The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Thomas Hart Benton (politician)
Thomas Hart Benton, nicknamed "Old Bullion", was a United States Senator from Missouri. A member of the Democratic Party, he was an architect and champion of westward expansion by the United States, a cause that became known as Manifest Destiny. Benton served in the Senate from 1821 to 1851, becoming the first member of that body to serve five terms. Benton was born in North Carolina. After graduating from the University of North Carolina, he established a law practice and plantation near Nashville, Tennessee, he served as an aide to General Andrew Jackson during the War of 1812 and settled in St. Louis, after the war. Missouri became a state in 1821 and Benton won election as one of its inaugural pair of United States Senators; the Democratic-Republican Party fractured after the 1824 and Benton became a Democratic leader in the Senate, serving as an important ally of President Jackson and President Martin Van Buren. He supported Jackson during the Bank War and proposed a land payment law that inspired Jackson's Specie Circular executive order.
Benton's prime concern was the westward expansion of the United States. He called for the annexation of the Republic of Texas, accomplished in 1845, he pushed for compromise in the partition of Oregon Country with the British and supported the 1846 Oregon Treaty, which divided the territory along the 49th parallel. He authored the first Homestead Act, which granted land to settlers willing to farm it. Though he owned slaves, Benton came to oppose the institution of slavery after the Mexican–American War, he opposed the Compromise of 1850 as too favorable to pro-slavery interests; this stance damaged Benton's popularity in Missouri, the state legislature denied him re-election in 1851. Benton won election to the United States House of Representatives in 1852 but was defeated for re-election in 1854 after he opposed the Kansas–Nebraska Act. Benton's son-in-law, John C. Frémont, won the 1856 Republican Party nomination for president, but Benton voted for James Buchanan and remained a loyal Democrat until his death in 1858.
Thomas Hart Benton was born in Harts Mill, North Carolina, near the present-day town of Hillsborough. His father Jesse Benton, a wealthy lawyer and landowner, died in 1790, his grandfather Samuel Benton was born in Worcester and settled in the Province of North Carolina. Thomas H. Benton studied law at the University of North Carolina where he was a member of the Philanthropic Society, but in 1799 he was dismissed from school after admitting to stealing money from fellow students; as Benton was leaving campus on the day he was expelled, he turned to the students who were jeering him and said, "I am leaving here now but damn you, you will hear from me again." He left school to manage the Benton family estate, but historians posit that Benton used the events as motivation to prove himself worthy in adulthood. Attracted by the opportunities in the West, the young Benton moved the family to a 40,000 acre holding near Nashville, Tennessee. Here he established a plantation with accompanying schools and mills.
His experience as a pioneer instilled a devotion to Jeffersonian democracy which continued through his political career. He continued his legal education and was admitted to the Tennessee bar in 1805, in 1809 served a term as state senator, he attracted the attention of Tennessee's "first citizen" Andrew Jackson, under whose tutelage he remained during the Tennessee years. At the outbreak of the War of 1812, Jackson made Benton his aide-de-camp, with a commission as a lieutenant colonel. Benton was assigned to represent Jackson's interests to military officials in Washington D. C.. In 1813 Benton engaged in a frontier brawl with Jackson. After the war, in 1815, Benton moved his estate to the newly opened Missouri Territory; as a Tennessean, he was under Jackson's shadow. He settled in St. Louis, where he practiced law and edited the Missouri Enquirer, the second major newspaper west of the Mississippi River. In 1817 during a court case he and opposing attorney Charles Lucas accused each other of lying.
When Lucas ran into him at the voting polls he accused Benton of being delinquent in paying his taxes and thus should not be allowed to vote. Benton accused Lucas of being Lucas challenged Benton to a duel, they had a duel on Bloody Island with Lucas being shot through the throat and Benton grazed in the knee. Upon bleeding profusely, Lucas said he was satisfied and Benton released him from completing the duel. However, rumors circulated that Benton, a better shot, had made the rules of 30 feet apart to favor him. Benton challenged Lucas to a rematch on Bloody Island with shots fired from nine feet. Lucas was shot close to the heart and before dying told Benton, "I do not or cannot forgive you." As death approached Lucas stated, "I can forgive you—I do forgive you." The Missouri Compromise of 1820 made the territory into a state, Benton was elected as one of its first senators. The presidential election of 1824 was a four way struggle between Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William H. Crawford, Henry Clay.
