The Roman Missal is the liturgical book that contains the texts and rubrics for the celebration of the Mass in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Before the high Middle Ages, several books were used at Mass, a Sacramentary with the prayers, one or more books for the Scriptural readings, and one or more books for the antiphons and other chants. Gradually, manuscripts came into being that incorporated parts of more than one of these books, such a book was referred to as a Missale Plenum. In 1223 Saint Francis of Assisi instructed his friars to adopt the form that was in use at the Papal Court and they adapted this missal further to the needs of their largely itinerant apostolate. Its use spread throughout Europe, especially after the invention of the printing press, printing favoured the spread of other liturgical texts of less certain orthodoxy. The Council of Trent recognized that an end must be put to the resulting confusion, some corrections to Pope Pius Vs text proved necessary, and Pope Clement VIII replaced it with a new typical edition of the Roman Missal on 7 July 1604.
A further revised edition was promulgated by Pope Urban VIII on 2 September 1634. Beginning in the seventeenth century and neighbouring areas saw a flurry of independent missals published by bishops influenced by Jansenism and Gallicanism. This ended when Bishop Pierre-Louis Parisis of Langres and Abbot Guéranger initiated in the century a campaign to return to the Roman Missal. Pope Leo XIII took the opportunity to issue in 1884 a new edition that took account of all the changes introduced since the time of Pope Urban VIII. Pope Pius X undertook a revision of the Roman Missal, in the part of the Missal thus thoroughly revised, he anticipated some of the changes affecting all days of the year after the Second Vatican Council. These novelties included the first official introduction of the language into the liturgy for renewal of baptismal promises within the Easter Vigil celebration. The Pope removed from the Vigil of Pentecost the series of six Old Testament readings, with their accompanying Tracts and Collects, the changes this made in the General Roman Calendar are indicated in General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII.
After duly weighing the answers of the bishops, he judged that it was time to attack the problem of a general and systematic revision of the rubrics of the breviary and this question he referred to the special committee of experts appointed to study the general liturgical reform. His successor, Pope John XXIII, issued a new edition of the Roman Missal in 1962. This incorporated the revised Code of Rubrics which Pope Pius XIIs commission had prepared, other notable revisions were the omission of the adjective perfidis in the Good Friday Prayer for the Jews and the insertion of the name of Saint Joseph into the Canon of the Mass. They were reflected in the provisional vernacular translations produced in various countries when the language of the people began to be used in addition to Latin, references sometimes met in an English-language context to the 1965 Missal concern these temporary vernacular productions, not the Roman Missal itself. Even countries that had the language used different translations and varied in the amount of vernacular admitted
Martin of Tours
St. Martin of Tours was Bishop of Tours, whose shrine in France became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela in Spain. He has become one of the most familiar and recognizable Christian saints, sometimes venerated as a military saint. As he was born in what is now Szombathely, spent much of his childhood in Pavia and his life was recorded by a contemporary, the hagiographer Sulpicius Severus. Some of the accounts of his travels may have been interpolated into his vita to validate early sites of his cult. He is best known for the account of his using his sword to cut his cloak in two, to give half to a beggar clad only in rags in the depth of winter. Conscripted as a soldier into the Roman army, he found the duty incompatible with the Christian faith he had adopted, Martin was born in 316 or 336 AD in Savaria in the Diocese of Pannonia. His father was an officer in the Imperial Horse Guard, a unit of the Roman army, stationed at Ticinum, in northern Italy. The date of his birth is a matter of controversy, with both 316 and 336 having rationales, at the age of ten he attended the Christian church against the wishes of his parents, and became a catechumen.
Christianity had been made a religion in the Roman Empire. It had many adherents in the Eastern Empire, whence it had sprung. Christianity was far from accepted amongst the higher echelons of society, although the conversion of the Emperor Constantine and the subsequent programme of church-building gave a greater impetus to the spread of the religion, it was still a minority faith. As the son of an officer, Martin at fifteen was required to join a cavalry ala. At the age of 18 around 334 or 354, he was stationed at Ambianensium civitas or Samarobriva in Gaul and it is likely that he joined the Equites catafractarii Ambianenses, a heavy cavalry unit listed in the Notitia Dignitatum. Jacques Fontaine thinks that the biographer was somewhat embarrassed about referring to long stint in the army and he was charged with cowardice and jailed, but in response to the charge, he volunteered to go unarmed to the front of the troops. His superiors planned to take him up on the offer, but before they could, the invaders sued for peace, the battle never occurred, and Martin was released from military service.
