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Cairn

A cairn is a man-made pile of stones. The word cairn comes from the Scottish Gaelic: càrn. Cairns have been and are used for a broad variety of purposes, from prehistoric times to the present. In modern times, cairns are erected as landmarks, a use they have had since ancient times. However, since prehistory, they have been built and used as burial monuments. Cairns are used as trail markers in many parts of the world, in uplands, on moorland, on mountaintops, near waterways and on sea cliffs, as well as in barren deserts and tundras, they vary in size from small stone markers to entire artificial hills, in complexity from loose conical rock piles to delicately balanced sculptures and elaborate feats of megalithic engineering. Cairns may be painted or otherwise decorated, whether for increased visibility or for religious reasons. An ancient example is the inuksuk, used by the Inuit, Kalaallit and other peoples of the Arctic region of North America. Inuksuit are found from Alaska to Greenland; this region, above the Arctic Circle, is dominated by the tundra biome and has areas with few natural landmarks.

Different types of cairns exist from rough piles of stones to interlocking dry stone round cylinders. The most important cairns used around the world are interlocking stone survey cairns constructed around a central survey mark about every 30 km on the tallest peaks across a nation; these physical survey mark cairn systems are the basis for national survey grids to interconnect individual land survey measurements for entire nations. On occasion these permanent interlocking stone cairns are taken down reconstructed to re-mark measurements to increase the accuracy of the national survey grid, they can be used in unpopulated countries as emergency location points. In North America and Northern Europe any type of cairn can be used to mark mountain bike and hiking trails and other cross-country trail blazing in mountain regions at or above the tree line. For example, the extensive trail network maintained by the DNT, the Norwegian Trekking Association, extensively uses cairns in conjunction with T-painted rock faces to mark trails.

Other examples of these can be seen in the lava fields of Volcanoes National Park to mark several hikes. Placed at regular intervals, a series of cairns can be used to indicate a path across stony or barren terrain across glaciers; such cairns are placed at junctions or in places where the trail direction is not obvious. They may be used to indicate an obscured danger such as a sudden drop, or a noteworthy point such as the summit of a mountain. Most trail cairns are small being a foot or less in height. However, they may be built taller so as to protrude through a layer of snow. Hikers passing by add a stone, as a small bit of maintenance to counteract the erosive effects of severe weather. North American trail marks are sometimes called "ducks" or "duckies", because they sometimes have a "beak" pointing in the direction of the route; the expression "two rocks do not make a duck" reminds hikers that just one rock resting upon another could be the result of accident or nature rather than intentional trail marking.

The building of cairns for recreational purposes along trails, to mark one's personal passage through the area, can result in an overabundance of rock piles. This distracts from cairns used as genuine navigational guides, conflicts with the Leave No Trace ethic; this ethic of outdoor practice advocates for leaving the outdoors undisturbed and in its natural condition. Coastal cairns, or "sea marks", are common in the northern latitudes in the island-strewn waters of Scandinavia and eastern Canada. Indicated on navigation charts, they may be painted white or lit as beacons for greater visibility offshore. Modern cairns may be erected for historical or memorial commemoration or for decorative or artistic reasons. One example is a series of many cairns marking British soldiers' mass graves at the site of the Battle of Isandlwana, South Africa. Another is the Matthew Flinders Cairn on the side of Arthur's Seat, a small mountain on the shores of Port Phillip Bay, Australia. A large cairn referred to as "the igloo" by the locals, was built atop a hill next to the I-476 highway in Radnor, Pennsylvania and is a part of a series of large rock sculptures initiated in 1988 to symbolize the township's Welsh heritage and to beautify the visual imagery along the highway.

