Lincolnshire Police is the territorial police force covering the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England. Despite the name, the force's area does not include North East Lincolnshire and North Lincolnshire, which are covered by Humberside Police instead. In terms of geographic area the force is one of the largest in the England and Wales covering 2,284 square miles; the population of the area covered by the force is 736,700. As of 2010 the force employs over 2,500 people; as at May 2016, there were 200 Special Constables and 149 PCSO's. Lincolnshire Constabulary was formed in 1856 under the County and Borough Police Act 1856. Several other borough police forces used to exist in the county, but these were combined with the Lincolnshire force. Under the Police Act 1946, Boston Borough Police and Grantham Borough Police were merged, while Lincoln City Police and Grimsby Borough Police were absorbed under the Police Act 1964. Lincolnshire lost part of its area to the new Humberside Police in 1974.
In 1965, the force had an establishment of 918 officers and an actual strength of 883. Proposals made by the Home Secretary on 20 March 2006 would have seen the force merge with the other four East Midlands forces to form a strategic police force for the entire region; these proposals were ended by John Reid in June 2006. The police authority received £287,600 from the Home Office for costs of preparing the ill-fated merger. In 2008 the Lincolnshire Police Authority experienced a funding crisis; the authority claimed that the central government grant was insufficient to provide efficient policing in Lincolnshire, due to the unfavourable working of the formula used by the government to assess police grants. The authority decided to reduce the shortfall by making a 79% increase in its precept; the government announced its intention to "cap" this demand, resulting in a net 26% increase. The Chief Constable is Bill Skelly. Lincolnshire Police has an establishment of about 1,100 police officers. In 2011, the force underwent major changes to its organisation.
There were three "divisions" with Lincoln and Grantham hosting the divisional headquarters of each. The county is divided into four "districts" for the purposes of policing; these areas each pair two district/borough council areas into one policing district, are: Lincoln & West Lindsey North & South Kesteven Coast & Wolds Boston & South Holland. The force has round the clock armed. Front line officers in Lincolnshire carry Taser electronic incapacitating devices; these use electricity to cause neuromuscular incapacitation to render subjects incapable of free bodily movement for a short period of time whilst the device is operating. Taser is carried in addition to PAVA incapacitant spray. Officers used CS spray, however this was removed from service due to it being flammable. PAVA is a non flammable spray liquid. Officers from Lincolnshire are detached to EMSOU, East Midlands Special Operations unit; the force has its own underwater search unit that consists of one part-time team of around ten officers and this unit is based permanently at the Lincolnshire Police Headquarters.
As with all police forces, Lincolnshire Police has many specialist departments aside from the officers and PCSOs that respond to calls from the public. These include the Roads Policing Unit, Dog section, Public Protection Unit, Scenes Of Crime, Custody suites, the Force Control Room. In addition to this are other support departments such as IT and HR. Officers and Police Staff forming these departments are based across the county, but most having their main office at Force Headquarters in Nettleham. Lincolnshire Police operates a Special Constabulary that has 200 officers from the rank of Special Constable to Special Superintendent. Officers are based throughout the county out of local police stations. Lincolnshire Special Constabulary has offices deployed in specialist units such as wildlife crime and Safer Roads unit; as of July 2018 Lincolnshire Special Constabulary is recruiting. 1856–1901: Captain Philip Bicknell. 1901–03: Major Charles Brinkley. 1903–31: Captain Cecil Mitchell-Innes. 1931–34: Colonel Gordon Herbert Ramsay Halland.
