Lexington Reservoir is an artificial lake on the Los Gatos Creek near Los Gatos, California. The James J. Lenihan Dam, a 195 ft high,1,000 ft thick earthen dam, the reservoir is in the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains, at an elevation of 645 feet. State Route 17 runs alongside the western edge and over part of the reservoir. Alma Bridge Road runs around the side, connecting with 17 at the north end. The reservoir is contained in Lexington Reservoir County Park, which includes hiking trails in the hills with views of the reservoir. The Los Gatos Creek Trail starts at the dam and continues downstream along the creeks canyon and it is part of the Santa Clara Valley Water District and provides water for Silicon Valley. In October 2007, the Santa Clara Valley Water District began a project to replace the old 48-inch outlet pipe that runs through the base of the dam from the reservoir to Los Gatos Creek. The current outlet pipe will be replaced with a 54-inch -diameter pipe, new valves, outlet structures and a control building.
After rerouting State Route 17 near Windy Point, which is a mile south of Los Gatos, the reservoir covered the towns of Lexington and Alma. Alma and Lexington reached their population in the mid-19th century. Each of the towns had a post office, saloons, blacksmith shops, Lexington was the halfway stop for stagecoaches running between San Jose and Santa Cruz. The town served as a place to switch from four horses to six horses to get over the mountains, Lexington declined after 1880 when the narrow gauge railroad from Los Gatos to Santa Cruz bypassed it, while Alma declined when Highway 17 bypassed it in 1940. The railroad ceased operations in 1940, by 1950, only about 100 people lived in the two communities. Lexington gained national attention in 1883, when a Los Gatos saloon keeper, Lloyd Majors and they burned him with turpentine-soaked rags and beat him with pistols, killing him, and fled with the gold. Their sensational trial in San Jose drew national attention similar to that accorded to the Lizzie Borden ax murders nine years later and one of the thugs were hanged.
The other spent 15 years in prison, in September 2007, the Santa Clara Valley Water District began its “Lenihan Dam Outlet Project” at Lexington Reservoir. This project replaced the old outlet pipe that releases water from Lexington Reservoir into some of the creeks, in the past, the old pipe required frequent maintenance and repairs because it was aging and collapsed in several areas. The new outlet pipe, which runs through a new tunnel in Saint Joseph’s Hill, features new actuating valves, the project was completed in Fall of 2009, and “first release” celebration was held on Oct.20,2009
San Mateo County, California
San Mateo County is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 718,451, the county seat is Redwood City. San Mateo County is included in the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, and is part of the San Francisco Bay Area and it covers most of the San Francisco Peninsula. San Francisco International Airport is located at the end of the county. The countys built-up areas are mostly suburban with some areas being very urban, San Mateo County was formed in 1856 after San Francisco County, one of the states 18 original counties since Californias statehood in 1850, was split apart. Until 1856, San Franciscos city limits extended west to Divisadero Street and Castro Street, in response to the lawlessness and vigilantism that escalated rapidly between 1855 and 1856, the California government decided to divide the county. A straight line was drawn across the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula just north of San Bruno Mountain.
