Cairo University

Cairo University, known as the Egyptian University from 1908 to 1940, King Fuad I University from 1940 to 1952) is Egypt's premier public university. Its main campus is in Giza across the Nile from Cairo, it was founded on 21 December 1908. It is the second oldest institution of higher education in Egypt after Al Azhar University, notwithstanding the pre-existing higher professional schools that became constituent colleges of the university, it was founded and funded as the Egyptian University by a committee of private citizens with royal patronage in 1908 and became a state institution under King Fuad I in 1925. In 1940, four years following his death, the University was renamed King Fuad I University in his honor, it was renamed a second time after the Egyptian revolution of 1952. The University enrolls 155,000 students in 20 faculties, it counts three Nobel Laureates among its graduates and is one of the 50 largest institutions of higher education in the world by enrollment. The university was founded on 21 December 1908, as the result of an effort to establish a national center for higher education.

Several constituent colleges preceded the establishment of the university including the College of Engineering in 1816, shut down by the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan, Sa'id Pasha, in 1854. Cairo University was founded as a European-inspired civil university, in contrast to the religious university of Al Azhar, became the prime indigenous model for other state universities. In 1928, the first group of female students enrolled at the university. At the turn of the century, Egyptian intellectuals and public figures began making calls to establish an Egyptian institute of higher education to provide a modern, professional education to Egyptians. Armenian bureaucrat Yaqub Artin made the first known published reference to establishing an Egyptian university in 1894. In a report, he suggested "the existing higher professional schools could well provide the basis for a university." These higher schools included the School of Management and Languages, established in 1868, the School of Irrigation and Construction in 1866, Dar al-Ulum in 1872, the School of Agriculture in 1867 and the School of Antiquities 1869.

Syrian journalist Jurji Zaydan called for an "Egyptian college school" in 1900 in his monthly magazine Al-Hilal. He provided two models for this institute of higher education: the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh, which delivered a Western-style education in the English language, or the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut, run by American missionaries; the new school would provide an alternative to the student missions to Europe begun under Muhammad Ali. Controversy surrounding Zaydan’s publications would prevent him from taking a teaching post at the University. A number of other prominent Egyptians played a role in the university’s foundation. A collection of large landowners, members of the royal family, journalists and school teachers including Mustafa Kamil, disciples of Muhammad Abduh such as Qasim Amin and Saad Zaghlul, Khedive Abbas II and Prince Ahmad Fu’ad I became involved; as Donald M. Reid writes, "Royalist partisans stressed Fu'ad's founding role, Watanists pointed out Mustafa Kamil's call for a university, Wafdists emphasized the contributions of Saad Zaghlul, Muhammad Abduh, Qasim Amin."

Wealthy Egyptians began to independently pledge funds to the establishment of a university as early as 1905. Following the Dinshaway incident, Mustafa Kamil al-Ghamrawi, a wealthy notable from Beni Suef, pledged 500 Egyptian pounds towards a university in September 1906. Mustafa Kamil published a call for supplementary funds, while Saad Zaghlul and Qasim Amin arranged a meeting attended by Muhammad Farid and 23 other prominent Egyptians; the members of the meeting founded a committee with Zaghlul as vice-president and Amin as secretary, all but three pledged at least 100 Egyptian pounds towards the university. However, splinters emerged between the Watanists, the disciples of Abduh and the Royalists, leaving the project in the hands of the Palace. By the time of its establishment in 1908, Prince Fuad I was the rector and only one of the men who had met in 1906 remained in the committee; the British Lord Cromer, had continually opposed the establishment of such a university. Only a year after his departure from Egypt, under Sir Eldon Gorst, was the Egyptian University established.