1934–54: Sir Raymond Hatherell Fooks. 1954–56: Herman Graham Rutherford. 1956–69: John William Barnett, OBE. 1970–73: George Walter Roberts Terry. 1973–77: Lawrence Byford, QPM. 1977–83: James Kerr. 1983–?: Stanley William Crump, QPM.?–1994: Neville Gilbert Ovens, QPM. 1994–98: John Peter Bensley, QPM. 1998–2003: Richard John Nicholas Childs, QPM. 2003–08: James Anthony Lake. 2008–12: Richard Philip deJordan Crompton 2012–17: Neil Rhodes 2017: Bill Skelly Lawrence Byford - father of Mark Byford Arthur Troop - police sergeant who started the International Police Association on 1 January 1950, with initial resistance from his superiors. Lincolnshire Police and Crime Commissioner List of police forces in the United Kingdom Policing in the United Kingdom Lincolnshire Police Lincolnshire Police Authority explain their big incre
Lincolnshire is a county in eastern England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north west, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north, it borders Northamptonshire in the south for just 20 yards, England's shortest county boundary. The county town is the city of Lincoln; the ceremonial county of Lincolnshire is composed of the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire and the area covered by the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. Part of the ceremonial county is in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, most is in the East Midlands region; the county is the second-largest of the English ceremonial counties and one, predominantly agricultural in land use. The county is fourth-largest of the two-tier counties, as the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire are not included.
The county has several geographical sub-regions, including the rolling chalk hills of the Lincolnshire Wolds. In the southeast are the Lincolnshire Fens, the Carrs, the industrial Humber Estuary and North Sea coast around Grimsby and Scunthorpe, in the southwest of the county, the Kesteven Uplands, comprising rolling limestone hills in the district of South Kesteven. During the Pre-Roman times most of Lincolnshire was inhabited by the Brythonic Corieltauvi people; the Iceni covered the area around modern day Grimsby. The language of the area at that time would have been the precursor to modern Welsh; the name Lincoln derives from the old Welsh ‘Lindo’ meaning Lake. Modern-day Lincolnshire is derived from the merging of the territory of the Brythonic Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough of Stamford. For some time the entire county was called "Lindsey", it is recorded as such in the 11th-century Domesday Book; the name Lindsey was applied to the northern core, around Lincoln.
This emerged as one of the three Parts of Lincolnshire, along with the Parts of Holland in the south east, the Parts of Kesteven in the south west, which each had separate Quarter Sessions as their county administrations. In 1888 when county councils were set up, Lindsey and Kesteven each received separate ones; these survived until 1974, when Holland and most of Lindsey were unified into Lincolnshire. The northern part of Lindsey, including Scunthorpe Municipal Borough and Grimsby County Borough, was incorporated into the newly formed non-metropolitan county of Humberside, along with most of the East Riding of Yorkshire. A local government reform in 1996 abolished Humberside; the land south of the Humber Estuary was allocated to the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. These two areas became part of Lincolnshire for ceremonial purposes, such as the Lord-Lieutenancy, but are not covered by the Lincolnshire police; the remaining districts of Lincolnshire are Boston, East Lindsey, North Kesteven, South Holland, South Kesteven, West Lindsey.
They are part of the East Midlands region. The area was shaken by the 27 February 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake, reaching between 4.7 and 5.3 on the Richter magnitude scale. Lincolnshire is home to Woolsthorpe Manor and home of Sir Isaac Newton, he attended Grantham. Its library has preserved his signature, carved into a window sill. Bedrock in Lincolnshire features Cretaceous chalk. For much of prehistory, Lincolnshire was under tropical seas, most fossils found in the county are marine invertebrates. Marine vertebrates have been found including ichthyosaurus and plesiosaur; the highest point in Lincolnshire is Wolds Top, at Normanby le Wold. Some parts of the Fens may be below sea level; the nearest mountains are in Derbyshire. The biggest rivers in Lincolnshire are the Trent, running northwards from Staffordshire up the western edge of the county to the Humber estuary, the Witham, which begins in Lincolnshire at South Witham and runs for 132 kilometres through the middle of the county emptying into the North Sea at The Wash.
The Humber estuary, on Lincolnshire's northern border, is fed by the River Ouse. The Wash is the mouth of the Welland, the Nene and the Great Ouse. Lincolnshire's geography is varied, but consists of several distinct areas: Lincolnshire Wolds - area of rolling hills in the north east of the county designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty The Fens - dominating the south east quarter of the county The Marshes - running along the coast of the county The Lincoln Edge/Cliff - limestone escarpment running north-south along the western half of the countyLincolnshire's most well-known nature reserves include Gibraltar Point National Nature Reserve, Whisby Nature Park Local Nature Reserve, Donna Nook National Nature Reserve, RSPB Frampton Marsh and the Humberhead Peatlands National Nature Reserve. Although the Lincolnshire countryside is intensively farmed, there are many biodiverse wetland areas, as well as rare limewood forests. Much of the county was once wet. From bones, we can tell that animal species found in Lincolnshire include wooly mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, wild horse, wild boar and beaver.
