Calendula is a genus of about 15–20 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants in the daisy family Asteraceae that are known as marigolds. They are native to southwestern Asia, western Europe and the Mediterranean. Other plants are known as marigolds, such as corn marigold, desert marigold, marsh marigold, plants of the genus Tagetes; the genus name Calendula is a modern Latin diminutive of calendae, meaning "little calendar", "little clock" or "little weather-glass". The common name "marigold" refers to the Virgin Mary; the most cultivated and used member of the genus is the pot marigold. Popular herbal and cosmetic products named'calendula' invariably derive from C. officinalis. Calendula species have been used traditionally as medicinal herbs; the petals are edible and can be used fresh in salads or dried and used to color cheese or as a replacement for saffron. A yellow dye has been extracted from the flowers. Romans and Greeks used the golden calendula in many rituals and ceremonies, sometimes wearing crowns or garlands made from the flowers.
One of its nicknames is "Mary's Gold," referring to the flowers' use in early Catholic events in some countries. Calendula flowers are sacred flowers in India and have been used to decorate the statues of Hindu deities since early times. Calendula ointments are skin products available for use on minor cuts and skin irritation; the flowers of C. officinalis contain flavonol glycosides, triterpene oligoglycosides, oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, a sesquiterpene glucoside. Calendula oil is still used medicinally; the oil of C. officinalis is used as a remedy for healing wounds. Plant pharmacological studies have suggested that Calendula extracts have antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. In herbalism, Calendula in suspension or in tincture is used topically for treating acne, reducing inflammation, controlling bleeding, soothing irritated tissue. Limited evidence indicates Calendula cream or ointment is effective in treating radiation dermatitis. Topical application of C. officinalis ointment has helped to prevent dermatitis and pain.
Calendula has been used traditionally for abdominal cramps and constipation. In experiments with rabbit jejunum, the aqueous-ethanol extract of C. officinalis flowers was shown to have both spasmolytic and spasmogenic effects, thus providing a scientific rationale for this traditional use. An aqueous extract of C. officinalis obtained by a novel extraction method has demonstrated antitumor activity and immunomodulatory properties in vitro, as well as antitumor activity in mice. Calendula plants are known to cause allergic reactions, should be avoided during pregnancy. Calendula species have been used in cooking for centuries; the flowers were a common ingredient in German soups and stews, which explains the nickname "pot marigold". The lovely golden petals were used to add color to butter and cheese; the flowers are traditional ingredients in Middle Eastern dishes. Calendula tea provides health benefits, as well as being delicious; the flowers were once used as a source of dye for fabrics. By using different mordants, a variety of yellows and browns could be obtained.
Species include: Calendula arvensis L. – field marigold, wild marigold Calendula denticulata Schousb. Ex Willd. Calendula eckerleinii Ohle Calendula incana Willd. Calendula incana subsp. Algarbiensis Ohle Calendula incana subsp. Maderensis Ohle – Madeiran marigold Calendula incana subsp. Maritima Ohle – sea marigold Calendula incana subsp. Microphylla Ohle Calendula lanzae Maire Calendula maritima Guss. - sea marigold Calendula maroccana Ball Calendula maroccana subsp. Maroccana Calendula maroccana subsp. Murbeckii Ohle Calendula meuselii Ohle Calendula officinalis L. – pot marigold, garden marigold, Scottish marigold Calendula palaestina Boiss. Calendula stellata Cav. Calendula suffruticosa Vahl Calendula suffruticosa subsp. Balansae Ohle Calendula suffruticosa subsp. Boissieri Lanza Calendula suffruticosa subsp. Fulgida Guadagno Calendula suffruticosa subsp. Lusitanica Ohle Calendula suffruticosa subsp. Maritima Meikle Calendula suffruticosa subsp. Monardii Ohle Calendula suffruticosa subsp. Tomentosa Murb.