The consolidated city-county of San Francisco was formed by an introduced by Horace Hawes. San Mateo County was officially organized on 18 April 1857 under a bill introduced by Senator T. G, San Mateo County annexed part of northern Santa Cruz County in March 1868, including Pescadero and Pigeon Point. Although the forming bill named Redwood City the county seat, a May 1856 election marked by unblushing frauds, perpetuated on an unorganized and wholly unprotected community by thugs and ballot stuffers from San Francisco named Belmont the county seat. The election results were declared illegal and the county government was moved to Redwood City, Redwood Citys status as county seat was upheld in two succeeding elections in May 1861 and 9 December 1873, defeating San Mateo and Belmont. Another election in May 1874 named San Mateo the county seat, but the supreme court overturned that election on 24 February 1875. San Mateo County bears the Spanish name for Saint Matthew, until about 1850, the name appeared as San Matheo.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 741 square miles. It is the third-smallest county in California by land area, a number of bayside watercourses drain the eastern part of the county including San Bruno Creek and Colma Creek. Streams draining the county include Frenchmans Creek, Pilarcitos Creek, Naples Creek, Arroyo de en Medio. These streams originate along the spur of the Santa Cruz Mountains that run through the county. San Mateo County straddles the San Francisco Peninsula, with the Santa Cruz Mountains running its entire length, the county encompasses a variety of habitats including estuarine, oak woodland, redwood forest, coastal scrub and oak savannah
As social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. The Greater São Paulo is a term for one of the multiple definitions the large metropolitan area located in the São Paulo state in Brazil. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not necessarily urban in character and these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, and may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, El Monte, California is considered part of the Los Angeles metro area in the United States, in practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Population figures given for one area can vary by millions. A polycentric metropolitan area is one not connected by continuous development or conurbation, in defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus that other areas have a high degree of integration with.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines statistical divisions as areas under the influence of one or more major towns or a major city. However, this definition has become obsolete with the conurbation of several statistical divisions into a larger metropolitan areas. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called metropolitan regions, each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography. Their main purpose is to allow for a management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved. They dont have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the area must have a population of at least 100,000.
To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a degree of integration with the core. As of the Canada 2011 Census, there were 33 CMAs in Canada, including six with a population over one million—Toronto, Vancouver, Ottawa and Edmonton. In Denmark the only area is Greater Copenhagen, consisting of the Capital Region of Denmark along with the neighboring regions Region Zealand. Greater Copenhagen has an population of 1.25 million people
California Freeway and Expressway System
The California Freeway and Expressway System is a system of existing or planned freeways and expressways in the U. S. state of California. It encompasses both State highways and federal highways in California and it is defined by the Streets and Highways Code, sections 250-257. The following is a list of defined by the Streets and Highways Code, sections 250-257. Some of the routes listed may still be in the stages of being fully upgraded to freeways or expressways. State Route 1 State Route 2 State Route 3 State Route 4 Interstate 5 U. S. S. S, Route 95 State Route 96 U. S. Route 97 State Route 98 State Route 99 State Route 100 U. S. S. S
Santa Clara County, California
Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,781,642, the county seat is San Jose, the tenth-most populous city in the United States. Santa Clara County is part of the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, located at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay, the highly urbanized Santa Clara Valley within Santa Clara County is known as Silicon Valley. Santa Clara is the most populous county in the San Francisco Bay Area region, Santa Clara County is named after Mission Santa Clara, which was established in 1777, and is named for Saint Clare of Assisi. Santa Clara County was one of the counties of California. The original inhabitants included the Ohlone, residing on Coyote Creek, part of the countys territory was given to Alameda County in 1853. In 1882, Santa Clara County tried to levy taxes upon property of the Southern Pacific Railroad within county boundaries.
The result was the U. S. Supreme Court case of Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad,118 U. S.394, in which the Court extended Due Process rights to artificial legal entities. In the early 20th Century, the area was promoted as the Valley of the Hearts Delight due to its natural beauty, the first major technology company to be based in the area was Hewlett-Packard, founded in a garage in Palo Alto in 1939. IBM selected San Jose as its West Coast headquarters in 1943, varian Associates, Fairchild Semiconductor, and other early innovators were located in the county by the late 1940s and 1950s. The U. S. Navy had a presence in the area. The term Silicon Valley was coined in 1971, the trend accelerated in the 1980s and 1990s, and agriculture has since been nearly eliminated from the northern part of the county. And Hewlett-Packard, and internet companies eBay, Google, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,304 square miles, of which 1,290 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water.