Benton supported Clay. Jackson received a plurality but not a majority of votes, meaning that the election was thrown to the House of Representatives, which would choose among the top 3 candidates. Clay was the fourth vote getter, he was Speaker of the House, tried to maneuver the election in favor of Adams. Benton refused Clay's requests that he, despite not being in the House, support Adams, declaring that Jackson was the clear choice of the people; when Missouri's lone representative John Scott wrote
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Cherokee County, Alabama
Cherokee County, Alabama is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 25,989, its county seat is Centre. The county is named for the Cherokee tribe; the area included in today's Cherokee County for centuries had belonged to the Muscogee Nation of Native Americans. Cherokees began moving into the area a generation before the forced Indian Removal. To this day, there are few Native Americans in Cherokee County. On January 9, 1836, the Alabama legislature created Cherokee County with its present boundaries. Two years the United States government removed by force all Cherokees who had refused to leave on what would become known as the Trail of Tears. Cherokee County was in the news again on Palm Sunday, March 27, 1994, when it was hit by a Force 4 tornado. Goshen United Methodist Church was destroyed only twelve minutes after the National Weather Service at Birmingham had issued a warning for northern Calhoun, southeastern Etowah, southern Cherokee counties. According to the 2000 census, the county has a total area of 600 square miles, of which 554 square miles is land and 46 square miles is water.
It is the second-smallest county in Alabama by land area. U. S. Highway 278 U. S. Highway 411 State Route 9 State Route 35 State Route 68 State Route 273 State Route 283 DeKalb County - north Chattooga County, Georgia - northeast Floyd County, Georgia - east Polk County, Georgia - southeast Cleburne County - south Calhoun County - south Etowah County - west Little River Canyon National Preserve Talladega National Forest As of the 2010 census, there were 25,989 people, 10,626 households, 7,493 families residing in the county; the population density was 47 people per square mile. There were 16,267 housing units at an average density of 27 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.7% White, 4.6% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.35% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. 1.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,626 households out of which 25.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.3% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.5% were non-families.
26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.4% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 22.8% from 25 to 44, 30.6% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.9 years. For every 100 females there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,690, the median income for a family was $47,365. Males had a median income of $40,050 versus $27,352 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,322. About 13.7% of families and 17.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.3% of those under age 18 and 9.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 23,988 people, 9,719 households, 7,201 families residing in the county; the population density was 43 people per square mile.
There were 14,025 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.83% White, 5.54% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.35% from other races, 0.83% from two or more races. 0.85 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 9,719 households out of which 28.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.40% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.90% were non-families. 23.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.86. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.20% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 26.70% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 96.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.50 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $30,874, the median income for a family was $36,920. Males had a median income of $29,978 versus $20,958 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,543. About 11.80% of families and 15.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.40% of those under age 18 and 14.90% of those age 65 or over. Centre Piedmont Cedar Bluff Collinsville Gaylesville Leesburg Sand Rock Broomtown Spring Garden Turkey Town National Register of Historic Places listings in Cherokee County, Alabama Properties on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in Cherokee County, Alabama Cherokee County Chamber of Commerce Cherokee County Historical Society Cherokee County Historical Museum
Lynching in the United States
Lynching is the practice of murder by a group of people by extrajudicial action. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 1800s, following the emancipation of slaves. Most lynchings were of African-American men in the South, but women were lynched, white lynchings of blacks occurred in Midwestern and border states during the 20th-century Great Migration of blacks out of the South; the purpose was to intimidate blacks through racial terrorism. On a per capita basis lynchings were common in California and the Old West of Latinos, although they represented less than 10% of the national total. Native Americans and Asian Americans were lynched. Other ethnicities, including Finnish-Americans, Jewish-Americans, German-Americans and Italian-Americans were lynched occasionally; the stereotype of a lynching is a hanging, because hangings are what crowds of people saw, are easy to photograph. Some hangings were professionally photographed and sold as postcards, which were popular souvenirs in some parts of the U.