Calendula tripterocarpa Rupr. Flora Europaea: Calendula Germplasm Resources Information Network: Calendula Botanical.com: Calendula
The New Testament Household Codes known as New Testament Domestic Codes, consist of instructions in the New Testament writings of the apostles Paul and Peter to pairs of Christian people in different domestic and civil structures of society. The main foci of the Household Codes are upon husband/wife, parent/child, master/slave relationships; the Codes were developed to urge the new first century Christians to comply with the non-negotiable requirements of Roman Patria Potestas law, to meet the needs for order within the fledgling churches. The two main passages that explain these relationships and duties are Ephesians 5:22-6:9 and Colossians 3:18-4:1. An underlying Household Code is reflected in 1 Timothy 2:1ff. 8ff.. 8ff.. Proof texts from the New Testament Household Codes—from the first century to the present day—have been used to define a married Christian woman's role in relation to her husband, to disqualify women from primary ministry positions in Christian churches. Others more positively interpret the Haustafeln passages to be "Peter and Paul’s radical Christian'remix' that passes unnoticed by modern readers".
The German word Haustafel, plural Haustafeln, refers to a summary table of specific actions members of each domestic pair in a household are expected to perform. The term is said to have been coined by Martin Luther. A Haustafel is included in Luther's Small Catechism. According to certain studies, the public life of women in the time of Jesus was far more restricted than in Old Testament times. At the time the apostles were writing their letters concerning the Household Codes, Roman law vested enormous power, lit. "the rule of the fathers") in the husband over his "family" which included his wife, agnatic descendants and freedmen. This power was absolute and included the power of life and death, he could acknowledge, kill, or disown a child. A first-century jurist recounts the story of a man beating his wife to death because she had drunk some wine, his neighbors approved. Church-state relations in the Roman Empire at the time were far from ideal; the Christians rejected Hellenistic religions. Christian preaching about a new king Jesus sounded like revolution.
Christians were very unpopular and severe religious persecution of them had begun. Paul's success at Ephesus had provoked a riot to defend the cult of the goddess Artemis. In 64 AD, the Great Fire of Rome destroyed over seventy percent of Rome. A rumor had gone forth which accused Nero of starting the fire himself, that he had sung a song from his Palace tower as he watched the flames engulf the city. At that time Christians were a rather obscure religious sect with a small following in the city. To "suppress this rumor" according to Tacitus, Nero blamed the Christians and killed a “vast multitude” of them as scapegoats. Nero supported widespread persecution of Christians, including having his victims fed to the lions during giant spectacles held in the city's remaining amphitheater, he took pleasure in the Christian persecutions and offered many of them upon stakes to be burned to death as torches for his parties. Many others of them were fed to starving dogs while the mob cheered. In a Tübingen dissertation, James E. Crouch identifies Colossians 3:18-4:1 as the earliest traceable form of the Christian Household Code, with further developments being found in Ephesians, the pastorals, 1 Peter.
Crouch concludes that the early Christians found in Hellenistic Judaism a Code which they adapted and Christianized. The concept of Household Codes was borrowed from Greek and Roman ethics, according to Suzanne Henderson, she notes that over the past century, scholars have identified a range of parallels between the Colossians Household Code and the writings of the Greco-Roman world. She writes that Martin Dibelius emphasized the influence of Stoic thought, while others have argued that the Code "bears the influence of Hellenistic Jewish writers such as Philo and Josephus. Stagg writes: "The form of the Code stressing reciprocal social duties is traced to Judaism's own Oriental background, with its strong moral/ethical demand but with a low view of woman.... At bottom is to be seen the perennial tension between freedom and order.... What mattered to was'a new creation' and'in Christ' there is'not any Jew not Greek, not any slave nor free, not any male and female'". Various theologians have assorted opinions as to why the apostles wrote the Codes in the first place, why they were directed to a variety of recipients in several New Testament passages.
