A torpedo boat is a small and fast naval ship designed to carry torpedoes into battle. The first designs rammed enemy ships with explosive spar torpedoes, designs launched self-propelled Whitehead torpedoes, they were created to counter battleships and other slow and armed ships by using speed and the power of their torpedo weapons. A number of inexpensive torpedo boats attacking en masse could overwhelm a larger ship's ability to fight them off using its large but cumbersome guns. An inexpensive fleet of torpedo boats could pose a threat to much larger and more expensive fleets of capital ships, albeit only in the coastal areas to which their small size and limited fuel load restricted them; the introduction of fast torpedo boats in the late 19th century was a serious concern to the era's naval strategists. In response, navies operating large ships introduced smaller ships to counter torpedo boats, mounting light quick-firing guns; these ships, which came to be called "torpedo boat destroyers" and simply "destroyers", became larger and took on more roles, making torpedo attacks as well as defending against them, defending against submarines and aircraft.
The destroyer became the predominant type of surface warship in the guided missile age. In the modern era, the old concept of a small and cheap surface combatant with powerful offensive weapons is taken up by the "fast attack craft"; the American Civil War saw a number of innovations in naval warfare, including an early type of torpedo boat, armed with spar torpedoes. In 1861 President Lincoln instituted a naval blockade of Southern ports, which crippled the South's efforts to obtain war materiel from abroad; the South lacked the means to construct a naval fleet capable of taking on the Union Navy on terms. One strategy to counter the blockade saw the development of torpedo boats, small fast boats designed to attack the larger capital ships of the blockading fleet as a form of asymmetrical warfare; the David class of torpedo boats were steam powered with a enclosed hull. They were not true were semi-submersible. CSS Midge was David-class torpedo boats. CSS Squib and CSS Scorpion represented another class of torpedo boats that were low built but had open decks and lacked the ballasting tanks found on the Davids.
The Confederate torpedo boats were armed with spar torpedoes. This was a charge of powder in a waterproof case, mounted to the bow of the torpedo boat below the water line on a long spar; the torpedo boat attacked by ramming her intended target, which stuck the torpedo to the target ship by means of a barb on the front of the torpedo. The torpedo boat would back away to a safe distance and detonate the torpedo by means of a long cord attached to a trigger. In general, the Confederate torpedo boats were not successful, their low sides made them susceptible to swamping in high seas, to having their boiler fires extinguished by spray from their own torpedo explosions. Torpedo misfires and duds were common. In 1864 Union Naval Lieutenant Cushing fitted a steam launch with a spar torpedo to attack the Confederate ironclad Albemarle; the same year the Union launched USS Spuyten Duyvil, a purpose-built craft with a number of technical innovations including variable ballast for attack operations and an extensible and reloadable torpedo placement spar.
A prototype self-propelled torpedo was created by a commission placed by Giovanni Luppis, an Austrian naval officer from Rijeka a port city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Robert Whitehead, an English engineer, the manager of a town factory. In 1864, Luppis presented Whitehead with the plans of the salvacoste, a floating weapon driven by ropes from the land, dismissed by the naval authorities due to the impractical steering and propulsion mechanisms. Whitehead was unable to improve the machine since the clockwork motor, attached ropes, surface attack mode all contributed to a slow and cumbersome weapon. However, he kept considering the problem after the contract had finished, developed a tubular device, designed to run underwater on its own, powered by compressed air; the result was a submarine weapon, the Minenschiff, the first modern self-propelled torpedo presented to the Austrian Imperial Naval commission on December 21, 1866. The first trials were not successful as the weapon was unable to maintain a course on a steady depth.
After much work, Whitehead introduced his "secret" in 1868. It was a mechanism consisting of a hydrostatic valve and pendulum that caused the torpedo's hydroplanes to be adjusted so as to maintain a preset depth. During the mid-19th century, the ships of the line were superseded by large steam powered ships with heavy gun armament and heavy armour, called ironclads; this line of development led to the dreadnought class of all-big-gun battleship, starting with HMS Dreadnought. At the same time, the weight of armour slowed down the speed of the battleships, the huge guns needed to penetrate enemy armour fired at slow rates; this allowed for the possibility of a small and fast ship that could attack the battleships, at a much lower cost. The introduction of the torpedo provided a weapon that could cripple, or sink, any battleship; the first warship of any kind to carry self-propelled torpedoes was HMS Vesuvius of 1873. The first seagoing vessel designed to fire the self-propelled Whitehead torpedo was HMS Lightning.
