2000 United States presidential election in California
The 2000 United States presidential election in California took place on November 7, 2000, as part of the wider United States presidential election of 2000. California was won by the Democratic ticket of Vice President Al Gore of Tennessee and Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut by 11.8 percentage points over the Republican ticket of Texas Governor George W. Bush and former U. S. Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney of Wyoming; the state hosted the 2000 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles and was contested by both candidates due to a large Hispanic population and a large independent and moderate base surrounding San Diego and Sacramento's suburbs. This was the first time since 1880 in which a winning Republican presidential candidate lost California; as of the 2016 presidential election, Bush is the last Republican candidate to carry Alpine and Mono counties in a presidential election. This was the first time since 1976 that California did not back the candidate who won the overall presidential election as well.
California Democratic primary, 2000 California Republican primary, 2000 Vice President Al Gore defeated Texas Governor George W. Bush in California. Bush campaigned several times in California, but it didn't seem to help as Gore defeated Bush by 11.8%. Bush did make substantial headway in Southern California winning in Orange, San Bernardino, San Diego counties, including counties located in the Sierra Nevada region and along the borders of Nevada and Oregon. However, Gore overwhelmingly won Los Angeles County, the most populous county in the state and the country. Gore performed well in the San Francisco Bay Area, though there was a strong third party performance by Green Party candidate Ralph Nader, who broke into double digits in Humboldt and Santa Cruz counties. Notwithstanding Nader's performance, this helped Gore win statewide by a little over 1.3 million votes. California is almost what helped Gore pull ahead in the national popular vote. California was called for Gore, right when the polls closed at 11 P.
M. EST. Gore won 33 of 52 congressional districts. Technically the voters of California cast their ballots for electors: representatives to the Electoral College. California is allocated 54 electors because it has 2 senators. All candidates who appear on the ballot or qualify to receive write-in votes must submit a list of 54 electors, who pledge to vote for their candidate and his or her running mate. Whoever wins the majority of votes in the state is awarded all 54 electoral votes, their chosen electors vote for president and vice president. Although electors are pledged to their candidate and running mate, they are not obligated to vote for them. An elector who votes for someone other than his or her candidate is known as a faithless elector; the electors of each state and the District of Columbia met on December 18, 2000 to cast their votes for president and vice president. The Electoral College itself never meets as one body. Instead the electors from each state and the District of Columbia met in their respective capitols.
The following were the members of the Electoral College from the state. All were pledged to and voted for Al Gore and Joe Lieberman: Sunil Aghi Amy Arambula Rachel Binah R. Stephen Bollinger Roberts Braden Laura Karolina Capps Anni Chung Joseph A. Cislowski Sheldon Cohn Thor Emblem Elsa Favila John Freidenrich Cecelia Fuentes Glen Fuller James Garrison Sally Goehring Florence Gold Jill S. Hardy Therese Horsting Georgie Huff Robert Eugene Hurd Harriet A. Ingram Robert Jordan John Koza John Laird N. Mark Lam Manuel M. Lopez Henry Lozano David Mann Beverly Martin R. Keith McDonald Carol D. Norberg Ron Oberndorfer Gerard Orozco Trudy Owens Gregory S. Pettis Flo Rene Pickett Theodore H. Plant Art Pulaski Eloise Reyes Alex Arthur Reza C. Craig Roberts Jason Rodríguez Luis D. Rojas Howard L. Schock Lane Sherman David A. Torres Larry Trullinger Angelo K. Tsakopoulos Richard Valle Karen Waters Don Wilcox William K. Wong Rosalind Wyman
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
California's 45th congressional district
California's 45th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of California. The district is based in Orange County and includes all of Irvine, North Tustin, Villa Park, Anaheim Hills, Laguna Hills, Lake Forest, Rancho Santa Margarita, Mission Viejo, as well as parts of Anaheim, Aliso Viejo, Laguna Niguel. Katie Porter, a Democrat, has represented the district since January 2019. In November 2018, Porter defeated Mimi Walters in the general election, became the first Democrat to win a House race in the district since its inception. Incumbent Walters competed against a field of four Democrats and an independent candidate in the primary election for the 2018 midterm elections. On February 25, 2018, UC Irvine assistant law professor Dave Min received the endorsement of the California Democratic Party. Min, former White House senior technology advisor Brian Forde, former legislative assistant to Sherrod Brown Kia Hamadanchy, UCI law professor Katie Porter, UCI business professor John Graham ran in the "top two" primary in June 2018.