Martin declared his vocation, and made his way to the city of Caesarodunum, where he became a disciple of Hilary of Poitiers and he opposed the Arianism of the Imperial Court. When Hilary was forced into exile from Pictavium, Martin returned to Italy, according to Sulpicius Severus, he converted an Alpine brigand on the way, and confronted the Devil himself. Having heard in a dream a summons to revisit his home, Martin crossed the Alps, there he converted his mother and some other persons, his father he could not win
The document, dated 7 July 2007 and in force since 14 September 2007, was released along with a letter in which Pope Benedict explained his reasons for issuing it. The document replaced the motu proprio Ecclesia Dei of 1988, which allowed individual bishops to establish places where Mass could be using the 1962 Missal. As is customary for papal documents, the motu proprio is referred to by its incipit, Supreme Pontiff is a title of the popes, and the opening sentence states that it has always been a concern of the Supreme Pontiffs that the Church should offer fitting worship to God. Pope Benedict XVI released the document after much reflection, numerous consultations, in article 1 of the document, he spoke of the typical edition of the Roman Missal, which was promulgated by Blessed John XXIII in 1962, as never abrogated. In the letter he specified this as never juridically abrogated, for such a celebration with either Missal, the priest needs no permission from the Apostolic See or from his own Ordinary. g.
He allowed bishops, on the condition, to use the earlier Pontifical in administering Confirmation. Bishops may establish personal parishes or appoint chaplains for administering the sacraments according to the old form, the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, whose role the document confirmed, was given authority to ensure observance of the rules laid down in the document. Stable groups of the mentioned in article 5 whose parish priest does not grant them their request should inform the diocesan bishop. If he does not wish to do so, they should inform the Pontifical Commission and he recognised that there have been exaggerations and at times social aspects unduly linked to the attitude of the faithful attached to the ancient Latin liturgical tradition. This will bring out the spiritual richness and the depth of this Missal. Benedict cited interior reconciliation in the heart of the Church as a reason for the motu proprio. Traditionalist groups, such as the Society of St, the total exclusion of the new rite would not in fact be consistent with the recognition of its value and holiness.
Thus, while opening the door to the Tridentine Mass, the Pope expects the SSPX to acknowledge the legitimacy of the Mass of Paul VI, SSPX Superior General, Bishop Fellay wrote, The letter which accompanies the Motu Proprio does not hide however the difficulties that still remain. Fellay stated that the Society is eager after the decree of excommunication which still affects its bishops has been withdrawn—to consider more serenely the disputed doctrinal issues, the Pope stressed, There is no contradiction between the two editions of the Roman Missal. In the history of the liturgy there is growth and progress, what earlier generations held as sacred, remains sacred and great for us too, and it cannot be all of a sudden entirely forbidden or even considered harmful. It behooves all of us to preserve the riches which have developed in the Church’s faith and prayer and he continued by demanding recognition of the value and holiness of celebration according to the new books. For such a celebration with either Missal, the priest need no permission from the Apostolic See or from his own Ordinary, the celebrations of Mass mentioned above.
May be attended by members of the lay faithful who spontaneously request to do so, in churches other than parish or conventual churches, it is for the rector of the church to grant the above permission
Christianity is a Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who serves as the focal point for the religion. It is the worlds largest religion, with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles Creed and his incarnation, earthly ministry and resurrection are often referred to as the gospel, meaning good news. The term gospel refers to accounts of Jesuss life and teaching, four of which—Matthew, Luke. Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-1st century, following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization, throughout its history, Christianity has weathered schisms and theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct churches and denominations.
Worldwide, the three largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the denominations of Protestantism. There are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible, concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds. They began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another. Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church, the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada, the Apostles Creed is the most widely accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists and this particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries.
Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator, each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Most Christians accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the mentioned above. The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God, Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin
The most widely used Mass liturgy in the world until the introduction of the Mass of Paul VI in 1969, it is celebrated in ecclesiastical Latin. Tridentine is derived from the Latin Tridentinus, related to the city of Tridentum, in 2007, Pope Benedict XVI issued the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum, accompanied by a letter to the worlds bishops authorizing use of the Tridentine Mass and Ritual for competent priests. The Pope stated that the 1962 edition of the Roman Missal is to be considered a form of the Roman Rite, of which the 1970 Mass of Paul VI is the ordinary. Since that is the authorized extraordinary form, some refer to the 1962 Tridentine Mass as the extraordinary form of the Mass. In Masses celebrated without the people, Latin Rite Catholic priests are free to use either the 1962 Tridentine missal or the Ordinary Form missal. These Masses may — observing all the norms of law — be attended by faithful who, of their own free will, permission to use the Tridentine Mass as parish liturgies may be given by the pastor or rector.
In most countries, the used for celebrating the Tridentine Mass was Latin. Episcopal conferences were to decide, with the consent of the Holy See, what parts, if any. Most Old Catholics use the Tridentine Mass, either in the vernacular or in Latin, the Catholic Church uses the term extraordinary form of the Roman Rite Mass among other terms. The most widespread term for the rite, other than Tridentine Mass, is Latin Mass, the ordinary form of the Roman Rite Mass was promulgated in Latin and can be celebrated in that language. Occasionally the term Gregorian Rite is used when talking about the Tridentine Mass, as is, more frequently, Pope Benedict XVI declared it inappropriate to speak of the versions of the Roman Missal of before and after 1970 as if they were two rites. Rather, he said, it is a matter of a use of one. Traditionalist Catholics, whose characteristic is an attachment to the Tridentine Mass. Standardization was required in order to prevent the introduction into the liturgy of Protestant ideas in the wake of the Protestant Reformation.
Pope St. Pius V accordingly imposed uniformity by law in 1570 with the papal bull Quo primum and he allowed only those rites that were at least 200 years old to survive the promulgation of his 1570 Missal. The Carmelite and Dominican religious orders kept their rites, the rite of Braga, in northern Portugal, seems to have been practically abandoned, since 18 November 1971 that archdiocese authorizes its use only on an optional basis. This ended when Abbot Guéranger and others initiated in the 19th century a campaign to return to the Roman Missal, Pius Vs revision of the liturgy had as one of its declared aims the restoration of the Roman Missal to the original form and rite of the holy Fathers. Due to the limited resources available to his scholars, this aim was in fact not realised
A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of other monks. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions, in the Greek language the term can apply to women, but in modern English it is mainly in use for men. The word nun is typically used for female monastics, although the term monachos is of Christian origin, in the English language monk tends to be used loosely for both male and female ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds. However, being generic, it is not interchangeable terms that denote particular kinds of monk, such as cenobite, anchorite, hesychast. In Eastern Orthodoxy monasticism holds a special and important place. Orthodox monastics separate themselves from the world in order to pray unceasingly for the world and they do not, in general, have as their primary purpose the running of social services, but instead are concerned with attaining theosis, or union with God. However, care for the poor and needy has always been an obligation of monasticism, the level of contact though will vary from community to community.
Hermits, on the hand, have little or no contact with the outside world. Orthodox monasticism does not have religious orders as are found in the West, basil the Great and the Philokalia, which was compiled by St. Nikodemos of the Holy Mountain and St. Makarios of Corinth. Hesychasm is of importance in the ascetical theology of the Orthodox Church. Meals are usually taken in common in a dining hall known as a trapeza. Food is usually simple and is eaten in silence while one of the brethren reads aloud from the writings of the Holy Fathers. The monastic lifestyle takes a deal of serious commitment. Within the cenobitic community, all monks conform to a way of living based on the traditions of that particular monastery. In struggling to attain this conformity, the comes to realize his own shortcomings and is guided by his spiritual father in how to deal honestly with them. For this same reason, bishops are almost always chosen from the ranks of monks, Eastern monasticism is found in three distinct forms, anchoritic and the middle way between the two, known as the skete.
