publishing Corporation. 2007. p. 142.
- "Duran KO's Dejesus in 12th, claims undisputed title". The Mercury (Pottstown, Pennsylvania). January 23, 1978. p. 24. Retrieved December 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Holmes Batters Ali for 10 rounds". The Salina Journal (Salina, Kansas). October 3, 1980. p. 15. Retrieved December 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Holmes hopes to silence his critics". The Gettysburg Times (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania). June 11, 1982. p. 9. Retrieved December 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Boxing". The Indiana Gazette (Indiana, Pennsylvania). February 24, 1984. p. 16. Retrieved December 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Leonard Attempting To Get Fulfilled". The Index-Journal (Greenwood, South Carolina). April 4, 1987. p. 18. Retrieved December 4, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Bowe bags title belt". Santa Cruz Sentinel (Santa Cruz, California). November 14, 1992. p. 15. Retrieved December 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Holyfield regains title from Bowe". Del Rio News Herald, (Del Rio, Texas). November 8, 1992. p. 6. Retrieved December 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Moorer, Holyfield unsure about their boxing futures". The Index-Journal, (Greenwood, South Carolina). April 24, 1994. p. 34. Retrieved December 11, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "SHOWTIME Championship Boxing to Feature Wladimir Klitschko & Two World Title Fights at Opening of Caesars Palace's New Outdoor Amphitheatre". PR Newswire. September 13, 2004. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
- Albano & Sugar 2000, p. 209.
- "Clash of the Champions". Prowrestlinghistory.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "WCW @ Atlanta, GA – Omni – January 1, 1996 (6,000; 3,619 paid)". Thehistoryofwwe.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "1991–1992 N.H.L. SEASON; Gamble Works: Rangers Play In Las Vegas". The New York Times. September 29, 1991. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Frozen (Fury) In Time". Los Angeles Kings. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Recent outdoor games". Nhl.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Gordon Ramsay Pub & Grill at Caesars Palace and Gordon Ramsay BurGR at Planet Hollywood Resort & Casino Opens". Entertainment Close-Up, accessed via HighBeam Research(subscription required). January 20, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Eversham, Emma (December 17, 2012). "Gordon Ramsay's Las Vegas pub and burger bar to open this week". Big Hospitality. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Caesars Palace to Open Gordon Ramsay Pub & Grill in Late 2012". PRNewswhire. July 25, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "Gordon Ramsay Pub & Grill". Las Vegas, Nevada: Las Vegas Sun. February 9, 2013. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Cronick, Scott (13 February 2015). "Gordon Ramsay's Atlantic City restaurant ready to wow masses at Caesars". Atlantic City, New Jersey: Press of Atlantic City. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Stapleton, Susan (22 December 2011). "Old Homestead Steakhouse is Now Open at Caesars Palace". Miami, Florida: Haute Living. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Radke, Brock (23 January 2015). "Old Homestead Steakhouse packs big flavor, bigger legacy". Las Vegas, Nevada: Las Vegas Magazine. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Metzelthin 2006, p. 4.
- Olmsted, Larry (28 September 2011). "Tasting Rao's: America's Toughest Restaurant Reservation". Forbes. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Sandler 2007, p. 57.
- Vanderwilt 2007, p. 215.
- "Bobby Flay's Mesa Grill Opens at Caesars Palace; Celebrity Chef Unveils First New Restaurant Outside New York City". BusinessWire. October 6, 2004. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
- Leach, Robin (October 21, 2014). "Bobby Flay talks 10th anniversary of Mesa Grill, Las Vegas dining scene". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
- Stapleton, Susan (3 March 2015). "Brian Malarkey rides into Las Vegas with a cowboy-themed Searsucker". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- Kelemen, Matt (17 April 2015). "Q&A: Brian Malarkey is ready to wow with Searsucker". Las Vegas Magazine. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- "Beijing Noodle Company No. 9 Las Vegas, NV". Lighting Design Alliance. 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Seward, Aaron (30 July 2009). "2009 AL Design Awards: Beijing Noodle Company No. 9, Las Vegas". Architectural Lighting. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Curtas, Jacobson & Mancini 2011, p. 70.
- Rough Guides 2015, p. 103.
- "The take out window of Serendipity 3". Las Vegas, Nevada: Las Vegas Weekly. 16 April 2009. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Storch, Alex (November 16, 2015). "Where to Enjoy a $1,000 Ice Cream Sundae In Vegas". Miami, Florida: Haute Living. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Turk, Heather (July 14, 2015). "Celebrate National Ice Cream Day with Serendipity 3's sweet new sundae". Examiner.
- "Serendipity 3 Finally OUT at Caesars Palace". Eater Vegas. 2017-01-05. Retrieved 2017-04-02.
