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Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a used chemical compound. It is a white, alkaline, crystalline solid at room temperature; the broadly used term "lime" connotes calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates and hydroxides of calcium, magnesium and iron predominate. By contrast, quicklime applies to the single chemical compound calcium oxide. Calcium oxide that survives processing without reacting in building products such as cement is called free lime. Quicklime is inexpensive. Both it and a chemical derivative are important commodity chemicals. Calcium oxide is made by the thermal decomposition of materials, such as limestone or seashells, that contain calcium carbonate in a lime kiln; this is accomplished by heating the material to above 825 °C, a process called calcination or lime-burning, to liberate a molecule of carbon dioxide, leaving quicklime. CaCO3 → CaO + CO2The quicklime is not stable and, when cooled, will spontaneously react with CO2 from the air until, after enough time, it will be converted back to calcium carbonate unless slaked with water to set as lime plaster or lime mortar.

Annual worldwide production of quicklime is around 283 million tonnes. China is by far the world's largest producer, with a total of around 170 million tonnes per year; the United States is the next largest, with around 20 million tonnes per year. 1.8 t of limestone is required per 1.0 t of quicklime. Quicklime is a more efficient desiccant than silica gel; the reaction of quicklime with water is associated with an increase in volume by a factor of at least 2.5. The major use of quicklime is in the basic oxygen steelmaking process, its usage varies from about 30 to 50 kilograms per ton of steel. The quicklime neutralizes the acidic oxides, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, to produce a basic molten slag. Ground quicklime is used with densities of ca. 0.6–1.0 g/cm3. Quicklime and hydrated lime can increase the load carrying capacity of clay-containing soils, they do this by reacting with finely divided silica and alumina to produce calcium silicates and aluminates, which possess cementing properties. Small quantities of quicklime are used in other processes.

Heat: Quicklime releases Thermal energy by the formation of the hydrate, calcium hydroxide, by the following equation:CaO + H2O ⇌ Ca2 As it hydrates, an exothermic reaction results and the solid puffs up. The hydrate can be reconverted to quicklime by removing the water by heating it to redness to reverse the hydration reaction. One litre of water combines with 3.1 kilograms of quicklime to give calcium hydroxide plus 3.54 MJ of energy. This process can be used to provide a convenient portable source of heat, as for on-the-spot food warming in a self-heating can and heating water without open flames. Several companies sell cooking kits using this heating method, it is known as a food additive to the FAO as an acidity regulator, a flour treatment agent and as a leavener. It has E number E529. Light: When quicklime is heated to 2,400 °C, it emits an intense glow; this form of illumination is known as a limelight, was used broadly in theatrical productions before the invention of electric lighting.

Cement: Calcium oxide is a key ingredient for the process of making cement. As a cheap and available alkali. About 50% of the total quicklime production is converted to calcium hydroxide before use. Both quick- and hydrated lime are used in the treatment of drinking water. Petroleum industry: Water detection pastes contain a mix of calcium oxide and phenolphthalein. Should this paste come into contact with water in a fuel storage tank, the CaO reacts with the water to form calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide has a high enough pH to turn the phenolphthalein a vivid purplish-pink color, thus indicating the presence of water. Paper: Calcium oxide is used to regenerate sodium hydroxide from sodium carbonate in the chemical recovery at Kraft pulp mills. Plaster: There is archeological evidence that Pre-Pottery Neolithic B humans used limestone-based plaster for flooring and other uses; such Lime-ash floor remained in use until the late nineteenth century. Chemical or power production: Solid sprays or slurries of calcium oxide can be used to remove sulfur dioxide from exhaust streams in a process called flue-gas desulfurization.

Mining: Compressed lime cartridges exploit the exothermic properties of quicklime to break rock. A shot hole is drilled into the rock in the usual way and a sealed cartridge of quicklime is placed within and tamped. A quantity of water is injected into the cartridge and the resulting release of steam, together with the greater volume of the residual hydrated solid, breaks the rock apart; the method does not work if the rock is hard. Disposal of corpses: it was believed that quicklime was efficacious in accelerating the decomposition of corpses; this was quite mistaken, the application of quicklime can promote preservation. In 80 BC, the Roman general Sertorius deployed choking clouds of caustic lime powder to defeat the Characitani of Hispania, who had taken refuge in inaccessible caves. A similar dust was used in China to quell an armed peasant revolt in 178 AD, when lime chariots equipped with bel

