History of California's state highway system
The state highway system in the U. S. state of California dates back to 1896, when the state took over maintenance of the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. Construction of a large connected system began in 1912, after the state's voters approved an $18 million bond issue for over 3000 miles of highways; the last large addition was made by the California State Assembly in 1959, after which only minor changes have been made. The first state road was authorized on March 26, 1895, when a law created the post of "Lake Tahoe Wagon Road Commissioner" to maintain the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road, now US 50 from Smith Flat - 3 miles east of Placerville - to the Nevada state line; the 58 mile road had been operated as a toll road until 1886. Funding was only enough for minimal improvements, including a stone bridge over the South Fork American River in 1901. In 1895, on March 27, the legislature created the three-person Bureau of Highways to coordinate efforts by the counties to build good roads; the bureau traveled to every county of the state in 1895 and 1896 and prepared a map of a recommended system of state roads, which they submitted to the governor on November 25, 1896.
The legislature replaced the Bureau of Highways with the Department of Highways on April 1, 1897, three days after it passed a law creating a second state highway from Sacramento to Folsom - another part of what became US 50 - to be maintained by three "Folsom Highway Commissioners". This was the last highway maintained by a separate authority, as the next state road, the Mono Lake Basin State Road, was designated by the legislature in 1899 to be built and maintained by the Department of Highways. Several more state highways were legislated in the next decade, the legislature passed a law creating the Department of Engineering on March 11, 1907; this new department, in addition to non-highway duties, was to maintain all state highways, including the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. On March 22, 1909 the "State Highways Act" was passed, taking effect on December 31, 1910 after a successful vote by the people of the state in November; this law authorized the Department of Engineering to issue $18 million in bonds for a "continuous and connected state highway system" that would connect all county seats.
To this end, the department created the three-member California Highway Commission on August 8, 1911 to take full charge of the construction and maintenance of this system. As with the 1896 plan by the Bureau of Highways, the Highway Commission traveled the state to determine the best routes, which ended up stretching about 3100 miles. Construction began in mid-1912, with groundbreaking on Contract One - now part of SR 82 in San Mateo County - on August 7. Noteworthy portions of the system built by the commission included the Ridge Route in southern California and the Yolo Causeway west from Sacramento; because the first bond issue did not provide enough funding, the "State Highways Act of 1915" was approved by the legislature on May 20, 1915 and the voters in November 1916, taking effect on December 31. This gave the Department of Engineering an additional $12 million to complete the original system and $3 million for a further 680 miles specified by the law. At this time, each route was assigned a number from 1 to 34.
In 1917, the legislature gave the California Highway Commission statutory recognition, turned over the 750 miles of roads adopted by legislative act, until maintained by the State Engineer, to the commission. Where not serving as extensions of existing routes, these - and routes subsequently added legislatively in 1917 and 1919 - were given numbers from 35 to 45. A third bond issue was approved by the voters at a special election on July 1, 1919, provided $20 million more for the existing routes and the same amount for new extensions totaling about 1800 miles, adding Routes 46 to 64 to the system; the three bond issues together totaled 5560 miles, of which just over 40% was completed or under construction in mid-1920. The Department of Engineering became part of the new Department of Public Works in 1921, the California Highway Commission was separated as its own department in 1923. In order to pay for the roads, a 2-cent per gallon gasoline tax was approved in 1923; the legislature continued to add highways to the system, including the Mother Lode Highway in 1921 and the Arrowhead Trail in 1925.
In January 1928, the California State Automobile Association and Automobile Club of Southern California, placing guide and warning signs along state highways, marked the U. S. Highways along several of the most major state highways; the California Toll Bridge Authority was created in 1929 to acquire and operate all toll bridges on state highways, including the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and Carquinez Bridge. After 1927 and 1929, in which no highways were added to the system, the legislature authorized the construction of 23 new routes in 1931, which were numbered from 72 to 80 when not forming extensions of existing routes. Two years another 213 sections of highway were added doubling the total length of state highways to about 14000 miles. Many of these new routes, as well as a number of existing routes, were incorporated into the initial system of state sign routes in 1934 posted by the auto clubs; the Division of Highways took over signage on stat
California State Route 162
State Route 162 runs west–east from U. S. Route 101 near Longvale, in Mendocino County, to Oroville, in Butte County. For most of its length, it is undivided highway; the highway is broken into two pieces. S. Forest Service as Forest Highway 7. State Route 162 begins again at the eastern boundary of the National Forest in Glenn County, some 30 miles west of Willows. State Route 162 begins in Mendocino County at Longvale, 10 miles south of the town of Laytonville along U. S. Route 101, it goes east through Long Valley next to the Middle Fork of the Eel River. On the opposite bank of the river is the right of way of the disused Northwestern Pacific Railroad, it is 28 miles from Longvale to Covelo. This portion of SR 162 is called Covelo Road. Covelo is in home of the Round Valley Indian Reservation. SR 162 is called Covelo Road, Commercial Street, and/or Mina Road as it goes north through the center of town. Beyond Covelo, there are 11 miles of paved road, called Mendocino Pass Road, between Covelo and the Mendocino National Forest.
