Calgary is a city in the western Canadian province of Alberta. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow River and the Elbow River in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, about 80 km east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies 299 km south of the provincial capital of Edmonton and 240 km north of the Canada–United States border; the city anchors the south end of the Statistics Canada-defined urban area, the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The city had a population of 1,285,711 in 2019, it is the third-largest municipality in Canada, the largest in western Canada. In 2016, Calgary had a metropolitan population of 1,392,609, making it the fourth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada and second-largest in western Canada. Calgary's economy includes activity in the energy, financial services and television, transportation and logistics, manufacturing, aerospace and wellness, tourism sectors; the Calgary CMA is home to Canada's second-highest number of corporate head offices among the country's 800 largest corporations.
In 2015 Calgary had the highest number of millionaires per capita of any major Canadian city. In 1988 it became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games; the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Calgary the most livable city in North America in both 2018 and 2019. Calgary has been a top 5 contender for this title for the last 10 years. Calgary was ranked the best city in the world for drivers in 2019. Calgary was named after Calgary on the Isle of Mull, United Kingdom. In turn, the name originates from a compound of kald and gart, similar Old Norse words, meaning "cold" and "garden" used when named by the Vikings who inhabited the Inner Hebrides. Alternatively, the name might be Gaelic Cala ghearraidh, meaning "beach of the meadow", or Gaelic for either "clear running water" or "bay farm"; the indigenous peoples of Southern Alberta referred to the Calgary area as "elbow", in reference to the sharp bend made by the Bow River and the Elbow River. In some cases, the area was named after the reeds that grew along the riverbanks, which were used to fashion bows.
In the Blackfoot language, the area was known as Mohkínstsis akápiyoyis, meaning "elbow many houses", reflecting its strong settler presence. The shorter form of the Blackfoot name, Mohkínstsis meaning "elbow", has been the popular Indigenous term for the Calgary area. In the Nakoda language, the area is known as Wincheesh-pah or Wenchi Ispase, both meaning "elbow". In the Nehiyaw Language, the area was known as Otôskwanihk meaning "house at the elbow" or Otôskwunee meaning "elbow". In the Tsuut'ina language, the area is known as Guts’ists’i meaning "elbow". In the Slavey language, the area was known as Klincho-tinay-indihay meaning "many horse town", referring to the Calgary Stampede and the city's settler heritage. There have been several attempts to revive the indigenous names of Calgary. In response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, local post-secondary institutions have adopted "official acknowledgements" of indigenous territory using the Blackfoot name of the City, Mohkínstsis.
In 2017, the Stoney Nakoda sent an application to the Government of Alberta, to rename Calgary as Wichispa Oyade meaning "elbow town", however this has been challenged by the Piikani Blackfoot. The Calgary area was inhabited by pre-Clovis people whose presence has been traced back at least 11,000 years; the area has been inhabited by the Niitsitapi, îyârhe Nakoda, the Tsuut'ina First Nations peoples and Métis Nation, Region 3. As Mayor Naheed Nenshi describes, "There have always been people here. In Biblical times there were people here. For generations beyond number, people have come here to this land, drawn here by the water, they come here to fish. He was the first recorded European to visit the area. John Glenn was the first documented European settler in the Calgary area, in 1873. In 1875, the site became a post of the North-West Mounted Police; the NWMP detachment was assigned to protect the western plains from US whisky traders, to protect the fur trade. Named Fort Brisebois, after NWMP officer Éphrem-A.
Brisebois, it was renamed Fort Calgary in 1876 by Colonel James Macleod. When the Canadian Pacific Railway reached the area in 1883, a rail station was constructed, Calgary began to grow into an important commercial and agricultural centre. Over a century the Canadian Pacific Railway headquarters moved to Calgary from Montreal in 1996. Calgary was incorporated as a town in 1884, elected its first mayor, George Murdoch. In 1894, it was incorporated as "The City of Calgary" in what was the North-West Territories; the Calgary Police Service was established in 1885 and assumed municipal, local duties from the NWMP. The Calgary Fire of 1886 occurred on November 7, 1886. Fourteen buildings were destroyed with losses estimated at $103,200. Although no one was killed or injured, city officials drafted a law requiring all large downtown buildings be built with Paskapoo sandstone, to prevent this from happening again. After the arrival of the railway, the Dominion Government started leasing grazing land at minimal cost (up to 100,000 acres (
Thornton Academy is a co-educational, independent boarding and day school serving grades 9–12 located in Saco, Maine. Thornton Academy Middle School, a co-education private/public day school, serves grades 6-8 for Saco, Arundel and Kennebunk students. Thornton Academy was first established in 1811, under the name "Saco Academy" in response to a petition by citizens of southern Maine, most of them from Saco, to the Massachusetts legislature, which passed, in both houses, a bill founding the school in February 1811; the founding legislation granted, as was common, six square miles of land in northern Maine as an endowment so long as the trustees named in the founding charter raised USD $3,000 in funds. After successful fundraising and construction, Saco Academy opened on January 4, 1813; the school was plagued for years by financial difficulty. The name was changed to Thornton Academy in 1821 in gratitude for the gift of $1,000 by Dr. Thomas G. Thornton the marshal for the Maine territory, which put the school on solid financial footing.