Bed trick

The bed trick is a plot device in traditional literature and folklore. In the standard and most common form of the bed trick, a man goes to a sexual assignation with a certain woman, without his knowledge that woman's place is taken by a substitute. Instances of the bed trick exist in the traditional literatures of many human cultures, it can be found in the Old Testament: in Genesis Chapter 29 Laban substitutes Leah for Rachel on Jacob's wedding night, as Jacob discovers the following morning. Other examples range throughout the Western canon and can be paralleled by instances in non-Western cultures. For modern readers and audiences, the bed trick is most and most associated with English Renaissance drama due to the uses of the bed trick by Shakespeare in his two dark comedies, All's Well That Ends Well and Measure for Measure. In All's Well That Ends Well, Bertram thinks he is going to have sex with Diana, the woman he is trying to seduce. In this case, the bed trick derives from Shakespeare's non-dramatic plot source, the ninth story of the third day in the Decameron of Boccaccio.

In Measure for Measure, Angelo expects to have sex with the heroine. In this case the bed trick was not present in Shakespeare's sources, but was added to the plot by the poet; the two uses of the bed trick by Shakespeare are the most famous in the drama of his era. The use of the bed trick in Middleton and Rowley's The Changeling, in which Diaphanta takes Beatrice-Joanna's place on the latter's wedding night, is the most famous instance outside of Shakespeare. Rowley provides a gender-reversed instance of the bed trick in his All's Lost by Lust, in which it is the male rather than the female partner in the sexual pair, substituted. Multiple uses of the bed trick occur in the works of Thomas Middleton, John Marston, John Fletcher, James Shirley, Richard Brome, Thomas Heywood. Shakespeare employs the bed trick to yield plot resolutions that conform to traditional morality, as do some of his contemporaries. Shakespeare's successors, tend to use the trick in more sensational and salacious ways. In Rowley's play cited above, it leads to the mistaken murder of the substituted man.

Middleton's Hengist, King of Kent features an extreme version of the bed trick, in which a woman is kidnapped and raped in darkness, by a man she doesn't realise is her own husband. After theatres re-opened with the start of the Restoration era, the bed trick made sporadic appearances in plays by Elkanah Settle and Aphra Behn, reached its culmination in Sir Francis Fane's Love in the Dark. Modern critics and audience members tend to find the bed trick artificial and lacking in credibility, it is of course, by modern standards, a form of rape by deception. In Richard Strauss's 1932 opera Arabella, Zdenka/Zdenko, the daughter consigned to live as a boy because of family finances, contrives to pretend she is her sister Arabella to sleep with Matteo, with whom she is secretly in love; the bed trick can be seen in Eliza Haywood's novel Love in Excess. The bed trick is used in Roald Dahl's story The Great Switcheroo. A variation of the bed trick can be seen in the movie Revenge of the Nerds; the Family Guy episode "Peter-assment" features a farcical and unwieldy variation, with Peter hiding Quagmire and Mort under his clothes to have sex with his boss Angela

The Park Place-Grand Avenue Residential District

The Park Place-Grand Avenue Residential District is a nationally recognized historic district located in Keokuk, United States. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002. At the time of its nomination it consisted of 75 resources, which included 60 contributing buildings, one contributing structure, 14 non-contributing buildings; the area was. As now it has been known as the "best place to live in Keokuk." Houses were built in the district as early as 1856, but most were built in the first 30 years of the 20th century. The houses along Orleans and Park Place on the southern end of the district are smaller and built on more compact lots than those further north along Grand Avenue. Most of the newer homes are located north of Tenth Street, it is believed that most of the homes are architect-designed though only a few names are known, they follow a variety of architectural designs that were popular at the time they were built. The John N. and Mary L. Irwin House and the C. R. Joy House are individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places

Eleanora Knopf

Eleanora Frances Bliss Knopf was a geologist who worked for the United States Geological Survey and did research in the Appalachians during the first two decades of the twentieth century. She studied at Bryn Mawr College, earned a bachelor's degree in chemistry, a master's degree in geology, a Ph. D. in geology in 1912. After completing her Ph. D. she accepted a position at the USGS, where she met and married the geologist Adolph Knopf, a professor at Yale University. She was the first American geologist to use the new technique of petrography which she pioneered in her life's work - the study of Stissing Mountain, she was born in Rosemont, Pennsylvania on July 15, 1883. Her father was General Tasker Howard Bliss — a career soldier who became Chief of Staff of the US Army during the First World War as well as a principal representative of the United States in the Allied Councils, her mother was Mary Anderson Bliss, both sides of the family could trace their ancestry to settlers from England. The Bliss family home was located near crystalline rocks which she studied.

