Santa Maria, California
Santa Maria is a city near the Southern California coast in Santa Barbara County. It is 65 miles northwest of Santa Barbara and 150 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles, its estimated 2018 population was 108,470, making it the most populous city in the county and the Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA Metro Area. The city is notable for Santa Maria-style barbecue. Sunset magazine called Santa Maria "The West's Best BBQ Town"; the Santa Maria Valley, stretching from the Santa Lucia Mountains toward the Pacific Ocean, was the homeland of the Chumash people for several thousand years. The Native Americans made their homes on the slopes of the surrounding hills among the oaks, on the banks of the Santa Maria River among the sycamores, along the coast, they had unique plank-built boats, called Tomol, which they used for ocean fishing. In 1769, the Portolá Expedition passed through the Santa Maria Valley during the first Spanish land exploration up the coast of Las Californias Province. Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa was established just north of the valley in 1772, Mission La Purísima Concepción was established near present-day Lompoc in 1787.
Rather than rich soil, white settlers were attracted here by the possibility of free land. In 1821, after the Mexican War of Independence, the mission lands in Santa Maria Valley were made available for private ownership under a Mexican land grant called Rancho Punta de Laguna. At the end of the Mexican War in 1848, California was ceded to the United States. In the late 19th century, after California gained statehood in 1850, the area's rich soil attracted farmers and other settlers. By the end of the century, the Santa Maria River Valley had become one of the most productive agricultural areas in the state. Agriculture is still a key component of the economy for the entire region. Between 1869 and 1874, four of the valley's settlers, Rudolph Cook, John Thornburg, Isaac Fesler, Isaac Miller, built their homes near each other at the present corners on Broadway and Main Street; the townsite was recorded in Santa Barbara in 1875. The new town was named Grangerville changed to Central City, it became Santa Maria on February 18, 1885, since mail was being sent by mistake to Central City, Colorado.
Santa Maria was chosen from the name Juan Pacifico Ontiveros had given to his property 25 years earlier. Streets named after the four settlers now form a 6 block square centered at Broadway and Main Street, the center of town. Oil exploration began in 1888. In 1902, Union Oil discovered the large Orcutt Oil Field in the Solomon Hills south of town, a number of smaller companies began pumping oil. Two years Union Oil had 22 wells in production. Other significant discoveries followed, including the Lompoc Oil Field in 1903 and the Cat Canyon field in 1908. Over the next 80 years more large oil fields were found, thousands of oil wells drilled and put into production. Oil development intensified in the 1930s, with the discovery of the Santa Maria Valley Oil Field in 1934, right underneath the southern and western parts of the city of Santa Maria, which spurred the city's growth further. By 1957 there were 1,775 oil wells in operation in the Santa Maria Valley, producing more than $640 million worth of oil.
Santa Maria is located at 34°57′5″N 120°26′0″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.4 square miles, of which, 22.8 square miles of it is land and 0.6 square miles of it is water. Santa Maria is situated north of the unincorporated township of Orcutt and south of the Santa Maria River; the valley is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and to the east by the San Rafael Mountains and the Los Padres National Forest. The city of Guadalupe, California is 9 miles to the west of Santa Maria. Santa Maria experiences a cool Mediterranean climate typical of coastal areas of California north of Point Conception; the climate is sunny, refreshed by the ocean breeze. Fog is common. Snow in the lowest parts of the city is unknown, with the last brief flurry recorded in January 1949; the only recorded earlier snowfall was in January 1882. Rainfall averages 14 inches annually. Agriculture plays an important role in the city's economy; the Santa Maria area is home to an increasing number of vineyards and winemakers and is centrally located to both the Santa Ynez and Foxen Canyon areas of Santa Barbara County's wine country, San Luis Obispo County's Edna Valley-Arroyo Grande wine country.