Some believe that the intent of the Codes is not universal throughout the passages in which they appear. They believe it necessary to determine the specific function of a Code within a specific New Testament passage. Timothy Gombis posits that the most important factor in determining the purpose of the Code is to consider the literary context in which it appears. An apologetic thrust For order within churches and society To humanize antagonistic domestic relationships Responsibility and mutual respect Manifesto for maintaining hierarchical attitudesThough the suggested intents have some common threads, the following are what appear to be the predominant theories of the original intent of the Household Codes of Paul and Peter: Margaret MacDonald argues that the Haustafel as it appears in Ephesians, was aimed at “reducing the tension between community members and outsiders.”The early Christian Church, from its inception until
In contract bridge, a two suiter is a hand containing cards from two of the four suits. Traditionally a hand is considered a two suiter if it contains at least ten cards in two suits, with the two suits not differing in length by more than one card. Depending on suit quality and partnership agreement different classification schemes are viable; the more modern trend is to lower the threshold of ten cards to nine cards and consider 5-4 distributions two suiters. The six possible combinations are given the names "major suits", "minor suits", "black suits", "red suits", "pointed suits", "rounded suits"; when including two suited hands with 5-4 distribution, two suiters have a high likelihood of occurrence, the modern preemptive style is to incorporate such two-suited hands in the arsenal of preemptive openings. Example of such a preemptive conventional opening is the Muiderberg convention; some take this aggressive style further and use Ekren to preemptively open on a 4-4 in the majors. Conventional overcalls such as Michaels, Unusual notrump and Raptor are designed to introduce a two suiter over an opening bid of the opponents.
Conventions like Landy, DONT, Lionel and CoCa can be used to denote a two suiter over an opposing 1NT bid. Single suiter Three suiter Balanced hand Michaels Unusual notrump Ghestem Raptor Muiderberg Ekren Bridge: Ekren 2D - original Norwegian description
The Natural Four was an American R&B group from Oakland, California. Formed in 1967, the Natural Four approached Fred Ivey about becoming their manager. Ivey owned a local record store called Tape Town and made a deal with a local Oakland label, Boola Boola Records, their first release, "I Thought You Were Mine" sold 30,000 copies locally, after being played on San Francisco soul/R&B radio station KSOL and on Oakland's KDIA where it rose to #7 on the chart. ABC Records picked them up, their second release on Boola Boola, "Why Should We Stop Now" was re-released and, ABC released "The Same Thing in Mind", a remake of their first hit "I Thought You Were Mine", a cover of The Temptations' "Message From a Black Man", but none repeated the success of their initial recording. Chess Records released the single, "Give a Little Love" in 1971 without success and, following this, Chris James replaced the rest of the band; the new group, with Delmos Whitley taking lead, signed with Curtis Mayfield's label, Curtom Records, in 1972 and proceeded to release a string of US R&B hits, including one Top 40 breakthrough, 1973's "Can This Be Real".
Their three Curtom LPs were produced by Leroy Hutson of The Impressions, but after their third album failed to chart, the group called it quits. The Curtom releases were re-issued in 1999 as a two-CD package by Sequel. 1967-1972Chris James Allen Richardson John January Al Bowden1972-1976Chris James Darryl Cannady Steve Striplin Delmos Whitley Good Vibes The Natural Four US Black Albums #36 Heaven Right Here On Earth US #182, US Black Albums #49 Nightchaser Can This Be Real? The Natural Four at Allmusic.com
Huang Yuanyong, was a renowned Chinese author and journalist during the late Qing dynasty and early Republic of China. Huang made significant contributions to journalism and literacy in China as an innovator in both journalistic methodology and writing style, his unsolved assassination while visiting San Francisco, United States, was suspected of having been a KMT operation. Huang Yuanyong was born to an educated family in Jiangxi Province in China, his father was a scholar and an officer in charge of foreign affairs in Ningbo, a number of his family members were government officials. Influenced by his family, Huang immersed himself in Chinese classics. To improve his English, his family hired a foreign tutor to teach him the language. Huang completed secondary schooling in the Zhejiang province. During his studies at Zhejiang Huxing Nanxun Government School, he was involved in educational reform campaigns and became a member of the Progressive Party. In 1903, Huang came in seventh place in the regional examination in Jiangxi.