She married her husband, Adolph Knopf, in 1920. They did not have children of their own but she became a step-mother to his three children, who were of school age at the time, she attended Bryn Mawr College, where she earned her bachelor's degree in 1904. She was a student of a remarkable woman and geologist Florence Bascom, who had started the geology department there. Eleanora worked as a demonstrator in the geology lab at Bryn Mawr as well as an assistant curator in the Geological Museum at the college between 1904 and 1909. After two years at Berkeley, she returned to Bryn Mawr to work with Anna Jonas Stose on the study of the metamorphic rocks near the college— Stose and Bliss had followed Bascom into the study of petrology, they presented their dissertation together and received doctorates in 1912. Shortly after receiving a Ph. D. in geology from Bryn Mawr and passing the civil service examinations, she went to Washington, DC to assist as a geological aide to the United States Geological Survey in 1912 and continued her work on the metamorphic rocks on sites around Bryn Mawr.

She published several papers on her work in the area co-publishing with Anna Jonas Stose. In 1913 she published her findings in the American Museum of Natural History of the first American sighting of mineral glaucophane, located in Pennsylvania which had never been found before in the east part of the Pacific Coast in the U. S. In 1917, she was promoted to a geological assistant and in 1920, she became a full geologist. At the USGS, she met and married Adolph Knopf and at once moved to New Haven, where he taught at Yale University, she worked as a visiting lecturer at both Yale and Harvard. She continued to work for the USGS until 1955 on a when employed basis. In 1925 she began studying the rocks of the Stissing Mountain region; this study necessitated her attentiveness for the rest of her career. These presented unusual difficulty for examination purposes due to thrust faults. After searching overseas for new ways to study the region, she settled upon the methods of Bruno Sander in which the fine structure of the rock was examined — the grains and the optical properties.

She translated his work and used it for the following 40 years in the United States for her studies, mastering this new technique. This technique of petrography was new to US geology and her 1938 book on the subject, Structural Petrography, brought her much distinction. Eleanora Knopf was one of several American women geologists who spent time working in the Appalachians during the twentieth century. Though she was a petrologist, she made astute observations concerning inequalities in erosion in catchments and hence the survival of palaeoforms in the landscape. Although these observations were opposed to one of primary principles of geomorphology at the time, Bliss Knopf implied that remnant landforms should still survive for an extended period due to unequal erosion. In 1951, she joined Stanford University in geology department as a research associate, she continued to study the Stissing Mountain rocks until her retirement in 1955 but made some expeditions to the Rocky Mountains. She aided her husband on his studies in the Rocky Mountains until his death in 1966.

After his death, she devoted herself in completing his research regarding the Boulder Batholith but health complications aroused for her. She lived to the age of 90 before dying in Menlo Park, California in 1974, she died of arteriosclerosis. Oakes, Elizabeth H. Encyclopedia of World Scientists, InfoBase Publishing, ISBN 978-0816061587 Rodgers, John, " Memorial to Eleanora Bliss Knopf", Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, pp. 1–3. Aldrich, Michele L. "Knopf, Eleanora Frances Bliss", Notable American Women: The Modern Period, Harvard University Press, pp. 401–403, ISBN 9780674627338 Aldrich, Michele L. "Women in Geology", Women of Science: Righting the Record, Indiana University Press, pp. 42–187, ISBN 9780253208132 Commire, Anne, "Knopf, Eleanora Bliss", Dictionary of Women Worldwide, Yorkin Publications, p. 1044, ISBN 9780787676766 The Baldwin School: Eleanora Bliss Knopf, The Baldwin School, retrieved October 10, 2017 Bourne, Jennifer A.. Rowland.

"Eleanora Bliss Knopf and Unequal Erosion". Earth Sciences History. 27: 132–133. Doi:10.17704/eshi.27.1.y117972u01wx3587. Bourne, Jennifer A.. Rowland. "Eleanora Bliss Knopf and Unequal Erosion". Earth Sciences History. 27: 131–135. Doi:10.17704/eshi.27.1.y117972u01wx3587

Clarissa C. Cook Library/Blue Ribbon News Building

Clarissa C. Cook Library/Blue Ribbon News Building was located at 528 Brady Street, Iowa, United States, it was noted on the National Register of Historic Places in April, 1983 as Cook Memorial Library and listed in July 1983 under the "Clarissa C. Cook Library/Blue Ribbon News Bldg." name. It has subsequently been torn down, was delisted from the National Register in 2014. Ebenezer Cook was born February 1810, in Oneida County, New York to Ira and Rachel Cook, his younger brother was John Parsons Cook, the two worked together their whole lives. Ebenezer bought 1,200 acres of land in 1835 that would in time become part of the city of Davenport, moved there with his extended family in 1836, he and his brother entered the legal profession and helped establish Scott County in what was the Wisconsin Territory. They were joined in their law practice by John Forrest Dillon, who became a judge of the United States Circuit Court for the Eighth Circuit; the brothers became involved in banking and set up a chain of private banks across Iowa and in Western Illinois until the country-wide panic which began in 1857.