The agricultural areas surrounding the city are some of the most productive in California, with primary crops including strawberries, wine grapes, lettuce, squash, spinach and beans. Many cattle ranchers call the Santa Maria Valley home. In recent years, other industries have been added to the city's agricultural and retail mix, including: aerospace; the petroleum industry has had a large presence in the area since oil was first discovered at the Orcutt Oil Field in 1902. By 1957 there were 1,775 oil wells in operation in the Santa Maria Valley, producing more than $640 million worth of oil. According to the City's 2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, updated City of Santa Maria employee figures reported in the 2014-2016 City Budget, the top employers in the city are: The 2010
Santa Ynez Valley
The Santa Ynez Valley is located in Santa Barbara County, between the Santa Ynez Mountains to the south and the San Rafael Mountains to the north. The Santa Ynez River flows through the valley from east to west; the Santa Ynez Valley is separated from the Los Alamos Valley, to the northwest, by the Purisima Hills, from the Santa Maria Valley by the Solomon Hills. The Santa Rita Hills separate the Santa Ynez Valley from the Santa Rita and Lompoc Valleys to the west; the valley has a population of about 20,000 residents living in the communities of Solvang, Los Olivos, Santa Ynez and Ballard. The 2004 film Sideways was set in the Santa Ynez Valley. Since visits from tourists looking to recreate the experiences of the fictional characters Miles and Jack, have become common. Fans of the movie can be seen making a pilgrimage from the Buellton Days Inn to the Hitching Post restaurant. Other movies that have been filmed in the Santa Ynez Valley include indie film "Flying Lessons" featuring Michael O’Neill, Maggie Grace, Hal Holbrook, “Michael Jackson: The Untold Story of Neverland", “Uncorked” /Hallmark/Larry Levinson.
At the time, it was called Sycamore Valley Ranch. According to La Toya Jackson, Michael expressed interest in someday buying the property. In 1988, he would do so; the singer sold the property prior to his death and in 2017, the estate, again Sycamore Valley Ranch, was for sale at an asking price of $67 million. The Santa Ynez Valley is part of Santa Barbara County's Third Supervisorial District, whose voters are registered 39% Democratic and 31% Republican; the Valley, geographically located at the center of Santa Barbara County and surrounded by the Los Padres National Forest, is sometimes regarded as more politically aligned with northern Santa Barbara County and would have been included in the proposed Mission County under "Measure H," rejected by 81% of County voters in the June 6, 2006 Direct Primary election. Numerous smart growth-type coalitions have formed such as the Santa Ynez Valley Alliance, Preservation of Los Olivos, Preservation of Santa Ynez, WeWatch, the Santa Ynez Valley Concerned Citizens.
These groups' stated mission is the preservation of the Santa Ynez Valley. The economy of the Santa Ynez Valley is driven by agriculture, the equine industry, tourism; the wine industry is a major part of the Santa Ynez Valley's economy. The Santa Ynez Valley Visitors Association lists over 70 wineries and tasting rooms on their website. Besides grapes, the valley has numerous apple farms, many of them with roadside apple stands or "pick your own" programs, it is the location of the Santa Ynez Valley American Viticultural Area. Horses are seen throughout the valley and a historic Western atmosphere is kept alive. Notable ranches include Monty Roberts' Flag Is Up Farms, River Edge Farm, the nationally known Alamo Pintado Equine Medical Center; this valley is noted for having over 52 different breeds of horses, plus 28 veterinarians. Tourists visit the valley for its attractions including numerous art galleries, wine tasting rooms, antique stores as well as resorts such as the Alisal Guest Ranch, Lake Cachuma, PCPA's Theatrefest, the Chumash Casino.