The 19-year-old Huang did not follow the custom of becoming a government official, instead continuing his legal study at Chuo University in Tokyo, Japan. Six years he returned to China and started working at the Civil Postal Department. On, he became a journalist and worked for several different papers and news agencies. Huang was famous for his discussions of politics and social issues. Following the collapse of the Qing emperor, Huang ceased his work as an officer in the new government of the Republic of China. Li Shengduo, one of the Beiyang five ministers, played an influential role for Huang, he advised Huang to enter journalism, saying that "In western countries, the majority of journalists are familiar with history and international affairs. If you choose to work in this field, there is no doubt you will become a famous reporter." After receiving Li's advice, Huang began his career as a journalist. Huang soon won recognition for his abilities as a journalist. In 1912, the founding year of the Republic of China, Lan Gongwu and Zhang Junmai, who were known as "The trio of youth for modern China", first published Shao Nian Zhong Guo Weekly 《少年中國周刊》 to criticise politics.
On, Huang and two other young journalists, Liu Shaoshao and Ding Foyan, were entitled'"The outstanding trio of journalism". Huang was regarded as "The first genuine reporter in the modern context in China" and his Yuansheng Tongxun, a special column of news dispatch, became the most popular and famous brand in Chinese journalism. Huang's first job was to write articles for the Ya Shi Ya' Daily News in Shanghai; the positions at newspapers and magazines that he served include: Shen Bao - newspaper reporter Shi Bao - newspaper reporter Dong Fang Daily News - newspaper reporter Shao Nian Zhong Guo Weekly - founder and magazine editor Yong Yan - magazine editor Dong Fang Magazine - writer Lun Heng - writer Guo Min Gong Bao - writerWith his academic background and working experiences, Huang took up a number of roles in the field. He worked as a chief editor, an appointed regional reporter in Beijing and Shanghai, a freelance article writer, he was well known for being productive. In 1915, Huang's clash with Yuan Shikai cost him his job.
The news of Huang being shot to death in the United States shortly after his arrival shocked the press and literary circles of China. Among Huang's publications,Yuansheng yi zhu 《遠生遺著》 is a collection which consists of 239 pieces of his posthumous articles, it was published by Huang's friend, Lin Zhijun, after Huang's death in 1919. From 1920 to 1927, four editions of this book were published by the Commercial Press of Shanghai, it was the first collection of news articles in Chinese publishing history. Huang's articles included news reporting, political analysis, the like; the majority of Huang's articles were reports of major events and influential people in the turbulent politics of China at the time. His publications on political issues include: A Warning to the Trio Superpower 《對於三大勢力之警告》 An Overview of Current Politics 《最近之大勢》 Astray Official 《官迷論》 Conflict between Traditional and Contemporary Thoughts 《新舊思想之衝突》 New Year in Beijing 《北京之新年》 Three Days' Astronomy 《三日觀天記》 The Chef of the Ambassador 《外交部之厨子》His other publications include: My Confession 《懺悔錄》 Introspection 《反省》 Passive Optimism 《消極之樂觀》As a journalist, he interviewed many important figures of the time, including: Sun Yat-sen Huang Xing Song Jiaoren Chang Taiyen Cai Yuanpei Yuan Shikai Li Yuanhong Tang Shaoyi Lu Zhengxiang Zhao Bingkwun Xiong Xiling Duan Qirui Huang reported on many important events in China.
For example: The assassination of Song Jiaoren The resignation of Yuan Shikai The signing of The Twenty-One Demands The resignation of Tang Shaoyi Huang supported the creation of the Republic of China under Yuan Shikai's leadership. However, the new government became a great disappointment to Huang, he felt. In the articles entitled Big Loan Incident and The Twenty-One Demands, Huang described Yuan's alleged secret deals with foreign powers and betrayal of the nation's interest for his own sake. Huang once described the status of
Pine River is a town in Lincoln County, United States. The population was 1,877 at the 2000 census; the unincorporated community of Pine River is located in the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 64.3 square miles, of which, 64.0 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,877 people, 673 households, 565 families residing in the town; the population density was 29.3 people per square mile. There were 724 housing units at an average density of 11.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.51% White, 0.05% African American, 0.59% Asian, 0.05% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.43% of the population. There were 673 households out of which 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 74.7% were married couples living together, 5.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.9% were non-families. 12.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.04. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 9.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $47,723, the median income for a family was $50,455. Males had a median income of $31,818 versus $22,628 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,449. About 3.3% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.3% of those under age 18 and 12.4% of those age 65 or over