Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern border with the United States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres, is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver; as a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, with most of its land area dominated by tundra. Its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, 70 percent residing within 100 kilometres of the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from Arctic climate in the north to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization.
Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored and settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with a monarch and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per-capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, Indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using Dominion in the statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian Indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The Indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000 and two million, with a figure of 500,000 ac
Vita V. Gollancz was a British painter, printmaker and draughtsman. Born in 1926, Vita Gollancz was the fourth daughter of noted publisher Victor Gollancz, his wife Ruth, an artist who had studied at the Slade School of Art under Henry Tonks. Painting and drawing featured prominently in Vita's early life, not only from the influence of her mother, but from the many established art luminaries that visited their home. Vita read Modern History at Girton College, becoming the Sparke History Scholar and the Chairman of the Cambridge University Labour Club. After graduating she worked from 1952 to 1962 as manager of Sir Hugh Casson's architectural practice, subsequently as Assistant and draughtswoman for Sir Basil Spence from 1964 to 1971, she returned to painting in her thirties, first studying at Chelsea School of Art and at Byam Shaw and the City and Guilds Schools of Art. She studied etching with Henry Williamson. Among the many exhibitions which have included her work have been the New English Art Club, the Royal Society of British Artists and the Royal Academy Summer Exhibitions.
A solo exhibition at the Annexe Gallery was followed by regular studio shows. In the late 1960s Vita went with a group of artists led by Peter Garrard to paint in the Midi, near Uzes. In the 1980s she travelled around the Mediterranean, painting Crete and the Greek Islands - her works from this period are abstract. John Kenworthy-Browne commented that "her landscape paintings bring to mind an elusive concept of Constable's, the Chiaroscuro of nature... that power which creates space."In 1980, Vita Gollancz was elected to Associate Member status of the Royal Society of British Artists. Vita's sister, Livia Ruth Gollancz, is a noted musician who became controlling director of Victor Gollancz Ltd, on the death of their father. Both sisters contributed to Reminiscences of Affection. Works exhibited at the Royal London. 1968 - Back Gardens 1969 - Landscape in August: Gard. 1978 - Surviving Elms, Gloucestershire 1980 - Black Hill from Clunbury 1987 - Fields near Wyck, HampshireVarious group shows: 1967 - New English Art Club 1968 - New English Art Club 1969 - New English Art Club 1970 - New English Art Club 1970 - The Kensington and Chelsea Artists 1975 - The Kensington and Chelsea Artists 1976 - New English Art Club 1976 - The Kensington and Chelsea Artists 1976 - Artistes de Grande Bretagne, Bilan de l'Art Contemporain, Paris 1977 - New English Art Club 1978 - New English Art Club 1979 - New English Art Club 1980 - New English Art Club 1979 - Artistes de Grande Bretagne, Paris 1980 - 20th Century Oils, Clarges Gallery, London 1980 - Southover Gallery, LewesSolo shows: 1981 - The Annexe Gallery, London 1983 - Haldane Road Studio, London 1985 - Haldane Road Studio, London 2006 - Vita Gollancz: 80th Birthday Exhibition, Piers Feetham Gallery, London.
Royal Academy Exhibitors 1905-1970, Vol III Royal Academy Exhibitors 1971-1989
Galina Petrova was a medic and Chief Petty Officer in the 386th Independent Naval Infantry Battalion of the Black Sea Fleet during the Second World War. She died during a bombing attack on 4 December 1943 less than a month after she was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union and the Order of Lenin on 17 November 1943 for her bravery in the Kerch-Eltigen operation. Petrova was born on 9 September 1920 to a Russian family in Ukraine in the Soviet Union. In 1940 after she graduated from secondary school with honors she entered the Forestry Department of the Novocherkassk Engineering Institute in Rostov. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union she entered nursing courses in Krasnodar. After graduating nursing courses Petrova entered the Soviet Navy as a nurse in 1942, she was present in the Kerch-Eltigen operation in 1943 with the rest of the Black Sea Fleet. On the night of 1 November she carried over twenty wounded soldiers from the battlefield in the night under the cover of darkness, running through a field of barbed wire and mines to reach numerous injured marines.
For her bravery in the offensive she was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union in November by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. Less than a month after she received the award she was injured while holding back German soldiers in a series of following counterattacks in Eltigen on 3 December, she was taken to a hospital for her injuries but died the next day when the school building used as a hospital was bombed. Her remains were interred in the village of heroes in Crimea. There are memorial plaques dedicated to her memory in Novocherkassk and South Russian State Polytechnic University as well as streets named in her honor in Sevastopol, Tuapse and the village of heroes in Kerch. Monuments in her likeness are present at the forestry institute where she studied and at the medical school in Kerch named after her. List of female Heroes of the Soviet Union Yekaterina Mikhailova-Demina Fedora Pushina