S. Victims were killed by mobs in a variety of other ways: shot burned alive, forced to jump off a bridge, dragged behind cars, the like. Sometimes they were tortured as well, with body parts sometimes sold as souvenirs. Lynchings were not fatal. A "mock" lynching, putting the rope around the neck of someone suspected of concealing information, might be used to compel "confessions". According to the Tuskegee Institute, 4,743 people were lynched between 1882 and 1968 in the United States, including 3,446 African Americans and 1,297 whites. More than 73 percent of lynchings in the post-Civil War period occurred in the Southern states. According to the Equal Justice Initiative, 4,084 African-Americans were lynched between 1877 and 1950 in the South. Lynchings were most frequent from 1890 to the 1920s, with a peak in 1892. Lynchings were large mob actions, attended by hundreds or thousands of watchers; as in the case of Ell Parsons, they were sometimes announced in advance in newspapers and in one instance with a special train.
However, in the 20th century lynchings became more secretive, were conducted by smaller groups of people. According to Michael Pfeifer, the prevalence of lynching in postbellum America reflects lack of confidence in the "due process" judicial system, he links the decline in lynching in the early twentieth century with "the advent of the modern death penalty": "legislators renovated the death penalty...out of direct concern for the alternative of mob violence". He cites "the modern, racialized excesses of urban police forces in the twentieth century and after" as having characteristics of lynching. "More black people killed by cops in 2015 than were lynched in the worst year of Jim Crow."On April 26, 2018, in Montgomery, The National Memorial for Peace and Justice opened. Founded by the Equal Justice Initiative of that city, it is the first large memorial to document lynchings of African Americans in the United States. After the Reconstruction era, most of the South was politically dominated by white Democrats.
Lynchings were used to intimidate blacks by racial terrorism. The rate of lynchings in the South has been associated with economic strains, although the causal nature of this link is unclear. Low cotton prices and economic stress are associated with higher frequencies of lynching; the granting of U. S. Constitutional rights to freedmen after the American Civil War the vote, was resisted by many white Southerners; some blamed the freedmen for their own wartime hardships, post-war economic losses, loss of social and political privilege. During Reconstruction and white people working for civil rights were attacked and sometimes lynched. Black voting was suppressed by violence as well as by poll taxes and literacy tests. White Democrats regained control of state legislatures in 1876, a national compromise resulted in the removal of federal troops from the South in 1877. In decades, violence continued around elections until blacks were disfranchised by the states from 1885 to 1908 through constitutional changes and laws that created barriers to voter registration across the South.
White Democrats enacted Jim Crow laws to enforce blacks' second-class status. During this period that spanned the late 19th and early 20th centuries, lynchings reached a peak in the South. Florida led the nation in lynchings per capita from 1900 to 1930. Georgia led the nation in lynchings from 1900 to 1931 with 302 incidents, according to The Tuskegee Institute. Lynchings peaked in many areas when it was time for landowners to settle accounts with sharecroppers. There is no count of recorded lynchings which claims to be precise, the numbers vary depending on the sources, the years considered, the definition used to define an incident; the Tuskegee Institute has recorded 3,446 blacks and 1,297 whites being lynched between 1882 and 1968, with the annual peak occurring in the 1890s, at a time of economic stress in the South and increasing political suppression of blacks. A five-year study published in 2015 by the Equal Justice Initiative found that nearly 3,959 black men and children were lynched in the twelve Southern states between 1877 and 1950.