Because of good weather year round, many participate in outdoor activities such as hiking in the nearby Los Padres National Forest or bicycling throughout the valley. Allan Hancock College: Solvang Campus Santa Ynez Valley Union High School Los Olivos School Ballard School Olive Grove Charter School Dunn School Midland School The Family School Santa Ynez School College School Santa Ynez Valley Christian Academy Jonata Middle School Oak Valley Elementary School Solvang Elementary School Notable present or past residents include California wine Activities in the Valley The Danish Soul of That Town in'Sideways' The Santa Ynez Valley Visitors Association Santa Ynez Valley Online Community The Santa Ynez Valley Alliance Preservation of Los Olivos Women's Environmental Watch The Santa Ynez Valley News The Santa Ynez Valley Journal
Federal Highway Administration
The Federal Highway Administration is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. The agency's major activities are grouped into two programs, the Federal-aid Highway Program and the Federal Lands Highway Program, its role had been performed by the Office of Road Inquiry, Office of Public Roads and the Bureau of Public Roads. The organization has a complicated history; the Office of Road Inquiry was founded in 1893. In 1905 that organization's name was changed to the Office of Public Roads which became a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the name was changed again to the Bureau of Public Roads in 1915 and to the Public Roads Administration in 1939. It was shifted to the Federal Works Agency, abolished in 1949 when its name reverted to Bureau of Public Roads under the Department of Commerce. With the coming of the bicycle in the 1890s, interest grew regarding the improvement of streets and roads in America; the traditional method of putting the burden on maintaining roads on local landowners was inadequate.
New York State took the lead in 1898, by 1916 the old system had been discarded everywhere area. Demands grew for local and state government to take charge. With the coming of the automobile after 1910, urgent efforts were made to upgrade and modernize dirt roads designed for horse-drawn wagon traffic; the American Association for Highway Improvement was organized in 1910. Funding came from automobile registration, taxes on motor fuels, as well as state aid. In 1916, federal-aid was first made available to improve post-roads, promote general commerce. Congress appropriated $75 million over a five-year period, with the Secretary of Agriculture in charge through the Bureau of Public Roads, in cooperation with the state highway departments. There were 2.4 million miles of rural dirt rural roads in 1914. The increasing speed of automobiles, trucks, made maintenance and repair high-priority item. Concrete was first used in 1893, expanded until it became the dominant surfacing material in the 1930s. Federal aid began in 1917.
From 1917 through 1941, 261,000 miles of highways were built with federal aid, cost $5.31 billion. Federal funds totaled $3.17 billion, state-local funds were $2.14 billion. The FHWA was created on October 15, 1966. In 1967 the functions of the Bureau of Public Roads were transferred to the new organization, it was one of three original bureaus along with the'Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety' and the'National Highway Safety Bureau'. The FHWA’s role in the Federal-aid Highway Program is to oversee federal funds used for constructing and maintaining the National Highway System; this funding comes from the federal gasoline tax and goes to state departments of transportation. FHWA oversees projects using these funds to ensure that federal requirements for project eligibility, contract administration and construction standards are adhered to. Under the Federal Lands Highway Program, the FHWA provides highway design and construction services for various federal land-management agencies, such as the Forest Service and the National Park Service.
In addition to these programs, the FHWA performs and sponsors research in the areas of roadway safety, highway materials and construction methods, provides funding to local technical assistance program centers to disseminate research results to local highway agencies. The FHWA publishes the “Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices”, used by most highway agencies in the United States; the MUTCD specifies such things as the size and height of traffic signs, traffic signals and road surface markings. The Federal Highway Administration is overseen by an Administrator appointed by the President of the United States by and with the consent of the United States Senate; the Administrator works under the direction of the Secretary of Transportation and Deputy Secretary of Transportation. The internal organization of the FHWA is as follows: Administrator Executive Director Office of Infrastructure Office of Research and Technology Public Roads magazine Office of Planning and Realty Office of Policy and Government Affairs Office of the Chief Financial Officer Office of Administration Office of Operations Office of Safety Office of Federal Lands Highway Office of Chief Counsel Office of Civil Rights Office of Public Affairs Long-Term Pavement Performance is a program supported by FHWA to collect and analyse road data.