Species which have returned to Lincolnshire after extirpation include little egret, Eurasian spoonbill, European otter and red kite. This is a chart
Caistor Grammar School
Caistor Grammar School is a selective school with academy status in the English town of Caistor in the county of Lincolnshire, England. The school was founded in 1630, it has since grown to be one of the most respected and highest performing schools in the East Midlands. The school has been awarded humanities status. Due to its high status, the school attracts students from not only the town of Caistor, but several surrounding villages and nearby Grimsby; the current Headmaster is Alistair Hopkins who took up the position in January 2017. Mr Hopkins is the school's 27th head. At present, Caistor Grammar is ranked first in Lincolnshire at both GCSE and A Level results in 2017. In the 2017 Times newspaper league tables it is in the top ten mixed state schools in the country; the school was named Sunday Times Parent Power State Secondary School of the Year 2018 in November 2017. Caistor Grammar School is an endowed school dating from the reign of Charles I; the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII had destroyed the principal sources of education of the times, the numerous schools endowed throughout England during the following reigns are evidence that public-spirited men recognised the need created and endeavoured to meet it.
Among others was Francis Rawlinson, of South Kelsey, who died in 1630, bequeathing money to endow a school at Caistor, William Hansard of Biscathorpe, who supplemented the original gift in 1634. The monies given were invested in the purchase of land at Cumberworth, of the rectorial tithes of Bilsby, of which the governors are still lay impropriators; the original trustees were Sir Edward Asycough of South Kelsey, Sir William Pelham of Brocklesby and Sir Christopher Wray, Lord Chief Justice, Jonathan Beltwick. Other trustees shouldered their responsibilities from time to time until 1885 when, under the Endowed Schools Act 1869, the Foundation was placed under an elective body of governors, the Vicar of Caistor being an ex-officio member. In 1908, the school was recognised by the Board of Education. On 11 November 1931 it celebrated its tercentenary in the presence of Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch. Alistair Hopkins Deputy Head at Bablake School in Coventry, became Headmaster in January 2017. Shona Buck, the former assistant head, became Deputy Head in September 2016.
Lindsey County Council, based in Lincoln, proposed to close the grammar school as it decided there were not enough numbers for three grammar schools in the area. On 18 February 1960 fifty-two girls at the schools walked the twenty six miles to Lincoln, they gave a petition to the Council's Chairman, Sir Weston Cracroft Amcotts. Following national press coverage the school was saved from closure. In 2008, The Times journalist Robert Crampton used his Beta Male column to ask for invitations to give speeches, to improve his public speaking skills, he only accepted a handful, including Caistor Grammar School. He visited the school to give the speech in 2009, subsequently reporting on the experience in his newspaper. In 2013 the chairwoman of UK Sport, Baroness Campbell, opened a new building commemorating the five students from the school who took part in the London 2012 Olympic Torch Relay; the former deputy editor of The Daily Telegraph and current Daily Mail columnist Simon Heffer visited the school in 2014 in recognition of the school newspaper, Caistor Focus, winning The Best School Newspaper category at the Shine Media Awards for two consecutive years.
On 21 September 2017, the school welcomed journalist and chair of the Hull UK City of Culture 2017 trust Rosie Millard to address students and parents in the annual awards evening. The school occupies a site close to the centre of the small market town of Caistor; the ironstone school hall dates from 1631, is still in daily use. The school library alongside is housed in what was the Congregational Church, built in 1842. Casterby House, once a large private house one of three boarding houses, now the Sixth Form Centre, overlooks the churchyard from the south side of the school gates; the name Casterby House is derived from former pupil Sir Henry Newbolt's semi-autobiographical novel the Twymans, in which Caistor is given the name Casterby. The main teaching block dates from the 1930s, but was extended and modernised in 1984; the Manning Building, replacing several prefabricated buildings, was opened in 1984. Two new technology buildings were added in 1993 and 1994. Lindsey House, once a purpose-built boarding house, was remodelled into classrooms and the dining room.