Over this period Georgia's 586 lynchings led all states. African Americans mounted resistance to lynchings in numerous ways. Intellectuals and journalists encouraged public education protesting and lobbying against lynch mob violence and gover
Anniston is the county seat of Calhoun County in Alabama and is one of two urban centers/principal cities of and included in the Anniston-Oxford Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 23,106. According to 2013 Census estimates, the city had a population of 22,666. Named "The Model City" by Atlanta newspaperman Henry W. Grady for its careful planning in the late 19th century, the city is situated on the slope of Blue Mountain. Along with Selma, Alabama, it ranks as one of the top cities by most violent crimes in the United States, according to FBI data. Though the surrounding area was settled much earlier, the mineral resources in the area of Anniston were not exploited until the Civil War; the Confederate States of America operated an iron furnace near present-day downtown Anniston, until it was destroyed by raiding Union cavalry in early 1865. Cast iron for sewer systems became the focus of Anniston's industrial output. Cast iron pipe called soil pipe, was popular until the advent of plastic pipe in the 1960s.
In 1872, the Woodstock Iron Company, organized by Samuel Noble and Union Gen. Daniel Tyler, rebuilt the furnace on a much larger scale, started a planned community named Woodstock, soon renamed "Annie's Town" for Annie Scott Tyler, Daniel's daughter and wife of railroad president Alfred L. Tyler. Anniston was chartered as a town in 1873. Though the roots of the town's economy were in iron and clay pipe, planners touted it as a health resort, several hotels began operating. Schools appeared, including the Noble Institute, a school for girls established in 1886, the Alabama Presbyterian College for Men, founded in 1905. Careful planning and easy access to rail transportation helped make Anniston the fifth largest city in the state from the 1890s to the 1950s. In 1917, at the start of World War I, the United States Army established a training camp at Fort McClellan. On the other side of town, the Anniston Army Depot opened during World War II as a major weapons storage and maintenance site, a role it continues to serve as munitions-incineration progresses.
Most of the site of Fort McClellan was incorporated into Anniston in the late 1990s, the Army closed the fort in 1999 following the Base Realignment and Closure round of 1995. Anniston was the center of national controversy in 1961 when a mob bombed a bus filled with civilian Freedom Riders during the American Civil Rights Movement; as two Freedom buses were setting out to travel the south in protest of their Civil Rights following the Supreme Court case saying bus segregation was unconstitutional, one headed to Anniston, one to Birmingham, before finishing in New Orleans. The Freedom Riders were riding an integrated bus to protest Alabama's Jim Crow segregation laws that denied African Americans their civil rights. One of the buses was attacked and firebombed by a mob outside Anniston on Mother's Day, May 14, 1961. Prior to the bus being firebombed, attackers broke windows, slashed tires, using metal pipes, clubs and crowbars, before the police came to escort the bus away; the bus was forced to a stop just outside of Anniston, in front of Forsyth and Sons grocery, by more mob members.
As more windows were broken, rocks and a firebomb were thrown into the bus. As the bus burned, the mob held. An exploding fuel tank caused the mob to retreat; the riders were viciously beaten as they tried to flee, where warning shots fired into the air by highway patrolmen prevented the riders from being lynched on the spot. A 12-year-old girl, Janie Forsyth, set out against the mob with a bucket of water and cups to help the Riders, first tending to the one who had looked like her own nanny. Forsyth and Son grocery is located along Alabama Highway 202 about 5 miles west of downtown; the site today is home to a historic marker and was designated Freedom Riders National Monument by President Barack Obama in January 2017. In response to the violence, the city formed a bi-racial Human Relations Council made up of prominent white business and religious leaders, but when they attempted to integrate the "whites-only" public library on Sunday afternoon, September 15, 1963, further violence ensued and two black ministers, N.
Q. Reynolds and Bob McClain, were beaten by a mob; the HRC chairman, white Presbyterian minister Rev. Phil Noble, worked with an elder of his church, Anniston City Commissioner Miller Sproull, to avoid KKK mob domination of the city. In a telephone conference with President John F. Kennedy, the President informed the HRC that after the Birmingham church bombing he had stationed additional federal troops at Fort McClellan. On September 16, 1963, with city police present and Sproull escorted black ministers into the library. In February 1964, Anniston Hardware, owned by the Sproull family, was bombed in retaliation for Commissioner Sproull's integration efforts. On the night of July 15, 1965, a white racist rally was held in Anniston, after which Willie Brewster, a black foundry worker, was shot and killed while driving home from work. A $20,000 reward was raised by Anniston civic leaders, resulted in the apprehension and conviction of the accused killer, Damon Strange, who worked for a leader of the Ku Klux Klan.