The LTPP program was initiated by the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council in the early 1980s. Federal Highway Administration with the cooperation of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials sponsored the program; as a result of this program, FHWA has collected a huge database of road performance. FHWA and ASCE hold an annual contest known as LTPP International Data Analysis Contest, based on challenging researchers to answer a question based on the LTPP data. Current: Administrator: Brandye Hendrickson Deputy Administrator: Brandye Hendrickson Executive Director: Thomas Everett Alph Bartelsmeyer August 10, 1970- January 25, 1974 Alinda Burke - January 1, 1980 -? J. Richard Capka August 5, 2002 - May 31, 2006 Gregory G. Nadeau July 8, 2009 – July 30, 2014 Brandye Hendrickson July 24, 2017 - Present Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Hi
A state highway, state road, or state route is a road, either numbered or maintained by a sub-national state or province. A road numbered by a state or province falls below numbered national highways in the hierarchy. Roads maintained by a state or province include both nationally numbered highways and un-numbered state highways. Depending on the state, "state highway" may be used for one meaning and "state road" or "state route" for the other. In some countries such as New Zealand, the word "state" is used in its sense of a sovereign state or country. By this meaning a state highway is a road maintained and numbered by the national government rather than local authorities. Australia's State Route system covers urban and inter-regional routes that are not included in the National Route or the National Highway systems; these routes are marked with a blue shield. Sometimes a state route may be formed. Most states and territories have introduced an alphanumeric route numbering system, either or replacing the previous systems.
Brazil is another country, divided into states and has state highways. Canada is divided into provinces and territories, each of which maintains its own system of provincial or territorial highways, which form the majority of the country's highway network. There is the national transcontinental Trans-Canada Highway system, marked by distinct signs, but has no uniform numeric designation across the country. In some provinces, for instance, an unnumbered Trans-Canada route marker is posted below a numbered provincial sign, with the provincial route continuing alone outside the Trans-Canada Highway section. In others, Trans-Canada routes are co-signed with major provincial highways, displayed as a single numbered Trans-Canada route marker. Canada has a designated National Highway System, but the system is unsigned, aside from the Trans-Canada routes. In Germany, state roads are a road class, ranking below the federal road network; the responsibility for road planning and maintenance is vested in the federal states of Germany.
Most federal states use the term Landesstraße, while for historical reasons Saxony and Bavaria use the term Staatsstraße. The appearance of the shields differs from state to state; the term Lande-s-straße should not be confused with Landstraße, which describes every road outside built-up areas and is not a road class. Italy's Strade Statali extend for some 18,000 km, overseen by the Azienda Nazionale Autonoma delle Strade founded in 1946, replacing the A. A. S. S. of 1928. State highways in India are numbered highways that are maintained by state governments. Mexico's State Highway System is a system of urban and state routes constructed and maintained by each Mexican state; the main purpose of the state networks is to serve as a feeder system to the federal highway system. All states except the Federal District operate a road network; each state marks these routes with a white shield containing the abbreviated name of the state plus the route number. New Zealand state highways are national highways – the word "state" in this sense means "government" or "public", not a division of a country.
New Zealand's state highway system is a nationwide network of roads covering the North Island and the South Island. As of 2006, just under 100 roads have a "State Highway" designation; the NZ Transport Agency administers them. The speed limit for most state highways is 100 km/h, with reductions when one passes through a densely populated area; the highways in New Zealand were designated on a two-tier system and provincial, with national highways having a higher standard and funding priorities. Now all of them are state highways, the network consists of SH 1 running the length of both main islands, SH 2–5 and 10–58 in the North Island, SH 6–8 and 60–99 in the South Island. National and provincial highways are numbered north to south. State Highway 1 runs the length of both islands. Local highways are the next important roads under the National highways; the number has three, or four dights. Highways with two-digit numbers routes are called State-funded local highways. State highways are a mixture of primary and secondary roads, although some are freeways.