The San Andreas Fault runs along the Santa Cruz Mountains in the south, as of 2012, an estimated 400 tule elk roam 1,875 square kilometres in northeastern Santa Clara County and southeastern Alameda County. The vast majority of these Superfund sites were caused by associated with the high tech sector located in Silicon Valley. As of 2013, Santa Clara County has the highest median income of any county in California at $84,741. The 2010 United States Census reported that Santa Clara County had a population of 1,781,642. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 479,210 persons,22. 5% Mexican,0. 4% Puerto Rican,0. 1% Cuban,3. 8% Other Hispanic
Woodside is a small incorporated town in San Mateo County, United States, on the San Francisco Peninsula. It has a system of government. The population of the town was 5,287 at the 2010 census, Woodside is home to many horses and is among the wealthiest communities in the United States. The median household income in the town is $212,917, the Woodside area was originally home to natives belonging to the Ohlone tribe. In 1769, led by Gaspar de Portolá, Spanish explorers searching for San Francisco Bay camped at a site near Woodside, Woodside is located on the Rancho Cañada de Raymundo Mexican Land grant. Woodside is said to be the oldest English-speaking settlement in the part of the San Francisco Peninsula. The first English-speaking settlers arrived in the early 19th century to log the rich stands of redwoods, charles Brown constructed the first sawmill in Woodside on his Mountain Home Ranch around 1838. His adobe house, built in 1839, still stands today, by mid-century, the Woodside area had a dozen mills producing building materials for a booming San Francisco.
In 1849, during the California Gold Rush, 20-year-old Mathias Alfred Parkhurst purchased 127 acres of timberland and named it “Woodside, of course, by the late 19th century, Woodside was home to country estates. The Sequoia Redwood trees in Woodside are currently 3 generation growth, the first generation of the Redwood trees were used to build San Francisco original homes. After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the returned to Woodside to cut the second growth of redwood so they could be used for the rebuilding of San Francisco. In 1909, the Family, a club, set up camp facilities and rustic buildings in Woodside at the Family Farm. Gatherings at the Family Farm include an annual Farm Play, written, in 1912, the Family pooled funds to build Our Lady of the Wayside Church in Portola Valley, designed by 19-year-old Timothy L. Pflueger, his first commission. The historic building was repaired at a cost of US$600,000 after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, Woodside was incorporated in 1956 to prevent urbanization, and it still retains a rural residential character, though it is a short commute to Silicon Valley.
Today, Woodside is among the wealthiest small towns in the United States, outside of the business district are the Stillheart Institute educational event center, Skywood Trading Post and the Mountain Terrace event center. Horses are part of the local culture, numerous residents keep horses, and the town government maintains a network of horse trails. Some residents homes are even considered farms, the town is popular among local cyclists and draws them in large numbers on weekends. The most popular road cycling routes include Old La Honda Road, Kings Mountain Road, Cañada Road, Southgate Drive, Skyline Boulevard, the Tour of California bicycle race includes several roads along and adjacent to CA-84 and Skyline Boulevard
History of California's state highway system
The state highway system in the U. S. state of California dates back to 1896, when the state took over maintenance of the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. Construction of a connected system began in 1912, after the states voters approved an $18 million bond issue for over 3000 miles of highways. The last large addition was made by the California State Assembly in 1959, the 58 mile road had been operated as a toll road until 1886, when El Dorado County bought it, the county deeded the road to the state on February 28,1896. Funding was only enough for minimal improvements, including a bridge over the South Fork American River in 1901. Also in 1895, on March 27, the created the three-person Bureau of Highways to coordinate efforts by the counties to build good roads. The bureau traveled to every county of the state in 1895 and 1896 and prepared a map of a system of state roads. Several more state highways were legislated in the decade. This new department, in addition to duties, was to maintain all state highways.