In 1851 the brothers were influential in routing the railroad through Davenport. Ebenezer became a director and vice president of the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad when it was organized in 1853, upon its subsequent consolidation became a director and vice president of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway. Prior to his death, the railway company was without a president and he looked after its operations. Ebenezer Cook died October 7, 1871. Clarissa C. Cook was born August 4, 1811, in Sydney, Delaware County, New York and died February 19, 1879, she was a daughter of Lucretia Bryan. Clarissa was known for carrying out the wishes of her husband and their philanthropy to the City of Davenport and the Episcopal Church. Through her generosity, both during her life and after her death, she was instrumental in building Trinity Church, a library, the Clarissa Cook Home for the Friendless and the establishment of a number of trusts for the benefit of the Episcopal parishes and activities in the Diocese of Iowa and elsewhere.

The first library association in the city of Davenport was organized in April 1839 and called the Carey Library Association of the Town of Davenport. However, there is no mention of it after that date. There were other attempts at starting a library in the town. On July 6, 1877, Clarissa Cook contacted the Library Association, offered to donate $10,000 for a library building, she stipulated. She donated the money in memory of her husband, he had bequeathed the money in his will to the existing library to be paid after his wife's death, Mrs. Cook decided to make the payment at this time. On November 7, 1877, the cornerstone of the Cook Memorial Library was laid in a Masonic ceremony. Judge John Forrest Dillon delivered an address. Another $1,000 was needed to complete the building and it was paid for by Mrs. Cook; the new building was dedicated in July 1878. The library suffered from poor finances as before and in January 1900 Andrew Carnegie, an honorary member of the library board, offered $50,000 to build a public library.

In May of that year the first board of public library trustees was named and a year Carnegie upped his donation to $75,000. The new library was opened on the corner of Main and Fourth Streets in 1904 and the contents of the Cook library were moved to the new location; the Blue Ribbon News was a temperance newspaper with a Republican point of view, founded in Davenport in 1878. Early publishers of the paper included Dr. J. B. Morgan, George W. Calderwood, Solon H. Fidlar, its investors sold the paper to E. W. Brady in 1879 and they renamed it the Northwestern News; the paper flourished in the 1880s and it changed its name again in 1886 to the Davenport Daily Times. In 1899 the Brady family sold the paper to A. W. Lee who published the Ottumwa Courier of Ottumwa, Iowa; this was the beginning of Lee Enterprises

Antoine Raab

Antoine Raab was a German football player and manager. Raab spent most of his career in France after having escaped Nazi Germany, being prosecuted and incarcerated for refusing to give the Nazi salute at a football game. Raab, born in Frankfurt, was one of four children of a German First World War veteran, his father, through his own experience during the war, raised Raab a pacifist and Christian and the latter held a strong conviction against any form of killing. Raab turned from his Christian faith however when, as a 19-year-old, he saw a priest bless a submarine in Hamburg. A promising young player for Eintracht Frankfurt, Raab was selected to captain a German youth side in a game in Stuttgart where he refused to give the Nazi salute, he was not prosecuted because of his status as a youth international, but was monitored by the police, arrested 18 months later. Raab was detained and tortured for the next 11 months and sentenced to 15 years of hard labour. Imprisoned in the fortress of Kassel, Raab contemplated suicide but was talked out of it by one of the guards.

Raab fabricated a key and found shelter with a woman whose husband had been shot and killed by the Nazis. With the help of his brother, Raab escaped Germany for France on 1 May 1937, dressed in a SS uniform. Unable to speak French and without any money Raab received help from local people and made his way to Paris where he was recognised as former German youth international and, despite opposition from Germany, signed for CA Paris. Raab moved to Nantes for work reasons in 1938 but had to give up his post as a draftsman after the outbreak of the Second World War because of the company being involved in national defence contracts, he was arrested because of his German nationality and sent to work in an ammunition factory until shortly before the armistice in 1940 when he escaped from the advancing German Army. During the German occupation of France Raab avoided arrest by the Germans and wrote pacifist leaflets which he distributed to German soldiers, hiding for a time in the village of Treillières.

After the liberation of Nantes in 1944 Raab joined FC Nantes and played for the club until 1949. He had two stints as manager of FC Nantes as well as becoming the club's director of sports for a time, he became a critic of the money involved in professional football when, at the same time, there was so much suffering and poverty in the world. Raab died on 12 December 2006 in Nantes