Walters and Porter placed second and advanced to the general election in November. On November 14, 2018, 8 days after polls closed, David Wasserman, the House Editor for The Cook Political Report, projected that Porter had won the general election. Porter is the first Democrat to win a US congressional race in California's 45th congressional district since its inception in 1983. District created January 3, 1983; as of January 2019, there are five former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from California's 45th congressional district that are living. From 2003 to 2013, this district was based in Riverside County; the district included the communities of Palm Springs, Moreno Valley, Palm Desert, Cathedral City, Blythe, Rancho Mirage, Indio, Indian Wells, La Quinta, Anza, Idyllwild and other unincorporated areas of Riverside County. List of United States congressional districts GovTrack.us: California's 45th congressional district RAND California Election Returns: District Definitions California Voter Foundation map - CD45
2010 California gubernatorial election
The 2010 California gubernatorial election was held November 2, 2010 to elect the Governor of California. The primary elections were held on June 8, 2010; because constitutional office holders in California have been prohibited from serving more than two terms in the same office since 1990, incumbent Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger was ineligible to run for re-election for a third term. Former Governor Jerry Brown, to whom the term limits did not apply due to a grandfather clause, defeated Meg Whitman in the general election. Brown was sworn into office on January 3, 2011. Bill Chambers, railroad switchman Douglas Hughes, retired business owner Ken Miller, former broadcast manager Steven Mozena Lawrence Naritelli and controller Robert Newman and farmer Steve Poizner and then-California Insurance Commissioner David Tully-Smith, primary care physician Meg Whitman, former CEO of eBay Richard Aguirre, businessman Jerry Brown, incumbent California Attorney General and former Governor of California Lowell Darling, independent artist Vibert Greene, mechanical engineer and CEO Charles Pineda, parole board judge Peter Schurman, non-profit organization consultant who dropped out of the race Nadia Smalley Joe Symmon, president of a non-profit organization Dianne Feinstein, U.
S. Senator Gavin Newsom, Mayor of San Francisco Chelene Nightingale, business owner Markham Robinson, owner of a software firm S. Deacon Alexander, student Laura Wells, financial systems consultant Jordan Llamas, Doctor of Psychology and Political Science Dale Ogden, business consultant and actuary Stewart Alexander, political consultant and former vice presidential candidate for Socialist Party USA Carlos Alvarez, retail worker Mohammad Arif, businessman Both Whitman and Brown were criticized for negative campaigning during the election. During their final debate at the 2010 Women's Conference a week before the election, moderator Matt Lauer asked both candidates to pull attack ads for the rest of the election, which elicited loud cheers from the audience. Brown agreed and picked one ad each of his and Whitman's that he thought, if Whitman would agree, should be the only ones run, but Whitman, loudly cheered earlier as the prospective first woman governor of the state, was booed when she stated that she would keep "the ads that talk about where Gov. Brown stands on the issues."The Los Angeles Times reported that nearly $250 million was spent on the Governor's race.
At least two spending records were broken during the campaign. Whitman broke personal spending records by spending $140 million of her own money on the campaign, independent expenditures exceeded $31.7 million, with $25 million of that spent in support of Brown. In an interview with CNN, the reporter opined that Whitman was hurt most during the campaign by a matter involving Nicky Diaz, her former Mexican maid, whom Whitman fired after Diaz asked for help as she was an illegal immigrant. Jobs: Meg Whitman 1. Eliminate small business start-up tax 2. Eliminate factory tax 3. Increase R&D tax credit 4. Promote investments in agriculture 5. Eliminate the state tax on capital gains Jerry Brown 1. Stimulate clean energy jobs 2. Invest in infrastructure/construction jobs (federal dollars for projects. Create strike team to focus on job retention 4. Cut regulations (speed up regulatory processes and eliminate duplicative functions. Increase manufacturing jobs 6. Deliver targeted workforce training programs 7.