On March 22,1909 the State Highways Act was passed and this law authorized the Department of Engineering to issue $18 million in bonds for a continuous and connected state highway system that would connect all county seats. To this end, the department created the three-member California Highway Commission on August 8,1911 to take charge of the construction. As with the 1896 plan by the Bureau of Highways, the Highway Commission traveled the state to determine the best routes, construction began in mid-1912, with groundbreaking on Contract One - now part of SR82 in San Mateo County - on August 7. Noteworthy portions of the built by the commission included the Ridge Route in southern California. This gave the Department of Engineering an additional $12 million to complete the original system, at this time, each route was assigned a number from 1 to 34, this system of labeling routes, although never marked with signs, remained until the 1964 renumbering. Where not serving as extensions of existing routes, these -, the three bond issues together totaled 5560 miles, of which just over 40% was completed or under construction in mid-1920.
The Department of Engineering became part of the new Department of Public Works in 1921, in order to pay for the roads, a 2-cent per gallon gasoline tax was approved in 1923. The legislature continued to add highways to the system, including the Mother Lode Highway in 1921 and the Arrowhead Trail in 1925. In January 1928, the California State Automobile Association and Automobile Club of Southern California, Highways along several of the most major state highways. The California Toll Bridge Authority was created in 1929 to acquire and operate all toll bridges on highways, including the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge
A ridge or mountain ridge is a geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance. Ridges are usually termed hills or mountains as well, depending on size, there are several main types of ridges, Dendritic ridge, In typical dissected plateau terrain, the stream drainage valleys will leave intervening ridges. These are by far the most common ridges and these ridges usually represent slightly more erosion resistant rock, but not always – they often remain because there were more joints where the valleys formed, or other chance occurrences. This type of ridge is somewhat random in orientation, often changing direction frequently. Similar ridges have formed in such as the Black Hills. Sometimes these ridges are called hogback ridges, oceanic spreading ridge, In tectonic spreading zones around the world, such as at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the volcanic activity forming new plate boundary forms volcanic ridges at the spreading zone.
Isostatic settling and erosion gradually reduce the moving away from the zone. Crater ridges, Large meteorite strikes typically form large impact craters bordered by circular ridges, volcanic crater/caldera ridges, Large volcanoes often leave behind a central crater/caldera bordered by circular ridges. Fault ridges, Faults often form escarpments, sometimes the tops of the escarpments form not plateaus, but slope back so that the edges of the escarpments form ridges. Dune ridges, In areas of large-scale dune activity, certain types of dunes result in sand ridges and eskers, Glacial activity may leave ridges in the form of moraines and eskers. An arête is a ridge of rock that is formed by glacial erosion. Volcanic subglacial ridges, Many subglacial volcanoes create ridge-like formations when lava erupts through a glacier or ice sheet. Shutter ridges, A shutter ridge is a ridge which has moved along a fault line, typically, a shutter ridge creates a valley corresponding to the alignment of the fault that produces it
Sanborn County Park
Sanborn County Park is a public park situated in the Santa Cruz Mountains owned by the county of Santa Clara and managed by the Santa Clara County Parks and Recreation Department. The 3,453 acres holding is heavily forested and offers hiking, the park lies between the town of Saratoga and the ridgetop road, Skyline Boulevard. In the summer months, Sanborn County Park hosts the only outdoor Shakespearean company in Silicon Valley, exposed on the steep canyon eastern slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains, Sanborn County Park has one of the coolest summer climates of Santa Clara County’s parks. This Bay Area Ridge Trail ultimately circumnavigates the entire Bay Area at a length of 500 miles, the Sanborn and San Andreas trails ascend the eastern mountain slope, eventually joining the Cactus to Clouds Trail and Skyline Boulevard. Shorter, less strenuous trails extend through the stands and along creeksides within the lower reaches of Sanborn County Park. Sanborn County Park was founded in the late 1970s in an era of the Santa Clara County Parks and Recreation Department under the leadership of Robert Amery. A series of acquisitions throughout the county, with the intention to develop a greatly expanded set of county parks emphasizing large land area.
