Provinces and territories of Canada

The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area; the major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada. The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively.

A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government, they include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay and all islands north of the Canadian mainland.

The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.

The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.

Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All three territories combined are the most sparsely populated region in Canada, covering 3,921,739 km2 in land area, they are referred to as a single region, The North, for organisational and economic purposes.

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Mariamman Temple, Bangkok

Mariamman Temple known as Maha Uma Devi Temple in Si Lom, known as Wat Khaek Silom,'Khaek' being a term, albeit one perceived as offensive, used for "people of Indian origin", is a South Indian architecture style Hindu temple in Bangkok, Thailand. It was built in 1879 by a Tamil Hindu immigrant. Mariamman Temple is the main Tamil Hindu temple in Thailand and is located in the Bangrak district of Bangkok at the corner of Silom Road and Pan Road, a narrower road where a number of kiosks sell saffron-coloured marigold flower garlands for worshippers. Following India becoming a colony of the British Empire in 1858 many from the southern state of Tamil Nadu preferred to leave their country than live under colonial rule. One such group of Indians came to many as traders of gemstones or cattle ranchers. A leader of this group of Indians was Vaithi Padayatchi who built this temple about a decade after they arrived. Sri Maha Mariamman is the oldest and most important such temple in Thailand; the temple's facade is in strikingly florid style of a riot of different colours with carved images of various gods and goddesses in different shapes and sizes.

At the entrance to the temple there is a gopura or tower 6 metres in height and covered with many carved images of deities. The main shrine of the temple complex is a dome with covering of a gilded copper plate. Within the premises of the temple complex there are three shrines dedicated to Ganesh and the main shrine of Sri Maha Mariamman; the practice of worship followed by the devotees is sequentially Ganesh and the main deity. The main hall of the shrine is decorated with statue deity in Hinduism Bronze Material of Ganesh, Krishna, Lakshmi, Mariamman, Kali and Nataraja with Shivakami, Hanuman.. In addition there are shrines dedicated to the worship of gods Shiva Lingam, Navagraha, Saptha Kanni, Madurai Veeran and Kathavarayan.. Stalls near the temple sell flowers, garlands and incense to be used in worship, as Mariamman Temple is an important landmark for the Bangkok Tamil Hindu community, as well as a large number of Thai people, it is said that 85% of the Thais visit the temple, many believing that Hinduism is not a separate religion but a branch of Buddhism.

Religious festivals, such as Navratri, take place here following the traditional Tamil calendar in September/October. This festival, believed to give redress from bad luck, is held for ten days and on the final day the street in front of the temple is colourfully decorated with yellow flower garlands and candles, the image of Sri Maha Mariamman is taken through the streets in a procession. Deepavali is a special festival in the temple when it is brightly lit up. An oil lamp ritual is held on most middays' and on Fridays, prasad, food blessed by god, is distributed to devotees. Apart from these two major festivals, daily worships are attended by a large number of Thai Buddhists and Chinese who believe that Hindu gods help them in business and bless their women to conceive. Hinduism in Southeast Asia Indians in Thailand Bracken, Gregory Byrne. A Walking Tour Bangkok: Sketches of the city’s architectural treasures. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. ISBN 978-981-4312-98-1. Cush, Denise.

Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-18978-5. Guelden, Marlane. Thailand: Spirits Among Us. Marshall Cavendish International Private Limited. ISBN 978-981-261-075-1. Kesavapany, K. Rising India and Indian Communities in East Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-230-799-6. Manguin, Pierre-Yves. Early Interactions Between South and Southeast Asia: Reflections on Cross-cultural Exchange. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-4345-10-1. Sandhu, K S. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-230-418-6. New Year 2011 pooja at Sri Maha Mariamman Temple Bangkok Thailand Sri Maha Mariamman Temple Bangkok Thailand Sri Maha Mariamman Procession

Al Jawhara bint Abdulaziz Al Saud

Al Jawhara bint Abdulaziz Al Saud is a member of the House of Saud. Al Jawhara is the daughter of Hassa Al Sudairi of the Al Sudairi family, one of the most powerful families in Nejd, her father is King Abdulaziz of the founder of the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The princess is one of the 11 children of this marriage and is thus a full-sister or half-sister of every subsequent King of Saudi Arabia, she is the full-sister of the Sudairi brothers, who have held high political offices along with their sons. Two of the Sudairi brothers succeeded their father as King of Saudi Arabia, King Fahd and King Salman, she was close to her brother Prince Sultan. Al Jawhara bint Abdulaziz is married to Khalid bin Abdullah bin Abdul Rahman, a son of Abdullah bin Abdul Rahman. Prince Khalid is a well-known owner and breeder of champion racehorses in the United States and the United Kingdom, winner, at some stage, of every Classic race in England and France. Princes Nuf bint Khalid, the daughter of Princess Al Jawhara was the spouse of the late Prince Fahd bin Salman, a son of King Salman