- Leach, Robin (November 5, 2015). "Guy Savoy: After 28 years, a new palace for reigning king of cuisine". Las Vegas, Nevada: Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Bruno, Antoinette (July 2008). "An Interview with Chef Guy Savoy of Restaurant Guy Savoy – Las Vegas, NV". Star Chefs. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Restaurant Guy Savoy". Fodor's. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Leach, Robin (November 6, 2015). "Guy Savoy: Food in Paris fit for royalty from the king of cuisine, pt. 2". Las Vegas, Nevada: The Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Green 2007, p. 122.
- "Payard Patisserie & Bistro". Las Vegas Sun. 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Payard Patisserie & Bistro – Caesars Palace". Gayot. 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Payard Chocolate Clock". Food Paper. January 25, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Las Vegas' best chocolate shops and patisseries". USA Today. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Leach, Robin (December 1, 2012). "Preview: Shake-ups, surprises among 50 'Essential' Las Vegas restaurants". Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- Radke, Brock (July 19, 2012). "The 10 Best Sandwiches in Las Vegas". Las Vegas Weekly. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Rossant 2004, pp. 22–23.
- "Spago Las Vegas". Las Vegas Sun. 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Curtas, John (September 5, 2014). "EATING LAS VEGAS – The 50 Essential Restaurants – 24. SPAGO". Eating Las Vegas. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Rough Guides 2015, p. 101.
- Turk, Heather (August 8, 2012). "Top Chefs Heating Up The Culinary Scene In Las Vegas". CBS. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Martin, Bradley (July 23, 2014). "Central Michel Richard Files for Bankruptcy Protection". Las Vegas Eatery. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Stapleton, Susan (29 September 2014). "Is The End Near for Vegas' Central Michel Richard?". Las Vegas Eater. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Martin, Bradley (July 27, 2015). "Caesars Palace Moves Closer to Acknowledging Cafe Americano". Las Vegas Eater. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Mancini, Al (August 18, 2015). "Café Americano Sets Itself Apart". Vegas Seven. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- Knapp Rinella, Heidi (December 4, 2015). "Mr. Chow to open at Caesars Palace on Dec. 15". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- Leach, Robin (November 11, 2015). "Q+A: Mr. Chow arrives at Caesars Palace after 48 years of global restaurant success". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- Knight 2014, p. 145.
- Filmfacts. American Film Institute. 1969. p. 224.
- Taraborrelli 2007, p. 272.
- Block 2011, p. 46.
- Luce, Henry Robinson (1984). Time. Time Incorporated. p. 79.
- TV Guide. Triangle Publications. 1987. p. 26.
- Mediaweek. A/S/M Communications. 1991. p. 136.
- Television Guide. Triangle Publications. 1997.
- Tanner 2014, p. 36.
- Albano, Lou; Sugar, Bert Randolph (2000). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Pro Wrestling. Alpha Books. ISBN 978-0-02-863961-1.
- Balboni, Alan Richard; Edwards, Jerome E. (2006). Beyond the Mafia: Italian Americans and the Development of Las Vegas. University of Nevada Press. ISBN 978-0-87417-681-0.
- Bennett, Tony (25 December 2012). The Good Life: The Autobiography Of Tony Bennett. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4711-0929-4.
- Benson, Sara (2008). Las Vegas. Con Pianta. Ediz. Inglese. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-677-9.
- Bickford, Jim (2006). Las Vegas Dreams. Las Vegas, Nevada: American Dreams. ISBN 978-1-59975-141-2.
- Block, Marcelline (2011). World Film Locations: Las Vegas. Intellect Books. ISBN 978-1-84150-588-6.
- Bluestein, Steve. It's So Hard to Type With a Gun In My Mouth. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-105-34326-1.
- Campbell, Jeff (2008). USA. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-675-5.
- Curtas, John; Jacobson, Max; Mancini, Al (18 November 2011). Eating Las Vegas 2012: The 50 Essential Restaurants. Huntington Press Inc. ISBN 978-1-935396-95-6.
- Earley, Pete (1 January 2000). Super Casino: Inside the "new" Las Vegas. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-09502-9.
- Epstein, Lawrence J. (5 October 2011). George Burns: An American Life. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-8793-6.
- Ewing, Suzanne; McGowan, Jeremie Michael; Speed, Chris (18 October 2010). Architecture and Field/Work. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-88467-2.
- Figueroa, Acton (1 October 2004). Julio Iglesias and Enrique Iglesias. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4042-0260-3.
- Germain, Georges-Hebert (1 September 1998). Céline: The Authorized Biography. Dundurn. ISBN 978-1-4597-1465-6.