The Sanborn County Park master plan was developed in this era, the county retained Earth Metrics Inc. to prepare an Environmental Impact Report for the land use change, pursuant to requirements of the California Environmental Quality Act. Fairly soon thereafter the County Board of Supervisors approved the plan and began development of necessary road. Besides the tree species noted above, the contains a variety of native plants. Sanborn County Park is located on Sanborn Road, from the city of Saratoga, proceed two miles west on Highway 9 to Sanborn Road, thence turning left onto Sanborn Road, traveling one mile to the park entrance. Overnight camping is permitted and RV use is allowed for a number of vehicles at designated locations. Pets must be leashed and are permitted in picnic and RV areas, there are entry fees collected at all times. There are strictly enforced rules prohibiting the picking of vegetation or damaging of trees, all facilities are not handicapped accessible, although there is an all-access trail emanating from the visitor center.
Picnic tables and some grassy areas are available in a very small portion of the park. Opened in 1982, the Youth Science Institute - Sanborn Science and Nature Center is a science, the center features live animals found in the Santa Cruz Mountains and geology exhibits, an arthropod zoo and a regional plant garden. The center offers nature and science school and group programs, after-school science, the center hosts an annual Insect Fair in May
Redwood Estates, California
Redwood Estates is a rural unincorporated community along State Route 17 in the coastal Santa Cruz Mountains in Los Gatos, United States. The Census Bureau includes it in a place named Lexington Hills. It lies inside the confines of Santa Clara County, the area is about eight miles from downtown Los Gatos and nine miles from the Santa Cruz County community of Scotts Valley. Nearby Summit Road is roughly the line between the counties, Santa Cruz County areas being generally west of Summit Rd. The Butano Fault, roughly follows Summit Road through the area, the ZIP code for post office boxes in Redwood Estates is 95044, although the city and ZIP code for street delivery is Los Gatos,95033. Street addresses are usually five digits, the U. S. Geological Survey, National Geographic Names Database, lists the NAD27 coordinates of the community as 37°09′23″N 121°59′08″W. The community is inside area code 408 while communities further west are in the area code 831. The architecture of homes in the community varies widely, the roads are paved, but narrow and winding when compared to modern urban streets.
While area housing prices have been buoyed by rising real estate prices in Silicon Valley, there are few lawns, most homes have redwood duff in the front yard. Poison oak is evident in the area, there are very few storm drains, curbs, or sidewalks. Roads are framed by vegetation and wind along the contours of the areas hills, as the name implies, the area is populated by the towering redwood trees ubiquitous to the occasionally fog-shrouded areas of the California coast. Redwood roots seem to serve as speed bumps on many of the narrow community roads. A traffic focal point is the SR17 interchange with Madrone Drive, Summit Road has an interchange with SR17 and approximates the southern extent of the community. The area has a history with ties to railroading, until the 1940s, a Southern Pacific Railroad line to Santa Cruz passed through Holy City east of Redwood Estates. A factor in the removal of the line was its high maintenance cost. The portals of three tunnels along this line were closed during World War II in case an invading military force might use them as cover, other nearby mountain communities include Chemeketa Park, Aldercroft Heights, and Zayante.
Previous communities include the ghost towns Holy City and Wrights, Moody Gulch oil field, an abandoned field, is north of Redwood Estates. There are roughly twenty plugged wells, some with buried well heads, Moody Gulch extends in an arc east to Chemeketa Park north of the street named Apache Trail
California State Route 92
State Route 92 is an east-west highway in the San Francisco Bay area between Half Moon Bay near the coast in the west and downtown Hayward at its junction with State Route 238 and State Route 185. It is most notable for being the route traverses the San Mateo Bridge. It has interchanges with three freeways, Interstate 280, U. S. Route 101 in or near San Mateo and it connects indirectly to Interstates 238 and 580 by way of Haywards Foothill Boulevard, which carries Route 238 and flows directly into Route 92. This route is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System and is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System, however, it is not a scenic highway as defined by Caltrans. Between Half Moon Bay and Interstate 280, Route 92 winds through the Coast Range as a narrow, the east-bound uphill portion was upgraded with a long passing lane. Between Interstate 280 and Interstate 880 it is entirely a divided highway, including the toll San Mateo-Hayward Bridge. East of Interstate 880 the route becomes a surface street in Hayward.