Invest in education Education: Meg Whitman 1. Direct more money to classroom 2. Reward outstanding teachers 3. Eliminate cap on charter schools 4. Grade public schools A-F 5. Establish fast-track parent process for charter school conversions 6. Invest $1 billion in UC and CSU University systems 7. Utilize alternative paths to the classroom to attract high quality teachers Jerry Brown 1. Higher education 2. Overhaul state testing program 3. Change school funding formulas and consolidate the 62 existing categorical programs 4. Teacher recruitment and training 5. Simplify the Education Code and return more decision-making to local school districts 6. A more balanced and creative school curriculum 7. Place special emphasis on teaching science, technology and math 8. Increase proficiency in English 9. Improve high school graduation rates 10. Charter schools 11. Magnet or theme schools 12. Citizenship and character United States gubernatorial elections, 2010 http://www.ppic.org/content/pubs/survey/S_910MBS.pdf California Secretary of State - Elections California State Offices at Project Vote Smart California Governor 2010 from OurCampaigns.com Campaign contributions for 2010 California Governor from Follow the Money 2010 California Gubernatorial General Election: All Head-to-Head Matchups graph of multiple polls from Pollster.com Election 2010: California Governor from Rasmussen Reports 2010 California Governor - Whitman vs. Brown from Real Clear Politics 2010 California Governor's Race from CQ Politics Race Profile in The New York Times 2010 Governor's Race in the Los Angeles Times, endorsement for Brown California Governor Race 2010 in The Sacramento Bee, endorsement for Brown California Elections 2010 in
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-American actor, businessman, philanthropist, activist and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter. He served as the 38th Governor of California, from 2003 to 2011. Schwarzenegger began lifting weights at the age of 15, he won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times, remaining a prominent presence in bodybuilding and writing many books and articles on the sport; the Arnold Sports Festival, considered the second most important professional bodybuilding event in recent years, is named after him. He is considered to be one of the greatest bodybuilders of all-time, as well as the sport's most charismatic ambassador. Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon, his breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, a box-office hit that resulted in a sequel. In 1984, he appeared in the title role of James Cameron's critically and commercially successful science-fiction thriller film The Terminator.
He subsequently played a similar Terminator character in most of the franchise's installments, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, Terminator Genisys. He has appeared in a number of other successful films, such as Commando, The Running Man, Twins, Total Recall, Kindergarten Cop, True Lies. Schwarzenegger married Maria Shriver, a niece of the 35th U. S. President John F. Kennedy and daughter of the 1972 Democratic vice presidential candidate and former Ambassador to France Sargent Shriver, in 1986, they separated in 2011 after he admitted to having fathered a child with another woman in 1997. As a Republican, Schwarzenegger was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis, he was sworn in on November 17. He was re-elected in the 2006 California gubernatorial election, to serve a full term as governor. In 2011, he returned to acting. Schwarzenegger was nicknamed "the Austrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" or "Schwarzy" during his acting career, "The Governator" during his political career.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger was born on July 30, 1947, in Thal, Styria, to Aurelia and Gustav Schwarzenegger. His father was the local chief of police and had served in World War II as a Hauptfeldwebel after voluntarily joining the Nazi Party in 1938, was wounded during the battle of Stalingrad, but was discharged in 1943 following a bout of malaria, he married Schwarzenegger's mother on October 20, 1945. According to Arnold Schwarzenegger, his parents were strict: "Back in Austria it was a different world... if we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents, the rod was not spared." He grew up in a Catholic family. Gustav had a preference for his elder son, over Arnold, his favoritism was "strong and blatant", which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child. Schwarzenegger has said that his father had "no patience for listening or understanding your problems." He kept in touch with her until her death. In life, he commissioned the Simon Wiesenthal Center to research his father's wartime record, which came up with no evidence of Gustav being involved in atrocities, despite his membership in the Nazi Party and Sturmabteilung.
Gustav's background received wide press attention during the 2003 California recall campaign. At school, Schwarzenegger was academically average, but stood out for his "cheerful, good-humored, exuberant" character. Money was a problem in their household; as a boy, he played several sports influenced by his father. He picked up his first barbell in 1960. At the age of 14, he chose bodybuilding over soccer as a career, he said, "I started weight training when I was 15, but I'd been participating in sports, like soccer, for years, so I felt that although I was slim, I was well-developed, at least enough so that I could start going to the gym and start olympic lifting." However, his official website biography claims that "at 14, he started an intensive training program with Dan Farmer, studied psychology at 15 and at 17 started his competitive career." During a speech in 2001, he said, "My own plan formed. My father had wanted me to be a police officer. My mother wanted me to go to trade school."Schwarzenegger took to visiting a gym in Graz, where he frequented the local movie theaters to see bodybuilding idols such as Reg Park, Steve Reeves, Johnny Weissmuller on the big screen.