Beech House, traditionally the residence of the headmaster, is now. There was an additional building, Grove House, but this was demolished because of structural problems; the school owned several other buildings in Caistor, including the "Red House" next to Bank Lane, which were used as boarding accommodation. These have now however been sold off. In 2010, as part of the Government Building Schools for the Future scheme, Caistor Grammar School secured funding to build an extension to Lindsey House, to provide renovated music facilities, another ICT facility and a room for food technology, something, new to the CGS curriculum; the funding was secured only days before the scheme was scrapped by the Educational Secretary Michael Gove. The facilities were completed by the following Christmas, were opened by celebrity chef Rachel Green on 24 May 2011. In 2013, a new science building was constructed adjacent to Lindsey House, named the Olympic Torch Building to honour the five CGS pupils who carried the torch for the London 2012 Olympic Games, as well as Jordan Duckitt, one of the seven young athletes to light the cauldron.
A former student donated her Olympic torch, on display at the main entrance
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
West Lindsey is a local government district in Lincolnshire, England. The district was formed on 1 April 1974, from the urban districts of Gainsborough, Market Rasen, along with Caistor Rural District, Gainsborough Rural District and Welton Rural District; the district council moved to new offices in Marshall's Yard in Gainsborough in January 2008. In the 2016 EU referendum, West Lindsey voted 61.8% leave to 38.2% remain Councillors are elected to the authority every four years with 36 councillors representing 20 wards. Between 1974 and 2011 the Council was elected in'thirds' - this means that elections were held every year apart from the fourth year when County Council elections were held. In December 2010 the Council decided to change the system from ‘thirds’ to ‘all out’ elections commencing in May 2011; the most recent election to the Council was held on 7 May 2015. 36 members were elected representing 20 wards. The result produced a Conservative majority of 6 seats over all other parties.
The current membership of the Council is Conservatives 24, Liberal Democrats 7, Labour 3, Lincolnshire Independents 1 and Independent 1. On 15 January 2016, Councillors agreed with the proposals recommended by West Lindsey District Council's Independent Remuneration Panel and accepted a 1% increase in their basic allowances, effective from the 2016 civic year, inline with the pay award offered to staff over the same period. West Lindsey borders North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire to the north, East Lindsey to the east, North Kesteven and the city of Lincoln to the south, the county of Nottinghamshire to the west, it covers Gainsborough, Market Rasen, Cherry Willingham, Welton and Keelby. The boundary of the district in the west borders the River Trent, meets Nottinghamshire and North Lincolnshire at East Stockwith, close to Wildsworth. On the other side of the Trent is Gunthorpe, Lincolnshire, it deviates from the Trent, to the east along the River Eau at Scotter, where it meets Messingham in North Lincolnshire.
The boundary deviates southwards near Scotton at Northorpe follows the B1205 eastwards, crossing the A15 at Waddingham. It follows the Sallowrow Drain to the Old River Ancholme at South Kelsey, which it follows northwards. At North Kelsey, it deviates from the Old River Ancholme, following the North Kelsey Beck eastwards; this crosses the B1434 the Newark-Grimsby railway line, where at Searby cum Owmby it follows a drain parallel to the railway line northwards, at Bigby it follows Kettleby Beck westwards across the railway line back to the Old River Ancholme, which it follows for a mile towards Brigg. The Bigby parish is the northern part of West Lindsey that skirts the southern edge of Brigg, crossing the A1084 and the railway line. In Bigby, it crosses the Scunthorpe-Grimsby line three railway lines together at Wrawby Junction. North of Bigby village it crosses the western escarpment of the northern Lincolnshire Wolds skirts the southern and eastern perimeter of Humberside Airport, it crosses the A18 and B1210 the B1211.