Some are places where farmers have collected stones removed from a field. These can be seen in the Catskill Mountains, North America where there is a strong Scottish heritage, may represent places where livestock were lost. In locales exhibiting fantastic rock formations, such as the Grand Canyon, tourists construct simple cairns in reverence of the larger counterparts. By contrast, cairns may have a strong aesthetic purpose, for example in the art of Andy Goldsworthy; the building of cairns for various purposes goes back into prehistory in Eurasia, ranging in size from small rock sculptures to substantial man-made hills of stone. The latter are relatively massive Bronze Age or earlier structures which, like kistvaens and dolmens contain burials. Cairn could more broadly refer to various types of hills and natural stone piles, but today is used of artificial ones; the word cairn derives from Scots cairn (w

B'Avarija

B'Avarija is a musical band in Lithuania, Klaipėda, formed in 1996. They won a lot of awards for best songs, they have made several attempts to win the Lithuanian national finals in order to represent the country in the Eurovision Song Contest but no attempt was successful. In 2002, they won the finals with their song "We All", however this win had to be disqualified, just over a month as the song had been released the previous year in Lithuanian, under the title "Mes čia!". Under the rules, a song may not be released before 1 January of the year of the relevant contest. Officials argued that the lyrics were different and therefore a different song, however the EBU rules that the song was not different enough and therefore could not be used in the main Eurovision Song Contest 2002, it is thought that the Lithuanian broadcasters had not understood the rules as a number of the songs competing in the final had been released earlier. Aivaras, second in the national finals, went to the contest for Lithuania instead.

Juozas Liesis Deivydas Zvonkus Ramūnas Stankevičius Robertas Rezgevičius Vilius Tarasovas Darius Beinortas Jonas Jonušas 1999 - Nešk mane - Came fourth in the national final 1999 - Pamiršk - Placing unknown 2001 - Duok man - Came third in the national final 2002 - We All - Came first in national final but disqualified afterwards 2004 - I Know - Came equal fourth place in the national final with Amberlife's song "In Your Eyes" 2005 - Oceans of Love - Came tenth in the national final 2006 - If My Dream Came True - Came fifteenth in the national final „Naktį ir dieną minutę, kiekvieną“ „Duok man jėgų“ „Arti“ „Mylėk mane“ „Iš visos širdies“ „Angelay“ „Labai“ „Spalvotas“ „Gazas“ Lyrics B'Avarija on Youtube B'Avarija on last.fm Listen to B'Avarija tracks

2006 Mozambique earthquake

The 2006 Mozambique earthquake occurred at 22:19 UTC on 22 February. It caused 4 deaths and 36 injuries; the epicenter was near Machaze in Manica Province of southern Mozambique, just north of the Save River. It was the largest historical earthquake in Mozambique and the first earthquake in southern Africa to have an identified surface rupture. Southern Mozambique is at the southern end of the East Africa Rift system, where the African Plate appears to be breaking into several smaller plates; the Somali Plate is moving westward relative to the Nubian Plate at a rate of several millimetres a year at the latitude of this earthquake. Most earthquakes in this zone are a result of either strike-slip faulting; the earthquake was felt throughout Mozambique and over a wide area of eastern southern Africa, including South Africa, Zambia and Botswana. Close to the epicentre the shaking reached VIII in intensity on the Mercalli intensity scale. In the cities of Beira and Maputo the intensity reached V; the focal mechanism of the earthquake is consistent with normal faulting on a westerly dipping fault plane.

Field investigations identified 15 km of surface rupture in the form of a west-facing scarp, with up to 2.05 m of vertical displacement, although it was not possible to prove the full extent of surface faulting due to lack of time and the presence of minefields. Investigations using Interferometric synthetic aperture radar, combined with field and seismological observations, have identified two fault segments with differing strikes, with the hypocenter and most of the displacement being on the more southerly of the segments. Little damage was recorded, with only 294 buildings reported as damaged in the area between Espungabera and Chimoio. A total of four deaths were recorded, one in Espungabera, one in Machaze and two in Beira, with a further thirty-six injured; the International Seismological Centre has a bibliography and/or authoritative data for this event