Historian Taylor Branch called the conviction of Damon Strange a "breakthrough verdict" on p. 391 of his Pulitzer Prize-winning book, At Canaan's Edge. Strange was convicted by an all-white Calhoun County jury to the surprise of many people, including civil rights leaders who had planned to protest an acquittal; this was the first conviction of a white person for killing a b
Alabama State Route 202
State Route 202 or SR-202 is a 9.1-mile-long route that serves as a connection between Interstate 20 west of the Anniston/Oxford area and Anniston in Calhoun County. SR-202 begins at an interchange with Interstate 20 at exit 179 near the Coldwater community. From this point, the route travels in a northeasterly direction before reaching its eastern terminus at SR-21 in downtown Anniston; the western portion of Alabama 202 was changed in 2008 upon completion of the four lane parkway which comprises the Anniston Western Bypass. Alabama 202 traveled westward across several substandard bridges parallel and just south of the Anniston Army Depot, it passed through the Bynum community and one of the two main entrances to the Anniston Army Depot before terminating at US-78 just east of the Eastaboga community. The new routing follows the new fourlane parkway southward crossing US-78 in the Coldwater community and terminates at the interchange with Interstate 20 at exit marker 179. With this new routing, the entire route of Alabama 202 is now a four laned highway.
Alabama 202 was the original alignment of US-78, before being abandoned in favor of the straighter alignment which runs parallel with Interstate 20 in the 1950s. For many years there had been preliminary plans and discussions concerning bypasses of downtown Anniston for north/south travelers. Discussions centered on two routes, one which would run west of Anniston and connect US-431 with Interstate 20, the other, which would run east of Anniston and connect US-431 and Alabama State Route 21 with Interstate 20 east of Anniston; until 2008, the only viable north/south route through Calhoun County was Alabama 21/US-431 which passed through the center of Anniston and Oxford. Work first began in the 1970s to make an Anniston Western Bypass. Two projects were key to this effort. One was the creation of the Bynum/Leatherwood Road, a two lane road which runs from US-431 near the Saks community northwest of Anniston southward and bypassing Anniston; this road leads to one of the two main entrances to the Anniston Army Depot and connects to Alabama Route 202 west of Anniston.
The second project was the building of a new 4 lane Alabama 202 which began at the intersection of 8th Street and Quintard Avenue. This new route ran due west with bridges built to pass over the rail lines run through the city of Anniston passing westward just north of the imposing heights of Coldwater Mountain; when completed, Alabama 202 was removed from its original routing of 10th Street into the western part of Anniston. The old routing and new routing met near the Monsanto Chemical facility in west Anniston. From there, the new 4 lane route westward ran parallel to the old Alabama 202 until just west of the intersection with the Bynum/Leatherwood Road; the combination of the Bynum/Leatherwood Road and Alabama 202 west of their intersection comprised the Anniston Western Bypass until the four lane was completed southward to Interstate 20 in 2008. The Anniston Eastern Bypass, or Eastern Parkway, is completed as of December 2015; the portion of this road is known within Oxford as Leon Smith Parkway.
Within Anniston, from Oxford to Choccolocco Road, this road is known as Golden Springs Road and the remainder as Veterans Memorial Parkway. The road intersects AL 21 at a trumpet interchange in northern Anniston; the parkway crosses a portion of the former Fort McClellan property which contained some unexploded ordnance from military training that dated back more than 70 years. This segment crosses some hilly terrain which required a significant amount of earth removal in order to build this road; the parkway is accessible directly from AL 21 and US-431. The entire route will be a four lane with only a few traffic signals to control traffic flow. In December 2015, ALDOT re-routed US-431 onto this new route leaving only Alabama Route 21 serving the downtown Anniston area along Quintard Avenue. Most of the new Eastern Parkway lies within the Anniston city limits except for a short segment near Interstate 20, within the city of Oxford