The boat was built by John Thornycroft at Church Wharf in Chiswick for the Royal Navy. It entered service in 1876 and was armed with self-propelled Wh
Battle of Caldera Bay
The Battle of Caldera Bay, or the Sinking of Blanco Encalada, was an engagement fought in the port of Caldera Bay during the 1891 Chilean Civil War between Balmacedist and Congressional naval forces on 23 April 1891. It involved two Balmacedist torpedo boats, Almirante Lynch and Almirante Condell, the Congressional armored frigate Blanco Encalada. After both torpedoes from Almirante Condell had missed, Blanco Encalada was hit by a torpedo from Almirante Lynch and sank in minutes, with the loss of 182 men; the loss of Blanco Encalada hindered the Congressional forces, but they defeated the Balmacedist forces that August. Blanco Encalada was the first ironclad warship lost to a self-propelled torpedo; the engagement prompted countries to grow both their torpedo boat and torpedo boat destroyer forces. In 1891, after a series of struggles about multinational nitrate interests, Chilean President José Manuel Balmaceda refused to sign the national budget passed by the Chilean National Congress. Balmaceda dissolved Congress.
The dissolution split both the Chilean Army and Navy, with some forces remaining loyal to Congress and others to the President. An armed conflict ensued after a mutiny by the navy. Supporters of those forces loyal to Congress, including members of the dissolved parliament and their backers among multinational nitrate interests, bought weaponry from Europe and the United States. Better equipped than the forces loyal to the President, they captured Chile's northern provinces, conquered from Bolivia and Peru during the War of the Pacific. Since the Congressionalists controlled all of the current ships in the Chilean Navy, the Balmacedists commandeered vessels that were nearing completion in England and France, including the torpedo boats Almirante Condell and Almirante Lynch, they were built by Laird Brothers, the same firm that built the Confederate raider Alabama thirty years before. Both Almirante Lynch and Almirante Condell carried an armament of five Whitehead torpedoes, two 14-pound guns in echelon on the forecastle and one on the poop, four 3-pound guns and two machine guns.
Their maximum speed was around 21 knots. The two ships arrived at Valparaíso on 21 March. Both ships docked at Quintero Bay on 18 April. While at Quintero, their commanding officers, Commander Carlos E. Moraga of Almirante Condell and Commander Juan Fuentes of Almirante Lynch, were informed of the possibility that Blanco Encalada, a Congressionalist frigate, was going to be in Caldera Bay in five days; the two commanders consulted with one another and sent their proposal to attack Blanco Encalada to the Balmacedist government, approved. Blanco Encalada arrived at Caldera Bay on 22 April, under the command of Captain Goñi, escorting several transports; the troops on these ships landed and captured the surrounding railroad and town of Copiapó. At about 01:20, Goñi returned to Blanco Encalada. Although it was known that Balmacedist torpedo boats were nearby, the Congressionalists believed that they would not attack the transports; because of this, torpedo nets were left onshore, watertight bulkheads which would have isolated a hull breach were left open.
At 04:00 on 23 April, Almirante Condell set out toward Caldera Bay about 450 miles away, with Almirante Lynch 20 yards behind her. The armed steamer Imperial traveled with the torpedo boats, taking up a position to the left of both boats, it was to wait some distance off Caldera, in order to escort the ships back home when the attack ended. Both torpedo boats entered Caldera at 3:30; when they were 500 yards from Blanco Encalada, both boats came under fire by rapid-fire guns on board the frigate, which only had seven men stationed as guards. About 100 yards from Blanco Encalada, Almirante Condell fired her bow torpedo at the Congressional frigate, it landed on the shore, unexploded. Moraga turned the torpedo boat into the direct fire of the frigate and fired both his starboard torpedoes; the front torpedo hit, but failed to explode, the rear torpedo passed clear under the frigate. As all of Blanco Encalada's guns were occupied by Almirante Condell, the crew did not notice Almirante Lynch approaching from the opposite direction of Almirante Condell.