One normally enters a community first, and only after testing and spiritual growth would one go on to the skete or, for the most advanced. However, one is not necessarily expected to join a skete or become a solitary, in general, Orthodox monastics have little or no contact with the outside world, including their own families
Menologium, written menology, and menologe, is a service-book used in the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Rite of Constantinople. From its derivation from Ancient Greek, μηνολόγιον menológion, from μήν mén a month, via Latin menologium, the meaning is month-set—in other words. Like a good many other terms, the word has been used in several quite distinct senses. Menologion has several different meanings, Menologion is not infrequently used as synonymous with Menaion, the Synaxaries are read in this place very much as the Martyrologium for the day is interpolated in the choral recitation of Prime in the offices of Western Christendom. Secondly and more frequently, menologion is the collection of lives of the saints just mentioned. The Menologion of Basil II, a work of early date often referred to in connexion with the history of the Orthodox Offices, is a book of this class. Frequently the tables of scriptural lessons, arranged according to months and saints days and this arrangement has always been a favourite one in the great Legendaria of the West, and it might be illustrated from the Acta Sanctorum or the Lives of the Saints by Surius.
In the liturgical calendar of the Orthodox Church, September is the first month of the ecclesiastical year, one of the most important collections of this kind is that made by Symeon Metaphrastes. In most of the orders it became the custom to commemorate the memory of their dead brethren specially renowned for holiness or learning. A year or two later, in 1630, Father Crisóstomo Henríquez published at Antwerp his Menologium Cisterciense, though Fathers Nuremberg and Nadasi compiled collections of a similar character, they did not bear the name Menologium. The earliest Jesuit compilation which is so styled seems to have been printed in the year 1669, the author did not live to complete his task, but the menologies have been published by other hands since his death. Menologium is any calendar divided into months, as, for example and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Charles, ed. article name needed
Doctor of the Church
Doctor of the Church is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine. Some other churches have similar categories with various names, in the Western church four eminent Fathers of the Church attained this honour in the early Middle Ages, Saint Gregory the Great, Saint Ambrose, Saint Augustine, and Saint Jerome. The four Doctors became a commonplace among the Scholastics, and a decree of Boniface VIII ordering their feasts to be kept as doubles in the whole Church is contained in his book of Decretals. In the Eastern Church three Doctors were pre-eminent, Saint John Chrysostom, Saint Basil the Great, and Saint Gregory Nazianzen, the feasts of these three saints were made obligatory throughout the Eastern Empire by Leo VI the Wise. A common feast was instituted in their honour on 30 January. But sermons for the feast are attributed in manuscripts to Cosmas Vestitor, the three are as common in Eastern art as the four are in Western.
Durandus remarks that Doctors should be represented with books in their hands, in the West analogy led to the veneration of four Eastern Doctors, Saint Athanasius being added to the three hierarchs. The details of the title, doctor of the church, vary from one autonomous ritual church to another, to these names others have subsequently been added to the liturgy. The requisite conditions are enumerated as three, eminens doctrina, insignis vitae sanctitas, Ecclesiae declaratio, Benedict XIV explains the third as a declaration by the supreme pontiff or by a general council. But though general councils have acclaimed the writings of certain Doctors, the procedure involves extending to the universal church the use of the Divine Office and Mass of the saint in which the title of doctor is applied to him. The decree is issued by the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints and approved by the pope, after an examination, if necessary. It is not in any way an ex cathedra decision, nor does it even amount to a declaration that no error is to be found in the teaching of the Doctor.
It is, well known that the very greatest of them are not wholly immune from error, no martyr is in the list, since the Office and the Mass are for Confessors. Hence, as Benedict XIV points out, Saint Ignatius of Antioch, Saint Irenaeus, the Doctors works vary greatly in subject and form. Some, such as Pope Gregory I and Ambrose were prominent writers of letters, Catherine of Siena and John of the Cross wrote mystical theology. Augustine and Bellarmine defended the Church against heresy, bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People provides the best information on England in the early Middle Ages. Systematic theologians include the Scholastic philosophers Anselm, Albertus Magnus, Saints Teresa and Therese were both Discalced Carmelites, St. Catherine was a lay Dominican, and Hildegard was a Benedictine. * Jucunditatem et exsultationem thesaurizavit super eum, the Nicene Creed was recited at Mass, which is normally not said except on Sundays and the highest-ranking feast days
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East. The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown, precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empires Crisis of the Third Century to, in the East, the early Islamic period, following the Muslim conquests in the mid–7th century. In the West the end was earlier, with the start of the Early Medieval period typically placed in the 6th century, beginning with Constantine the Great, Christianity was made legal in the Empire, and a new capital was founded at Constantinople. The resultant cultural fusion of Greco-Roman and Christian traditions formed the foundations of the subsequent culture of Europe, the term Spätantike, literally late antiquity, has been used by German-speaking historians since its popularization by Alois Riegl in the early 20th century.