Depending upon the economic indices used, the gift was worth about $20,300 USD in 2018 dollars. The academy was destroyed by fire on July 28, 1848 in what was concluded to be arson, although no culprit was found. All records were lost in the fire, the academy was closed indefinitely. Although the board of trustees continued to meet and discuss the school's future, serious efforts to rebuild the school were not taken until 1884, when investments by trustee James W. Bradbury had more than quintupled the academy's financial endowment. In 1886 8 acres of land were purchased by the board at the corner of Main Street and Fairfield Street in Saco as the future site of Thornton Academy. On July 27, 1886, Thornton Academy became a legal corporation; the plans for the new school building were designed by H. G. Wadlin, it re-opened on September 6, 1889 and began its school year three days with a class of 108 students. Today the original building is referred to as the Main Building. Over the course of the next fifty years, several buildings were added to the grounds: the Charles Cutts Gookin Thornton Building in 1903, the headmaster's home in 1905, the George Addison Emery Gymnasium in 1913, the Main Building Annex in 1931.
Starting in the late 1950s and continuing to the early'70s, additional buildings were added because of enrollment increases related to the post-WWII baby boom: the John S. Locke Building, the William Linnell Gymnasium, the Edith Scamman Science Building, an Industrial Arts Building. In 1996, 54,000 square feet were added, linking the Main Building with the Scamman Science Building, adding the Mary Hyde Library, the Helen Atkinson Dining Commons, the Harry Garland Auditorium, six arts classrooms and six math classrooms; because the Academy has grown to nearly 80 acres and the buildings listed, it more resembles a university campus than a traditional American high school. Thornton Academy has a student population of 1,420, making it the largest public-private high school in the State of Maine; the total student number is larger than the three Portland Public High Schools, with each having fewer than 1,000 students. Statistics do not combine Portland High Schools, although the Portland Public School Department has the largest student population overall in Maine, beating out the Saco School Department.
The students who attend Thornton Academy are from the City of Saco and the Town of Dayton, with both municipalities utilizing the school as its primary high school. Students from the Town of Arundel have had the option to attend Thornton Academy, starting with Thornton Academy Middle School when it was built, free of charge with tuition being covered by the Town of Arundel. Other students who attend T. A. are "day students", which reside in neighboring cities and towns such as Scarborough, Old Orchard Beach, South Portland, Westbrook, Cape Elizabeth, Biddeford and Kennebunkport, Buxton, etc. T. A. in recent years has expanded their Dorm Program to add students from various other U. S. states and foreign countries. In fall 2006, Thornton Academy Middle School was opened on campus in the renovated footprint of the Industrial Arts Building; the middle school houses grades 6–8. Free to children from Arundel because of a contract with that community, children from surrounding areas can pay a tuition to go to the middle school.
The school consists of three sixth grade base teachers. There is a UA staff that teaches art, music and gym; the seventh and eighth graders start off by meeting with an advisory in one of the classrooms. The advisories are mixtures of both grades. Students go to the Upper school to see plays and concerts performed by them. School days run from 7:30 am to 2:00 pm. Sports offered by the middle school are boys and girls soccer, cross country, indoor track, outdoor track, skiing, snowboarding and softball; the school offers two yearly plays. The school has two bands. Other clubs offered are NJHS, Civil Rights, Drama Club, Ski Club, Student Council, iTeam. TAMS is part of the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, which gives each student and teacher a laptop for use over the school year. In the fall of 2009, Thornton Academy welcomed dozens of students from around the world in a brand new international boarding program; the school built a dormitory on campus which housed several dorm families. The new dorm was named James E. Nelson Hall.