The furthest north section of the district, of the county, is where it meets a short section of the A180, where a few hundred metres west of the A160 interchange it meets North East Lincolnshire. It follows the New Beck Drain south-east across the B1210, at Riby, the A1173 and A18. At Swallow it crosses the A46, it follows the Waithe Beck at Thorganby. At Swinhope it meets East Lindsey, next to Scallows Hall, crosses the B1203 again at Kirmond le Mire, it meets the B1225 High Street at Tealby, for around two miles southwards is the district boundary, crossing the A631 at North Willingham. At Sixhills it deviates westwards from the B1225, next to the former RAF Ludford Magna. At Holton cum Beckering it crosses the B1202 the A158 at Goltho, where it skirts the western edge of Wragby, it passes southwards in Bardney through Chamber's Farm Wood. It skirts the southern edge of the former RAF Bardney, crosses the B1190 near Tupholme Abbey. East of Southrey it meets the River North Kesteven, it follows the River Witham westwards until Greetwell where it meets the City of Lincoln, deviates northwards, crossing the Lincoln - Market Rasen railway line.
It follows the outskirts of Lincoln. It crosses the A15 north of the Riseholme roundabout, follows a short section of the A57 crosses it, near Bishop Bridge. A few hundred metres west it meets the Foss Dyke, which from there a mile north-west is the boundary with North Kesteven. At Saxilby with Ingleby it deviates westwards from the Foss Dyke, at Broadholme at the B1190, it meets Nottinghamshire, it follows a half-mile section of Ox Pasture Drain north to the A57, which it follows westwards until Kettlethorpe. It crosses the A1133 at Newton on Trent, under a mile westwards it meets the River Trent and Bassetlaw, a mile north of the former High Marnham Power Station; the district, similar to North and South Kesteven, has a mixture of comprehensive schools in the south-east of the district and selective schools in Gainsborough and Caistor. Both grammar schools are in the top ten for A level results in the East Midlands, with Caistor Grammar School getting the best results in this region year on year.
It gets some of the best results in England. These schools offer a standard of state education from ages 11–16 not available in the regions of Lincolnshir
The Viking Way is a long distance trail in England running 147 miles between the Humber Bridge in North Lincolnshire and Oakham in Rutland. The route was opened on Sunday 5 September 1976 at Tealby, by the Deputy Chairman of Lincolnshire County Council. Hedley-Lewis was President of the local Ramblers' Associations, a memorial stile was made for him on the route at Stenwith, a half-mile north of the Rutland Arms in Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir; the Countryside Commission recognised the significance of the Viking Way as a high quality long distance walk linking other major routes in Eastern England, these being the Yorkshire Wolds Way at the northern end, the Hereward Way and Macmillan Way from Oakham and indirectly via the Hereward Way, the Jurassic Way from Stamford and the southern end of the Peddars Way from Thetford. Most of the route is designated as part of the European long distance path E2. Many prehistoric settlements were established on dry ground in the Lincolnshire Wolds and on the Limestone Heath.
The route passes sites of early settlements. There is evidence that the Vikings exercised influence over the county in the 9th century: e.g. the place names ending in by, Scandinavian names recorded in documents and names marked on coins. Much of the Viking Way is classified as a Byway Open to All Traffic and is thus a vehicular right of way; the walk passes under the Humber Bridge follows the escarpment of the Ancholme Valley over the M180 at the A15 roundabout. This section was part of Humberside until April 1996, it follows the Lincolnshire Wolds over the AONB through Caistor, crossing the A46, Horncastle, crossing the A158. It follows the River Bain into Woodhall Spa along a former railway, now the Spa Trail, it heads north-west through Stixwould, Bardney, before reaching Fiskerton where it follows the south side of the River Witham towards Lincoln due west. It used to run alongside the river on Waterside South and down Canwick Road, but was diverted in around 2002 to take a detour near Washingborough over the river.
From here it crosses the Lincoln – Grimsby railway enters Lincoln on Crofton Road skirts the south side of Lincoln County Hospital, follows Lindum Terrace and crosses the A15. It passes Pottergate and enters the grounds of Lincoln Cathedral, passing the south side on Minster Yard, it heads down Steep Hill and follows the main shopping High Street of Lincoln, over the River Witham and crosses the railway at a level crossing. It follows Tentercroft Street continues along Sincil Bank towards the football ground, it heads along Scorer Street towards South Park, meets the old route on Canwick Road. It runs along the southern edge of the South Common, which forms the boundary between the borough of Lincoln and North Kesteven and crosses the A15 on the North Kesteven boundary, it runs parallel to the A607 to the west of Bracebridge Heath and through Waddington, Coleby, Boothby Graffoe and Wellingore along the Lincoln Cliff follows the old Ermine Street, crossing the A607. Near High Dyke Farm, just north of the A17 it meets the boundary of South Kesteven and North Kesteven, west of RAF Cranwell.