From 50 yards out, Almirante Lynch fired her bow torpedo, which missed, fired her forward starboard torpedo after executing a turning maneuver like Almirante Condell had done. The second torpedo struck Blanco Encalada, creating a hole 7 by 15 feet; the ship sank within minutes. Several of the men who escaped, including Captain Goñi, did so by clinging to animals in Blanco Encalada's cargo hold, including a llama and a cow; as she was sinking, the torpedo boats fired their 3-pounder Hotchkiss guns at the survivors, killing about forty. The torpedo boats fired at the transport Biobio, trying to rescue the surviving crew. Including Captain Goñi, 106 men survived out of the 288 aboard; the entire engagement lasted nine minutes, Blanco Encalada sank two minutes after the torpedo hit. As Almirante Lynch and Almirante Condell left the harbor, they spotted the transport Aconcagua, which they attacked with their 14-pounder guns. Aconcagua surrendered after an hour and a half battle, but the torpedo ships were unable to seize her due to an approaching ship which they thought was the Chilean cruiser Esmeralda.
It turned out to be the neutral HMS Warspite. Almirante Lynch was damaged in the battle, suffering hits to her steam-pipe and flooding in her aft compartment, but besides that, the two torpedo boats w
William Wheelwright was a businessman who played an essential role in the development of steamboat and train transportation in Chile and other parts of South America. In 1838, with help from the Chilean government, he founded the Pacific Steam Navigation Company which commenced operations on October 15, 1840 and provided commercial sea access to cities such as Valparaíso and El Callao. Wheelwright owned the Central Argentine Railway, a company established in 1863 that built and operated railway lines in the east-central region of Argentina. William Wheelwright, son of Ebenezer and Anna Wheelwright, was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts on March 16, 1798. Wheelwright lived in a house on High Street and attended public school until he was about twelve years of age, when he was sent to Andover Academy, where he completed his education. Wheelwright's father was a shipmaster in early life, William soon manifested a desire to pursue the same vocation, he shipped as cabin boy on board a vessel bound to the West Indies and during the next two or three years he rose to the rank of captain in 1817, when he was only nineteen years of age.
In 1823, he was in command of the ship Rising Empire, owned by William Bartlett, when the vessel was wrecked off the coast of South America, near the mouth of the Río de La Plata. The captain and crew reached shore in safety after twenty-four hours' exposure in an open boat. One man was lost. On his arrival at Buenos Aires, Wheelwright obtained a position as supercargo of a vessel about to sail for Valparaiso; the voyage took five months to complete using the route around Cape Horn. Interested in studying the business opportunities on the west coast of South America, he traveled to Guayaquil, the seaport of Ecuador, where he decided to remain. In 1825, he was appointed United States consul at that port. Three years he left his business in the hands of his partner and returned to his home in Newburyport via the Isthmus of Panama, he had been absent six years. He married Martha Gerrish of Newburyport on February 10, 1829, returned with her to Guayaquil. Wheelwright discovered that nearly all his property had been lost during his absence, through the negligence and mismanagement of his partner.
He decided to return to Valparaiso, bought a small vessel, which he named Fourth of July, which he put to work transporting specie and bullion from port to port along the coast. In 1835, he commenced the great task of establishing a line of steamers between the republics of Peru and Chile and Europe, he went to England in 1837 to raise funds, in 1838 the Pacific Steam Navigation Company was formed with a capital of £250,000. Two steamers, each of seven hundred tons register, were built in 1840 and ordered to proceed through the straits of Magellan to the ports of Valparaiso and Callao. After the arrival of these steamers on the Pacific coast Wheelwright discovered the difficulty of procuring coal and the impossibility of providing for unexpected repairs; these obstacles were surmounted, steam communication was established with Europe. Wheelwright built the first South American railroad from Caldera to Copiapó, extended it nearly 40 miles into the interior of Chile. In 1841, he became interested in a plan to unite Valparaiso and Buenos Aires by rail over the mountain range that separates Chile from Argentina.