In the summer of 2011, Thornton Academ
Christopher Moltisanti, played by Michael Imperioli, is a fictional character on the HBO TV series The Sopranos. He is Tony Soprano's protégé and a member of the DiMeo crime family, rising from associate to caporegime over the course of the series. Tony Soprano has been a father figure to Christopher since the death of his father, Dickie Moltisanti. Tony affectionately refers to Christopher as his "nephew", but in fact he is a cousin of Tony's wife Carmela as well as a biological distant cousin of Tony himself. Christopher is a volatile and impulsive young man, frustrated by his perceived lack of progress in the business. Christopher oversteps his authority when he hijacks trucks under the protection of family boss Junior Soprano. To teach him a lesson, Junior orders a mock execution on him. In the second season Chris is shot by his subordinates Matthew Bevilaqua and Sean Gismonte but survives. Tony trusts Christopher with sensitive tasks, such as disposing of the bodies of murdered capos Richie Aprile and Ralph Cifaretto, arranging the assassination of New York boss Carmine Lupertazzi.
In the third season Chris becomes a made man. This leads to friction with his new capo Paulie Gualtieri, culminating in the Pine Barrens incident and although they make an uneasy truce, they clash again on several occasions. By the sixth season he is promoted to capo, Tony tells Christopher that he will lead the family into the 21st century. Christopher has a tumultuous and abusive relationship with his long-term girlfriend Adriana La Cerva, he comes close to death when, enraged about rumors that his fiancée Adriana and Tony are having an affair, he pulls a gun on Tony, ready to kill him for the insult. He is spared. In the fifth season Chris learns that Adriana has been working as an informant for the U. S. Federal Bureau of Investigation and that she wants them to go into the Witness Protection Program. Valuing loyalty over love, Christopher reports Adriana's actions to Tony, who has Silvio Dante kill her. Christopher marries his new girlfriend Kelli Lombardo and they have a daughter, but his interest in his new wife soon wanes.
He grows disillusioned with Tony and frustrated with his progress in the family, distances himself from the business by making a film and trying to become a Hollywood screenwriter. Christopher struggles throughout the series with major drug and alcohol addictions and spends time at AA and drug rehabilitation centers. Despite wanting Christopher to succeed, Tony doubts his nephew's loyalty and suitability to be his successor, he fears that Christopher's immaturity and frequent drug problems make him a ripe target to turn state's evidence. Christopher's efforts to stay clean of drugs and alcohol cause him to spend less time at their regular haunts further arousing Tony's suspicions. Christopher causes a car crash. After seeing that Caitlyn's baby seat has been destroyed in the accident, Tony suffocates the injured Chris and is rid of his troublesome nephew. After auditioning for the role of Christopher, Imperioli thought that series creator David Chase was unimpressed with his audition and thus was surprised to be offered the part.
Chase said he wanted Imperioli because he had appeared in Goodfellas. Christopher Moltisanti is born in 1969 to Richard "Dickie" Moltisanti, a soldier in the DiMeo crime family, Joanne Blundetto. In the episode "Cold Cuts" it is revealed that Chris grew up in Rochelle Park, New Jersey section of Paramus, New Jersey next to the Westfield Garden State Plaza; when talking about his childhood with his cousin Tony Blundetto he describes himself as an urban youth, something Blundetto disagrees with. When discussing making a biographical movie of Joe Gallo with Jon Favreau, Moltisanti mentions that he vaguely remembered Gallo being murdered in 1972, as he was only a kid. Dickie is killed when Chris is young. Tony Soprano affectionately considers Christopher a "nephew", looks out for him over the years. Moltisanti dropped out of high school in the 9th grade, he is a fan of the television show Cops. Moltisanti is a roommate of Brendan Filone before his murder and engaged to Adriana La Cerva before her murder.
Chris is a first cousin once removed of Tony's wife Carmela. Christopher begins the series as Tony's driver and enforcer, is eager to rise through the ranks in the Mafia, he "makes his bones" by killing Emil Kolar in order to settle a dispute with the Soprano family over the Triborough Towers garbage routes. He plans to place the body in a Kolar Bros. dumpster to send a warning, but "Big Pussy" Bonpensiero convinces him to put it elsewhere as it would bring less heat to the crew. The murder haunts Chris' dreams, he twice has to dig up and move Kolar's corpse. Chris aids his friend Brendan Filone in hijacking Comley trucks, which are under Junior Soprano's protection; the two are ordered to leave the trucks alone. Chris and Brendan plan another heist while high on methamphetamine, but Chris backs down at the last minute out of loyalty to Tony. Brendan and two others go through with the heist. Chris is reprimanded by Tony for not using his leadership to stop Brendan. Junior, angered that his authority was flouted, stages a mock execution for Chris in the New Jersey Meadowlands.
Brendan is shot in the eye by Mikey Palmice. Christopher avenges Brendan's death when he and Paulie ambush and murder Mikey out in the woods. Chris is put in charge of the family's pump and dump scam, with Matthew Bevilaqua and Sean Gismonte serving as his subordinates. Bevilaqua and Gismonte decide to murder him to gain favor with Richie Aprile; the pair ambush