All of Route 92 that is not already a freeway or a bridge has been proposed as a freeway. An upgrade of the intersection with Main Street in Half Moon Bay is in the planning stage. The project took four years, and was completed in October 2011, State Route 92 traverses through significant habitat areas including wetland, California oak woodland and grassland. The San Mateo section was referred to as the 19th Avenue Freeway which was the street name where the freeway now exits. This section is known as the J. Arthur Younger Freeway. Except where prefixed with a letter, postmiles were measured on the road as it was in 1964, based on the alignment that existed at the time, and do not necessarily reflect current mileage. R reflects a realignment in the route since then, M indicates a second realignment, L refers an overlap due to a correction or change, segments that remain unconstructed or have been relinquished to local control may be omitted. The numbers reset at county lines, the start and end postmiles in each county are given in the county column, California Roads portal San Francisco Bay Area portal Caltrans, Route 92 road conditions California @ AARoads.
com - State Route 92 California Highways, SR92
California State Route 17
State Route 17 is a freeway and expressway that runs between San Jose and Santa Cruz in the U. S. State of California. SR17 carries substantial commuter and vacation traffic between Santa Cruz and the rest of the San Francisco Bay Area, SR17 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System and is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System. However, it has not been designated as a highway by Caltrans. From its southern terminus with SR1 in Santa Cruz, Route 17 begins as a four-lane freeway, from there, it proceeds through Scotts Valley. At the north end of Scotts Valley, it becomes a divided highway, with access at various points without interchanges. The road crosses the Santa Clara/Santa Cruz county line through the Patchen Pass, commonly referred to as The Summit, at an elevation of 1,800 feet, where there is an interchange with SR35. Just north of the summit, a descent of the mountains begins, again with access at various points, mostly without grade separations. At Los Gatos, Route 17 becomes a freeway again and it expands to six lanes after an interchange with SR85.
This interchange has three levels, it is unusual in that the top level is at-grade, with the other levels below-grade, the number of lanes expands to eight shortly before reaching its northern terminus at Interstate 280, where it continues as Interstate 880. In the winter months, because SR17 crosses a high precipitation area in the Santa Cruz Mountains, some sections of SR17 are so dangerous that they have been nicknamed. The most infamous is called Big Moody Curve and this curve is named after Big Moody Creek below, slightly greater than a 180 degree turn, and bracketed by additional 90 degree turns. The inside surfaces of the barriers in both of these turns are normally chipped up and black with tire rubber. The portion between Los Gatos and Scotts Valley has been designated the Highway 17 Safety Corridor by Caltrans, Gillian Cichowski Memorial Overcrossing Bridge, over SR17 near Los Gatos at Lexington Reservoir, was named by California Senate Concurrent Resolution 32, Chapt. Gillian Cichowski was killed in an accident at this location in 1992 and this is one of the few highway constructions in California named for a woman.
The overpass was in response to a campaign by friends of Gillian Cichowski to make the intersection safer, the overpass was open to northbound traffic July 18,1996 and opened to southbound traffic August 29,1996. Margaret Green of Sunnyvale, California died in an accident near the same location during overpass construction. SR17 in Santa Cruz County is named after California Highway Patrol Lieutenant Michael Walker, Walker was setting flares to direct traffic around an auto accident on New Years Eve 2005 when he was struck and killed. Partly in response to this accident near the Glenwood Road intersection, the earliest connection between Santa Cruz and San Jose was an old Native American foot trail