Each state has its own system for its own marker. The default marker is a white circle containing a black sans serif number, according to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices; however each state is free to choose a different marker, most states have. States may choose a design theme relevant to its state to distinguish state route markers from interstate, county, or municipal route markers. Roads portal List of longest state highways in the United States List of numbered highways in the United States Interstate Highway System, U. S. Highway System Missouri supplemental route County highway Highways in Australia Numbered street
Buellton is a small city in Santa Barbara County, United States. It is located in the Santa Ynez Valley; the population was 4,828 at the 2010 census. With its convenient location at the junction of U. S. Route 101 and State Route 246, Buellton attracts many travelers, it is a town, home to various hotels, restaurants and shops. It may be most famous for its nickname “Home of Split Pea Soup,”, a reference to Pea Soup Andersen's Restaurant. Buellton traces its beginnings to 1867 when a portion of a Mexican land grant was deeded Rufus T. Buell and his brother, they developed a successful cattle ranch in the 19th century. Buellton is located at 34°36′51″N 120°11′38″W. At an elevation of 358 ft; the town is surrounded by miles of open-space land in the Santa Ynez Valley, borders the Santa Ynez River to the south. It is home to a library, one park, a golf course, fire station, Highway Patrol Office, a shopping plaza, 10 hotels and 18 restaurants. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.6 square miles, 99.96% of it land and 0.04% of it water.
Buellton was in 2004 was one of the fastest-growing towns in central Santa Barbara County. It is a common stop for travelers on U. S. Highway 101, being the first town north of Santa Barbara after the scenic and undeveloped stretch of about 25 miles through the Gaviota coast; the 2010 United States Census reported that Buellton had a population of 4,828. The population density was 3,050.3 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Buellton was 3,912 White, 37 African American, 76 Native American, 137 Asian, 5 Pacific Islander, 424 from other races, 237 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,451 persons; the Census reported that 4,828 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 1,761 households, out of which 667 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,008 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 168 had a female householder with no husband present, 81 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 93 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 10 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 385 households were made up of individuals and 189 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74. There were 1,257 families; the population was spread out with 1,228 people under the age of 18, 391 people aged 18 to 24, 1,229 people aged 25 to 44, 1,343 people aged 45 to 64, 637 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.2 males. There were 1,845 housing units at an average density of 1,165.7 per square mile, of which 1,226 were owner-occupied, 535 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.5%. 3,262 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,566 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,828 people, 1,433 households, 1,000 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,450.4 people per square mile.
There were 1,483 housing units at an average density of 949.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.50% White, 0.55% African American, 1.15% Native American, 1.10% Asian, 0.21% Pacific Islander, 12.23% from other races, 3.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 25.73% of the population. There were 1,433 households out of which 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.2% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families. 23.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.17. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $48,490, the median income for a family was $54,839. Males had a median income of $46,379 versus $28,542 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,907. About 6.6% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.2% of those under age 18 and 7.3% of those age 65 or over. Buellton is named for R. T. Buell who owned the Rancho San Carlos de Jonata Mexican land grant, it is the home of Pea Soup Andersen's, a major roadside stop and landmark on Route 101 since 1924. It has been a minor tourist destination since the 1920s, became popular after the opening of Pea Soup Andersen's. Buellton has experienced increased notoriety due to the film Sideways, filmed in Buellton and nearby Solvang; the Santa Barbara County Sheriff's Office provides police services for Buellton, while the Santa Barbara County Fire Department acts as the local fire service. California Highway Patrol operates an office in town; the crime rate is low.