Concurrently, some migrating Germanic tribes such as the Ostrogoths and Visigoths saw themselves as perpetuating the Roman tradition, Constantine confirmed the legalization of the religion through the so-called Edict of Milan in 313, jointly issued with his rival in the East, Licinius. Monasticism was not the only new Christian movement to appear in Late Antiquity, notable in this regard is the topic of the Fifty Bibles of Constantine. Within the recently legitimized Christian community of the 4th century, a division could be distinctly seen between the laity and an increasingly celibate male leadership. Celibate and detached, the clergy became an elite equal in prestige to urban notables. The Late Antique period saw a transformation of the political and social basis of life in. The Roman Empire was in a sense a network of cities, archaeology now supplements literary sources to document the transformation followed by collapse of cities in the Mediterranean basin. Burials within the urban precincts mark another stage in dissolution of traditional urbanistic discipline, overpowered by the attraction of saintly shrines, in Roman Britain, the typical 4th- and 5th-century layer of black earth within cities seems to be a result of increased gardening in formerly urban spaces.
A similar though less marked decline in population occurred in Constantinople. In Europe there was a decline in urban populations. As a whole, the period of antiquity was accompanied by an overall population decline in almost all Europe. Long-distance markets disappeared, and there was a reversion to a degree of local production and consumption, rather than webs of commerce. The degree and extent of discontinuity in the cities of the Greek East is a moot subject among historians. In the western Mediterranean, the new cities known to be founded in Europe between the 5th and 8th centuries were the four or five Visigothic victory cities
A pastor is usually an ordained leader of a Christian congregation. When used as an ecclesiastical styling or title, the term may be abbreviated to Pr or Ps, a pastor gives advice and counsel to people from the community or congregation. The word pastor derives from the Latin noun pastor which means shepherd and relates to the Latin verb pascere - to lead to pasture, set to grazing, cause to eat. The term pastor relates to the role of elder within the New Testament, many Protestant churches call their ministers pastors. Present-day usage of the word is rooted in the Biblical image of shepherding, the Hebrew Bible uses the Hebrew word רעה. English-language translations of the New Testament usually render the Greek noun ποιμήν as shepherd, the two words occur a total of 29 times in the New Testament, most frequently referring to Jesus. For example, Jesus called himself the Good Shepherd in John 10,11, the same words in the familiar Christmas story refer to literal shepherds. 1 Corinthians 9,7 - Paul says, of himself and the apostles, in the United States, the term pastor is used by Catholics for what in other English-speaking countries is called a parish priest.
The Latin term used in the Code of Canon Law is parochus, the parish priest is the proper clergyman in charge of the congregation of the parish entrusted to him. Many Protestants use the term pastor as a title or as a job title, United Methodists, for example, ordain to the office of deacon and elder, each of whom can use the title of pastor depending upon their job description. These pastors may be lay people, seminary students, or seminary graduates in the ordination process, and cannot exercise any functions of clergy outside the charge where they are appointed. The use of the pastor can be regional in some denominations, including some parts of the Methodist, Seventh-day Adventist, American Churches of Christ. The use of the pastor to refer to the common Protestant title of modern times dates to the days of John Calvin. Both men, and other Reformers, seem to have revived the term to replace the Catholic priest in the minds of their followers, the pastor was considered to have a role separate from the board of presbyters.