At Byard's Leap it crosses the A17 and follows the B6403 towards Ancaster along the South Kesteven boundary. It enters South Kesteven, it meets the A607 again at Carlton Scroop crosses the River Witham and passes through Marston and Long Bennington. It was extended to Long Bennington in 1997 to allow walkers to cross the A1 on a road bridge, as they were obliged to cross the road directly, near Foston, it no longer goes through Allington, crosses the A52 near Sedgebrook and a level crossing over the Nottingham to Grantham Line. It follows what used to be called Sewstern Lane and meets the Lincolnshire – Leicestershire boundary near Harston which it follows and crosses the A607, it passes Saltby Airfield and Buckminster goes through Sewstern where it enters Leicestershire and the borough of Melton. It rejoins the Lincolnshire boundary near to the source of the River Witham enters Rutland and Thistleton, it goes through Greetham and Exton. It meets the A606 and Hereward Way at Whitwell passes through the two watersports centres on Rutland Water at Whitwell and Barnsdale.
From here it follows the A606 from Barnsdale Hill into Oakham. When the route was opened, it followed main roads from Exton to Oakham. Humber Bridge Lincolnshire Wolds AONB National Trails Long-distance footpaths in the UK European Walking Route E2 Stead, John. ISBN 1-85284-057-9 The Viking Way: Official Guidebook to the 147 Mile Long Distance Footpath Through Lincolnshire and Rutland. ISBN 1-872375-25-1 The Ramblers Google Maps route map
Caister-on-Sea known colloquially as Caister, is a large village in Norfolk in England, United Kingdom, close to the large town of Great Yarmouth. It is a seaside resort and busy holiday destination on the "Golden Mile", with its main attraction being its sandy "Georgian Beach", it is home to Great Yarmouth race course. At the 2001 census it had a population of 8,756 and 3,970 households, the population increasing to 8,901 at the 2011 Census, it used to be served by Caister-on-Sea railway station. There was a Caister Camp Halt, opened in 1933 to serve the holiday camp mentioned below. However, both were closed in 1959, after which Great Yarmouth railway station, 4 km to the south, became the nearest station; the wind farm at Scroby Sands has thirty 2 -- 2.5 km off shore. Caister's history dates back to Roman times. In around AD 200 a fort was built here as a base for a unit of the Roman navy; however its role as a fort appears to have been reduced following the construction of the Saxon Shore fort at Burgh Castle on the other side of the estuary in the latter part of the 3rd century.
In the 1950s, a building near the south gate was excavated in advance of a housing development. These buildings do not appear to be military as they include a hypocaust and painted wall plaster as well as female jewellery, it has been suggested that this building may have been an officer’s house, or a ‘seamen's hostel’ which may be a polite name for a brothel; the site appears to have been abandoned in the 5th century, but 150 Saxon burials have been found to the south of the enclosure. The remains excavated in the 1950s are open to the public. There has been an offshore lifeboat in the area since 1791, it was used by a beach company to salvage. Between 1856 and 1969 lifeboats were operated by the RNLI. In the 1901 Caister lifeboat disaster, nine crew were lost while attempting a rescue during heavy seas. At the time it was said, "If they had to keep at it'til now, they would have sailed about until daylight to help her. Going back is against the rules when we see distress signals like that"; this response was translated by journalists to become the famous phrase "Caister men never turn back".
A monument to the men lost in the disaster bearing this inscription stands in the village cemetery and a pub called the "Never Turn Back" is named after the incident. Today, Caister is host to a National Coastwatch Institution Station. There is a Haven holiday park near the coast. One of the oldest in the UK, it began as the "Great Yarmouth Social Club" in 1906. In the 1950s and early 1960s, it used to be on both sides of the road. Opposite the beach was paper shop, sports facilities and tourist chalets; these facilities were sold to a property developer. In the 1980s a brand new holiday camp was opened, under the ownership of Ladbrokes, sold to Warners in the 1990s. Great Yarmouth - the Golden Mile