- Gleeson, Bridget (1 August 2015). Lonely Planet Pocket Las Vegas. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74360-430-4.
- Goldstein, Norm (November 1, 1982). Frank Sinatra, ol' blue eyes. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. ISBN 978-0-03-061921-2.
- Gordon, Billy (16 April 2015). FUN CYCLE: Special Edition for The 75th Anniversary of America's Leading Motorcycle Rally. ISBN 978-1-78301-722-5.
- Green, Patrick (2007). Chabria, Anita, ed. Night + Day Las Vegas. Pulse Guides Cool Cities. San Francisco, California: ASDavis Media Group. ISBN 978-0-9759022-8-8.
- Herczog, Mary (3 November 2008). Las Vegas For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-43801-5.
- Hess, Alan (1 July 1993). Viva Las Vegas: After-Hours Architecture. Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0-8118-0111-9.
- Jaschke, Karin; Ötsch, Silke (2003). Stripping Las Vegas: A Contextual Review of Casino Resort Architecture. Verl.d. Bauhaus-Universität. ISBN 978-3-86068-192-3.
- Joshel, Sandra R.; Malamud, Margaret; McGuire, Jr., Donald T. (9 August 2005). Imperial Projections: Ancient Rome in Modern Popular Culture. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8268-5.
- Kelley, Kitty (1986). His Way: The Unauthorized Biography of Frank Sinatra. Bantam Books Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-553-38618-9.
- Knight, Gladys L. (11 August 2014). Pop Culture Places: An Encyclopedia of Places in American Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-39883-4.
- Land, Barbara; Land, Myrick (2004). A Short History of Las Vegas. University of Nevada Press. ISBN 978-0-87417-564-6.
- Lovell, Terry (7 September 2009). Bernie Ecclestone – King of Sport. John Blake Publishing, Limited. ISBN 978-1-78219-262-6.
- Malamud, Margaret (30 March 2009). Ancient Rome and Modern America. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-0508-1.
- Metzelthin, Pearl Violette Newfield (2006). Gourmet. Condé Nast Publications.
- Orleck, Annelise (1 July 2005). Storming Caesar's Palace: How Black Mothers Fought Their Own War on Poverty. Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-9721-2.
- Papa, Paul W. (1 October 2009). It Happened in Las Vegas: Remarkable Events that Shaped History. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7627-5819-7.
- Plunkett, Jack W. (January 2007). Plunkett's Entertainment & Media Industry Almanac 2007. Plunkett Research, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-59392-066-1.
- Pyron, Darden Asbury (26 April 2013). Liberace: An American Boy. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-11712-6.
- Rich, Jason (1 August 2005). The Everything Family Travel Guide To Las Vegas: Hotels, Casinos, Restaurants, Major Family Attractions – And More!. Adams Media. ISBN 1-4405-3803-4.
- Rothman, Hal (15 October 2015). Neon Metropolis: How Las Vegas Started the Twenty-First Century. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-95852-9.
- Rough Guides (1 September 2015). Pocket Rough Guide Las Vegas. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-0-241-24392-3.
- Rossant, Juliette (2004). Super Chef: The Making of the Great Modern Restaurant Empires. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0743241711.
- Sandler, Corey (2007). Econoguide Las Vegas: Also Includes Reno, Lake Tahoe, and Laughlin (5 ed.). Guilford, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 978-0-7627-4168-7.
- Sehlinger, Bob; Ridge, Menasha; Castleman, Deke; Stevens, Muriel (2011). The Unofficial Guide to Las Vegas 2012. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-14345-2.
- Sheridan, John Harris (September 6, 2011). Howard Hughes: The Las Vegas Years: The Women, the Mormons, the Mafia. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4634-0693-6.
- Schechter, Scott (25 August 2006). Judy Garland: The Day-by-Day Chronicle of a Legend. Taylor Trade Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4616-3555-0.
- Schwartz, David (2013). Suburban Xanadu: The Casino Resort on the Las Vegas Strip and Beyond. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-75740-2.
- Smith, Scott (31 May 2011). Moon Nevada. Avalon Travel. ISBN 1-59880-943-1.
- Tanner, Adam (2 September 2014). What Stays in Vegas. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-61039-419-2.
- Taraborrelli, J. Randy (2007). Elizabeth. Pan. ISBN 978-0-330-43390-7.
- Turner, John Frayn (January 1, 2004). Frank Sinatra. Taylor Trade Publications. ISBN 978-1-58979-145-9.
- Vanderwilt, Dirk (October 2007). Las Vegas: A Comprehensive Guide to Resorts, Casinos, and Attractions. Channel Lake, Inc. ISBN 978-0-9792043-5-7.
- Woron, Walter A. (1983). Motor Trend. Petersen Publishing Company.