When Reeves died in 2000, Schwarzenegger fondly remembered him: "As a teenager, I grew up with Steve Reeves. His remarkable accomplishments allowed me a sense of what was possible when others around me didn't always understand my dreams. Steve Reeves has been part of everything I've been fortunate enough to achieve." In 1961, Schwarzenegger met former Mr. Austria Kurt Marnul, who invited him to train at the gym in Graz, he was so dedicated as a youngster that he broke into the local gym on weekends, so that he could train when it was closed. "It would make me sick to miss a workout... I knew I couldn't look at myself in the mirror the next morning if I did
Torrance is a U. S. city in the South Bay region of Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Torrance has 1.5 miles of beaches on the Pacific Ocean. Torrance has a moderate year-round climate with warm temperatures, sea breezes, low humidity, an average rainfall of 12.55 inches per year. Since its incorporation in 1921, Torrance has grown to a 2013 estimated population of 147,000; this residential and light high-tech industries city has 30 city parks. Known for its low crime rates, the city ranks among the safest cities in Los Angeles County. Torrance is the birthplace of the American Youth Soccer Organization. In addition, Torrance has the second-highest percentage of residents of Japanese ancestry in California. For thousands of years the area where Torrance is located was part of the Tongva Native American homeland. In 1784 the Spanish land grant for Rancho San Pedro, in the upper Las Californias Province of New Spain and encompassing present day Torrance, was issued to Juan Jose Dominguez by King Carlos III – the Spanish Empire.
It was divided in 1846 with Governor Pío Pico granting Rancho de los Palos Verdes to José Loreto and Juan Capistrano Sepulveda, in the Alta California territory of independent Mexico. In the early 1900s, real estate developer Jared Sidney Torrance and other investors saw the value of creating a mixed industrial-residential community south of Los Angeles, they purchased part of an old Spanish land grant and hired landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. to design a planned community. The resulting town was named after Mr. Torrance; the city of Torrance was formally incorporated in May 1921, the townsite being bounded by Western Avenue on the east, Del Amo Boulevard on the north, Crenshaw Boulevard on the west, on the south by Plaza Del Amo east of where it meets Carson Street, by Carson Street west of where it meets Plaza Del Amo. The first residential avenue created in Torrance was Gramercy and the second avenue was Andreo. Many of the houses on these avenues turned 100 years of age in 2012.
Both avenues are located in the area referred to as Old Town Torrance. This section of Torrance is under review to be classified as a historical district; some of the early civic and residential buildings were designed by the renowned and innovative Southern California architect Irving Gill, in his distinctive combining of Mission Revival and early Modernist architecture. Torrance is a coastal community in southwestern Los Angeles County sharing the climate and geographical features common to the Greater Los Angeles area, its boundaries are: the cities of Lawndale and Gardena to the north. It is about 20 miles southwest of Downtown Los Angeles. Torrance Beach lies between Malaga Cove on Santa Monica Bay; the southernmost stretch of Torrance Beach, on a cove at the northern end of the Palos Verdes peninsula, is known to locals as Rat Beach. An urban wetlands, the Madrona Marsh, is a nature preserve on land once set for oil production and saved from development, with restoration projects enhancing the vital habitat for birds and native plants.
A Nature center provides activities and classes for school children and visitors of all ages. Torrance has a Mediterranean climate bordering a subtropical highland climate; the rainy season is November through March. Summers tend to be warm and humid due to Torrance's proximity to the coast, making it the ideal weather for swimming; the Los Angeles area is subject to the phenomenon typical of a microclimate. As such, the temperatures can vary as much as 18 °F between inland areas and the coast, with a temperature gradient of over 1 °F per mile from the coast inland. California has a weather phenomenon called "June Gloom or May Gray", which sometimes brings overcast or foggy skies in the morning on the coast, followed by sunny skies by noon during late spring and early summer; the 2010 United States Census reported that Torrance had a population of 145,438. The population density was 7,076.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Torrance was 74,333 White, 50,240 Asian, 3,955 African American, 554 Native American, 530 Pacific Islander, 7,808 from other races, 8,018 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23,440 persons, while non-Hispanic whites formed 42.3% of the population. The Census reported that 144,292 people lived in households, 506 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 640 were institutionalized. There were 56,001 households, out of which 18,558 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 29,754 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 6,148 had a female householder with no husband present, 2,510 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,152 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 309 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 14,472 households were made up of individuals and 5,611 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58. There were 38,412 families; the population was spread out with 31,831 people under the age of 18, 10,875 people aged 18 to 24, 38,296
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w