The survey work was completed in 1859. Wheelwright moved to Argentina, where he built the Central Argentine Railway that joined the cities of Córdoba and Rosario; the company had been established in London, signing a contract with the Ministry of Interior, Guillermo Rawson, in 1863. The contract included a term stating the company had the exclusive rights to construct a railway to the Andes; the CAR never built the line due to the high costs. The company was granted a minimum profit. Wheelwright died in London in September 1873. A small town in Santa Fe Province of Argentina was named after him. John James Currier. "William Wheelwright". Ould Newbury: Historical and Biographical Sketches. Pp. 651–658. Out of copyright. Newburyport Vital Records and History The Life and Industrial Labors of William Wheelwright in South America by Juan Bautista Alberdi, published 1877, 213 pages. South America: A Popular Illustrated History of the Struggle for Independence by the Andean Republics and Cuba by Hezekiah Butterworth, published 1898, 266 pages.
Chapter 15 William Wheelwright and the Industrial Heroes, page 154. Observations on the Isthmus of Panama by William Wheelwright, published 1844, 31 pages. "Wheelwright, William". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Chilean ironclad Blanco Encalada
Blanco Encalada was an armored frigate built by Earle's Shipbuilding Co. in England for the Chilean Navy in 1875. She was nicknamed El Blanco, she participated in the War of the Pacific, her most important action being the capture of the Peruvian monitor Huáscar during the Battle of Angamos. Blanco Encalada formed part of the congressional forces that brought down President José Manuel Balmaceda in the Chilean Civil War of 1891, she was sunk during that conflict on 23 April 1891, becoming the first warship to be sunk by a self-propelled torpedo. In 1871 the president of Chile, Federico Errázuriz Zañartu, sent the Congress a bill to authorize the executive to acquire two armored warships; the bill, approved only by a vote of no confidence, stipulated that both vessels would be mid-sized frigates and would not cost more than 2 million pesos. Alberto Blest Gana, the ambassador to the United Kingdom, was put in charge of the project. Blest Gana contracted the ship designer Edward James Reed, an ex-naval architect of the British Admiralty, as the technical advisor.
Blest Gana contracted Earle's Shipbuilding Co. in Yorkshire to carry out the construction. The two ships were named Cochrane and Valparaíso but upon arrival at port on 24 January 1876, Valparaíso was renamed Blanco Encalada by the decree of the Minister of War and Navy on 15 September 1876; this was in honor of the admiral and first president of the Republic of Chile, Manuel Blanco Encalada. The construction of Blanco Encalada started in April 1872 and the ship was launched in 1875. In January 1878, the president Aníbal Pinto ordered the ambassador to Europe, Alberto Blest Gana, to put the ships up for sale as soon as the dispute with Argentina was resolved to help alleviate the economic crises that prevailed in Chile. On behalf of Blest Gana, Reed offered the United Kingdom Cochrane for 220,000 pounds sterling, but the British were not interested, he attempted to sell the ships to Russia with the same result. Being the flagship of the Chilean armada, Blanco Encalada participated in the War of the Pacific.
The frigate's first actions, under the command of Admiral Juan Williams Rebolledo, consisted of taking part in the blockade of Iquique and in the failed expedition to the port of Callao. Afterward, Blanco Encalada tried, unsuccessfully. Williams’ inability to put an end to what became known as the "Huáscar Raids" motivated him to resign his command; the failure of a decisive victory against the monitor is owed to the bad state of the engines and boilers of Blanco Encalada and the skill of the commander of the Peruvian ship. The command of Blanco Encalada fell to the new commander-in-chief of the navy, Comador Galvarino Riveros Cárdenas, whom ordered the Chilean armada to regroup and repair the ships. For this purpose, Blanco Encalada was anchored in Mejillones to make repairs to the engine using the workshops of the Salitres de Antofagasta Company; the hull was cleaned using divers brought from Valparaíso. The success of the repairs, which were finished at the end of September, was limited however.