In some Lutheran churches, ordained clergy are called priests, while in others the term pastor is preferred, ordained clergy are called priests in the Episcopal Church, as in all other branches of the Anglican Communion. Bercot, David W. Will The Real Heretics Please Stand Up, newAdvent. org, The Catholic Encyclopedias entry on the term pastor. LifeWay. com, Articles to help the pastor in the roles of preacher, leader and person
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, months, a date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system. A calendar is a record of such a system. A calendar can mean a list of planned events, such as a calendar or a partly or fully chronological list of documents. Periods in a calendar are usually, though not necessarily, synchronized with the cycle of the sun or the moon. The most common type of calendar was the lunisolar calendar. Latin calendarium meant account book, the Latin term was adopted in Old French as calendier and from there in Middle English as calender by the 13th century. The course of the Sun and the Moon are the most evident forms of timekeeping, the Roman calendar contained very ancient remnants of a pre-Etruscan 10-month solar year. The first recorded calendars date to the Bronze Age, dependent on the development of writing in the Ancient Near East, a larger number of calendar systems of the Ancient Near East becomes accessible in the Iron Age, based on the Babylonian calendar.
This includes the calendar of the Persian Empire, which in turn gave rise to the Zoroastrian calendar as well as the Hebrew calendar, calendars in antiquity were lunisolar, depending on the introduction of intercalary months to align the solar and the lunar years. This was mostly based on observation, but there may have been attempts to model the pattern of intercalation algorithmically. The Roman calendar was reformed by Julius Caesar in 45 BC, the Julian calendar was no longer dependent on the observation of the new moon but simply followed an algorithm of introducing a leap day every four years. This created a dissociation of the month from the lunation. The Islamic calendar is based on the prohibition of intercalation by Muhammad and this resulted in an observationally based lunar calendar that shifts relative to the seasons of the solar year. The first calendar reform of the modern era was the Gregorian calendar. Such ideas are mooted from time to time but have failed to gain traction because of the loss of continuity, massive upheaval in implementation, a full calendar system has a different calendar date for every day.
Thus the week cycle is by not a full calendar system. The simplest calendar system just counts time periods from a reference date and this applies for the Julian day or Unix Time
Agnes of Rome
Agnes of Rome is a virgin–martyr, venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion, and Lutheranism. She is one of seven women, who along with the Blessed Virgin, are commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass and she is the patron saint of chastity, girls, engaged couples, rape survivors and the Children of Mary. Agnes is depicted in art with a lamb, as the Latin word for lamb, the name Agnes is actually derived from the feminine Greek adjective hagnē meaning chaste, sacred. Agnes feast day is 21 January, in pre-1970 versions of the General Roman Calendar an additional feast of the same saint is given one week later, on 28 January. The 1969 revision removed this as a duplication of the 21 January feast, according to tradition, Saint Agnes of Rome was a member of the Roman nobility born in AD291 and raised in a Early Catholic family. She suffered martyrdom at the age of twelve or thirteen during the reign of the Roman Emperor Diocletian, Agnes was a beautiful young girl of wealthy family and therefore had many suitors of high rank.
Details of her story are unreliable, but legend holds that the men, slighted by her resolute devotion to religious purity. The Prefect Sempronius condemned Agnes to be dragged naked through the streets to a brothel, various versions of the legend give different methods of escape from this predicament. In one, as she prayed, her hair grew and covered her body and it was said that all of the men who attempted to rape her were immediately struck blind. In another the son of the prefect is struck dead, but revived after she prayed for him, there is a trial from which Sempronius excuses himself, and another figure presides, sentencing her to death. It is said that her blood poured to the floor where other Christians soaked it up with cloths. Agnes was buried beside the Via Nomentana in Rome, the daughter of Constantine I, Saint Constance, was said to have been cured of leprosy after praying at Agnes tomb. She and Emerentiana appear in the scenes from the life of Agnes on the 14th-century Royal Gold Cup in the British Museum.
An early account of Agnes death, stressing her young age and virginity, Agnes was venerated as a saint at least as early as the time of St. Ambrose, based on an existing homily. Agness bones are conserved beneath the altar in the church of SantAgnese fuori le mura in Rome. Her skull is preserved in a chapel in the church of SantAgnese in Agone in Romes Piazza Navona. Agnes is the saint of young girls. Folk custom called for them to practise rituals on Saint Agnes Eve with a view to discovering their future husbands and this superstition has been immortalised in John Keatss poem, The Eve of Saint Agnes