Unlike most communities in Santa Barbara County, Buellton has a majority of voters registered as Republicans. OstrichLand USA is a 33-acre Ostrich and Emu farm located in the Buellton
A concurrency in a road network is an instance of one physical roadway bearing two or more different route numbers. When two roadways share the same right-of-way, it is sometimes called commons. Other terminology for a concurrency includes overlap, duplex, multiplex, dual routing or triple routing. Concurrent numbering can become common in jurisdictions that allow it. Where multiple routes must pass between a single mountain crossing or over a bridge, or through a major city, it is economically and advantageous for them all to be accommodated on a single physical roadway. In some jurisdictions, concurrent numbering is avoided by posting only one route number on highway signs. Most concurrencies are a combination of two route numbers on the same physical roadway; this is practically advantageous as well as economically advantageous. Some countries allow for concurrencies to occur, others do not allow it to happen. In those nations which do permit concurrencies, it can become common. In these countries, there are a variety of concurrences.
An example of this is the concurrency of Interstate 70 and I-76 on the Pennsylvania Turnpike in western Pennsylvania. I-70 merges with the Pennsylvania Turnpike so the route number can continue east into Maryland. A triple Interstate concurrency is found in Wisconsin along the five-mile section of I-41, I-43, I-894 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; the concurrency of I-41 and I-43 on this roadway is an example of a wrong-way concurrency. The longest Interstate highway concurrency is I-90 for 265 miles across Indiana and Ohio. There are examples of eight-way concurrencies: I-465 around Indianapolis and Georgia State Route 10 Loop around downtown Athens, Georgia. Portions of the 53-mile I-465 overlap with I-74, US Highway 31, US 36, US 40, US 52, US 421, State Road 37 and SR 67—a total of eight other routes. Seven of the eight other designations overlap between exits 46 and 47 to create an eight-way concurrency. In the United States, concurrencies are marked by placing signs for both routes on the same or adjacent posts.
The federal Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices prescribes that when mounting these adjacent signs together that the numbers will be arranged vertically or horizontally in order of precedence. The order to be used is Interstate Highways, U. S. Highways, state highways, county roads, within each class by increasing numerical value. Several states do not have any concurrencies, instead ending routes on each side of one. There are several circumstances. One example occurs along the Oklahoma–Arkansas state line. At the northern end of this border Oklahoma State Highway 20 runs concurrently with Arkansas Highway 43 and the two highways run north–south along the boundary. Concurrencies are found in Canada. British Columbia Highway 5 continues east for 12 kilometres concurrently with Highway 1 and Highway 97, through Kamloops; this stretch of road, which carries Highway 97 south and Highway 5 north on the same lanes, is the only wrong-way concurrency in British Columbia. In Ontario, the Queen Elizabeth Way and Highway 403 run concurrently between Burlington and Oakville, forming the province's only concurrency between two 400-series highways.
The concurrency was not in the original plan which intended for both the QEW and Highway 403 to run parallel to each other, as the Hamilton–Brantford and Mississauga sections of Highway 403 were planned to be linked up along the corridor now occupied by Highway 407. It was planned for the Mississauga section of Highway 403 would be renumbered as Highway 410 but this never came to pass. Highway 403 was signed concurrently along the Queen Elizabeth Way in 2002, remedying the discontinuity to avoid confusing drivers that wanted to travel between the two segments without using the toll Highway 407. Nonetheless, many surface street signs referring to that section of freeway with the QEW/Highway 403 concurrency still only use the highway's original designation of QEW, although the MTO has updated route markers on the QEW to reflect the concurrency. In the United Kingdom, routes do not run concurrently with others. Where this would occur, the roadway takes the number of only one of the routes, while the other routes are considered to have a gap and are signed in brackets.
An example is the meeting of the M60 and the M62 northwest of Manchester: the motorways coincide for the seven miles between junctions 12 and 18 but the motorway between those points is only designated as the M60. European route numbers as designated by UNECE may have concurrencies, but since the E-route numbers are unsigned and unused in the UK, the existence of these concurrencies is purely theoretical. In Sweden and Denmark, the most important highways use only the European route numbers that have cardinal directions. In Sweden the E6 and E20 run concurrently for 280 kilometres. In Denmark the E47 and E55 run concurrently for 157 kilometres. There are more shorter concurrencies. There are two stretches in Sweden
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a