The ship could only achieve, in a speed of 9 knots. After the repairs, Blanco Enclada participated in the Battle of Angamos where the Chilean fleet captured Huáscar on 8 October 1879; the last action in which Blanco Encalada participated was the capture, in the close quarters of Mollendo, of the gunboat Pilcomayo on 18 November. Blanco Encalada was sunk by a torpedo gunboat in the Battle of Caldera Bay, Chile, on 23 April 1891 during the 1891 Chilean Civil War. Much of this article was translated from Blanco Encalada. Gardiner, Robert, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-8317-0302-4. Silverstone, Paul H.. Directory of the World's Capital Ships. New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-88254-979-0. "Some South American Ironclads". Warship International. Toledo, OH: Naval Records Club. VIII: 203–204. 1971
José Manuel Balmaceda
José Manuel Emiliano Balmaceda Fernández was the 11th President of Chile from September 18, 1886 to August 29, 1891. Balmaceda was part of the Castilian-Basque aristocracy in Chile. While he was president, his political disagreements with the Chilean congress led to the 1891 Chilean Civil War, following which he shot and killed himself. Balmaceda was born in Bucalemu, the eldest of the 12 children of Manuel José Balmaceda Ballesteros and Encarnación Fernández Salas, his parents were wealthy, in his early days he was chiefly concerned in industrial and agricultural enterprises. In 1849, he attended the School of the French Friars, considered joining the clergy, studying several years of theology at the Santiago Seminary. In 1864 he became secretary to Manuel Montt, one of the representatives of the Chilean government at the general South American congress at Lima, after his return obtained great distinction as an orator in the national assembly. In 1868 he joined forces with Justo and Domingo Arteaga Alemparte to found and publish the newspaper "La Libertad".
He was a constant contributor to the "Revista de Santiago", published two monographs: "The political solution in electoral freedom" and "Church and State". In 1869 he joined the Club de la Reforma; the essential tenets of the political program were freedom of religion, increased personal and political freedom, elimination of governmental intervention in the electoral process, reform of the 1833 constitution and restriction of the powers of the President. On the basis of this radical program, he was elected Deputy for Carelmapu several times: 1864–1867. Under President Aníbal Pinto, he discharged some diplomatic missions abroad, is credited with persuading Argentina not to join the War of the Pacific in 1878. In 1882 he was re-elected both for Santiago, he decided to accept neither and became instead successively Minister of Foreign Affairs and Colonization and of the Interior under the presidency of Domingo Santa María. In the latter capacity he carried compulsory civil marriage and several other laws obnoxious to the conservatives and the clergy.
Balmaceda was elected a Senator for Coquimbo. He was proclaimed a candidate to the presidency on the Odeon Theater of Valparaíso on January 17, 1886, with the support of the Nacional and part of the Radical Parties. On June 25 he was elected President as sole candidate. Balmaceda became President of Chile in 1886, his election was bitterly opposed by the Conservatives and dissident Liberals, but was achieved by the official influence of President Domingo Santa María. On assuming office President Balmaceda endeavoured to bring about a reconciliation of all sections of the Liberal Party in Congress and so form a solid majority to support the administration, to this end he nominated representatives of the different political groups as ministers. Six months the cabinet was reorganized, two of the most bitter opponents of his election were accorded portfolios, but despite his great capacity, Balmaceda's imperious temper little fitted him for the post. Balmaceda instituted wide-reaching reforms, believing that he had now secured the support of the majority in Congress for any measures he decided to put forward.
The new President initiated an unparalleled policy of heavy expenditure on public works, school building, the strengthening of the naval and military forces of the republic. Contracts were given out to the value of £6,000,000 for the construction of railways in the southern districts. In itself this policy was not unreasonable, in many ways beneficial for the country. Corruption crept into the expenditure of the large sums involved. Contracts were given by favour and not by merit, the progress made in the construction of the new public works was far from satisfactory; the opposition in Congress to President Balmaceda began to increase towards the close of 1887, further gained ground in 1888. In order to ensure a majority favourable to his views, the President threw the whole weight of his official influence into the elections for Senators and Deputies in 1888. In 1889 Congress became distinctly hostile to the administration of President Balmaceda, the political situation became grave, at times threatened to involve the country in civil war.