The Egyptian educational system remained woefully underdeveloped under British rule. Two decades after occupation, education received less than 1 percent of the state budget. Cromer publicly stated that free public education was not an appropriate policy for a nation such as Egypt, although the funds were found to regenerate the law school in Cairo so Egyptians didn't have to go abroad to obtain legal degrees during Sir John Scott's time as Judicial Advisor to the Khedive. Donald M. Reid speculates that this was due to fear that European-style education would create political unrest or foment opposition to British rule. Cromer opposed providing financial aid to the university after the private committee began to pursue the matter independently of the British. In its early years, the university did not have a campus but rather advertised lectures in the press. Lectures would be held in various palaces and conference halls. After a grand opening ceremony in 1908


Dactylogyrus is a genus of monogeneans in the Dactylogyridae family. Like other monogeneans, species of Dactylogyrus only have one host required to complete their life cycle. Dactylogyrus are oviparous monogeneans trematodes; these anchors can be used to latch onto the gills of a host freshwater fish such as carp. In infected fish, Dactylogyrus can be found on the buccal cavity, at times fins and skin of the freshwater fish. Other characteristics of the Dactylogyrus include the appearance of four eye-spots, 14 marginal hooks, one to two connective bars and two needle-like structures and spindle-shaped dactylogyrid-type seminal vesicles. Dactylogyrus has an adult structure, up to 2 mm in length; the Dactylogyrus life cycle is direct, having no intermediate host. The hermaphroditic adults are oviparous and produce eggs into the water which hatch prior to attaching to the gills of a fish host and developing into an onchomiricidium. Adult Dactylogyrus lay about 4-10 eggs per day. After the eggs hatch, water currents aid the free-swimming ciliated larva in reaching its host.

Once eggs are released into the water and have hatched within 4 days time period at 20 °C, the free-swimming ciliated larvae is required to find their host within a 6–8 hours time frame in order to survive. The time required for egg maturation into the adult form is temperature dependent. Water temperatures of 72–75 °F allow life cycle completion in a few days, whereas temperatures of 34–36 °F extend the generation time to five or six months. Dactylogyrus is a monogean parasite, found on the gills of Cyprinidae fishes; the prevalence of Dactylogyrus infection on fish differ depending on the seasons. It was found that Dactylogyrus infections are at their greatest during early winter. Correlation has been found between the temperature of the water and the intensity of Dactylogyrus infection, it is generally accepted that fish are exposed to increased Dactylogyrus infections during their spawning period. Cyprinidae that are infected by Dactylogyrus may have symptoms that include inflamed gills, excessive mucous secretions and accelerated respiration.

Increased movement of the gills due to damage the fluke is causing to the tissues. The infected fish becomes lethargic, swims near the surface, its appetite decreases. Additionally the infected fish scratch its gills on rocks. In severe infections, Dactylogyrus can cause hemorrhaging and metaplasia of the gills which can lead to secondary bacterial infections and death. Infected fish are anorexic and can be found gasping for air and exhibiting abnormal behavior such as jumping out of the water. A primary method for control of Dactylogyrus is the application of chemicals. Treatments include Praziquantel, salt baths, formalin or organophosphates, fenbendazole,albendazole,Bromex-50 and potassium permanganate

Mission Hockey

Mission is a company that makes roller hockey and ice hockey equipment. Mission once produced ice hockey equipment as well, it merged with Itech in 2004. On September 25, 2008, Bauer Hockey announced. Since 2009, the Mission brand is used only for roller hockey gear; the following are 2009 models. The ice skates were discontinued part way through the year due to Bauer purchasing Mission, they were still available as of March 2010 at online retailers: Line 2012 → → Line2013 Axiom A.3 Axiom A.4 Axiom A.5 → → Inhaler AC5 Axiom T.6 → → Inhaler AC4 Axiom T.7 → → Inhaler AC3 Axiom T.8 → → Inhaler AC2 Axiom T.9 → → Inhaler AC1 Axiom T.10 Axiom GOALIE G.7 Titanium Pulse Fuel ZW Fuel Z12 Fuel Ti Pro Fuel Ti Grip Fuel Pyro Fuel Concept X V-Hex L-2 Hex-1 M-1 Intake Fusion Intake Intake VN Pro M1505 M1501 M95 Boss SE Boss Commander SE Commander Soldier SE Soldier Assassin Wicked 1 BSX CSX Lieutenant Mission Hockey official website