According to usage and custom in Chile at the time, a ministry did not remain in office unless supported by a majority in the chambers. Balmaceda now found himself in the impossible position of being unable to appoint ministers that would be supported by a majority in the Senate and Chamber of Deputies and at the same time be in accordance with his policies. At this juncture the President assumed that the constitution gave him the power of nominating and maintaining in office any ministers he might consider fitting persons for the purpose, that Congress had no right of interference in the matter; the chambers were now only waiting for a suitable opportunity to assert their authority. In 1890 it was stated that President Balmaceda had deter
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area, located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the word rural as encompassing "...all population and territory not included within an urban area. Whatever is not urban is considered rural."Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are rural, as are other types of areas such as forest. Different countries have varying definitions of rural for administrative purposes. In Canada, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a "predominantly rural region" as having more than 50% of the population living in rural communities where a "rural community" has a population density less than 150 people per square kilometre. In Canada, the census division has been used to represent "regions" and census consolidated sub-divisions have been used to represent "communities". Intermediate regions have 15 to 49 percent of their population living in a rural community.
Predominantly urban regions have less than 15 percent of their population living in a rural community. Predominantly rural regions are classified as rural metro-adjacent, rural non-metro-adjacent and rural northern, following Ehrensaft and Beeman. Rural metro-adjacent regions are predominantly rural census divisions which are adjacent to metropolitan centres while rural non-metro-adjacent regions are those predominantly rural census divisions which are not adjacent to metropolitan centres. Rural northern regions are predominantly rural census divisions that are found either or above the following lines of parallel in each province: Newfoundland and Labrador, 50th; as well, rural northern regions encompass all of Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Statistics Canada defines rural for their population counts; this definition has changed over time. It has referred to the population living outside settlements of 1,000 or fewer inhabitants; the current definition states that census rural is the population outside settlements with fewer than 1,000 inhabitants and a population density below 400 people per square kilometre.
84% of the United States' inhabitants live in suburban and urban areas, but cities occupy only 10 percent of the country. Rural areas occupy the remaining 90 percent; the U. S. Census Bureau, the USDA's Economic Research Service, the Office of Management and Budget have come together to help define rural areas. United States Census Bureau: The Census Bureau definitions, which are based on population density, defines rural areas as all territory outside Census Bureau-defined urbanized areas and urban clusters. An urbanized area consists of a central surrounding areas whose population is greater than 50,000, they may not contain individual cities with 50,000 or more. Thus, rural areas comprise open country and settlements with fewer than 2,500 residents. USDA The USDA's Office of Rural Development may define rural by various population thresholds; the 2002 farm bill defined rural and rural area as any area other than a city or town that has a population of greater than 50,000 inhabitants, the urbanized areas contiguous and adjacent to such a city or town.
The rural-urban continuum codes, urban influence code, rural county typology codes developed by USDA’s Economic Research Service allow researchers to break out the standard metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas into smaller residential groups. For example, a metropolitan county is one that contains an urbanized area, or one that has a twenty-five percent commuter rate to an urbanized area regardless of population. OMB: Under the Core Based Statistical Areas used by the OMB, a metropolitan county, or Metropolitan Statistical Area, consists of central counties with one or more urbanized areas and outlying counties that are economically tied to the core counties as measured by worker commuting data. Non-metro counties are outside the boundaries of metro areas and are further subdivided into Micropolitan Statistical Areas centered on urban clusters of 10,000–50,000 residents, all remaining non-core counties. In 2014, the USDA updated their rural / non-rural area definitions based on the 2010 Census counts.
National Center for Education Statistics revised its definition of rural schools in 2006 after working with the Census Bureau to create a new locale classification system to capitalize on improved geocoding technology. Rural health definitions can be different for establishing under-served areas or health care accessibility in rural areas of the United States. According to the handbook, Definitions of Rural: A Handbook for Health Policy Makers and Researchers, "Residents of metropolitan counties are thought to have easy access to the concentrated health services of the county's central areas. However, some metropolitan counties are so large that t