When entering the national forest the road becomes Forest Highway 7. FH 7 is maintained by the U. S. Forest Service as it continues across the Mendocino National Forest for 50 miles over Mendocino Pass, closed in winter due to heavy snowfall; the highest point on the road is just north of about 4 miles NW of Copper City. It is 35 miles along the unpaved road to Alder Springs, inside the Mendocino National Forest in Glenn County. Alder Springs is the location of the Alder Springs GASB site, part of the Consolidated Reporting of Earthquakes and Tsunamis network run by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the United States Geological Survey, the Federal Emergency Management Agency. State Route 162 resumes near Alder Springs and it is 41 miles from there to Willows. Along the way, SR 162 runs east paralleling Nye Creek. Seven miles west of Willows is Thunderhill Raceway Park. At Willows, SR 162 passes the Willows-Glenn County Airport and crosses Interstate 5. From Willows and the intersection of Interstate 5, SR 162 runs east for 9 miles to the town of Glenn.
The track of SR 162 turns right and follows State Route 45 south for 4 miles along the bank of the Sacramento River to Codora. The highway turns left going east, crosses the Sacramento River and enters the town of Butte City; the highway jogs north as it passes through Butte City east again going 20 miles due east to meet State Route 99. This section is called the Butte City Highway. SR 162 turns north along SR 99 east again as Oroville Dam Boulevard. Travelling east, SR 162 passes the Thermalito Afterbay and the Oroville Municipal Airport, before crossing the Feather River on the Randy Jennings Memorial Bridge; as the highway enters Oroville, it crosses under State Route 70. This section is named Oroville Dam Blvd or "Oro-Dam". SR 162 goes 2 miles through the center of Oroville turns right onto Olive Highway. Olive Highway goes east 7 1⁄4 miles to Kelly Ridge Road where it turns north and crosses Lake Oroville over the Bidwell Bar Bridge. SR 162 ends along the Oroville-Quincy Highway at Foreman Creek Road along the eastern edge of the Lake Oroville National Recreation Area.
The Oroville-Quincy Highway begins in Oroville at Oro-Dam Blvd E just past Olive Highway and runs east. It continues east paralleling Olive Highway until it merges with SR 162 just before Oakvale Ave, it breaks off from SR 162 at Wally B Lane running parallel to the highway for a mile or so before reconnecting at Kelly Ridge Road. The highway runs north and crosses Lake Oroville over the Bidwell Bar Bridge. SR 162 ends near here at Foreman Creek Road, but the Oroville-Quincy Highway continues toward Berry Creek and Madrone Lake. Here it runs 6.5 miles to Brush Creek. From Brush Creek, the highway turns north for 12.5 miles to Palmetto. Here the highway turns ENE 11 miles to Buck's Bucks Lake, it goes 16.25 miles east along Bucks Lake Road past Meadow Valley and Spanish Ranch before arriving at Quincy, a total distance of 62.75 miles. SR 162 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, but is not part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration.
In 1915, the Oroville-Quincy Highway was designated as Legislative Route Number 30. This route was abandoned by the state in 1924. In the late 1930s, there was a temporary routing of Alternate US 40 that ran from Davis through Yuba City to Oroville thence to Quincy along Oroville-Quincy Highway, Bucks Lake Road. Part of SR 162 was designated SR 261 from 1965 to 1972. Except where prefixed with a letter, postmiles were measured on the road as it was in 1964, based on the alignment that existed at the time, do not reflect current mileage. R reflects a realignment in the route since M indicates a second realignment, L refers an overlap due to a correction or change, T indicates postmiles classified as temporary. Segments that remain unconstructed or have been relinquished to local control may be omitted; the numbers reset at county lines.
Glenn County, California
Glenn County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,122; the county seat is Willows. It is located in the northern part of the California Central Valley. Glenn County was formed in 1891 from parts of Colusa County, it was named for Hugh J. Glenn, who came to be the largest wheat farmer in the state during his lifetime and a man of great prominence in political and commercial life in California. Peter Herman Clark William H. Sale Jack A. Bailey Newt Collins Roy D. Heard Lawrence Atherton Braden Roy D. Heard Hal Singleton - Killed in Car Crash Ben Karanig Roger Roberts Richard "Rick" Weaver Louis K. Donnelley Robert "Bob" Shadley - Resigned Larry Jones Richard L. Warren Jr. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,327 square miles, of which 1,314 square miles is land and 13 square miles is water. Colusa County - south Lake County - southwest Mendocino County - west Tehama County - north Butte County - east Mendocino National Forest Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Sacramento River National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 United States Census reported that Glenn County had a population of 28,122.
The racial makeup of Glenn County was 19,990 White, 231 African American, 619 Native American, 722 Asian, 24 Pacific Islander, 5,522 from other races, 1,014 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10,539 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 26,453 people, 9,172 households, 6,732 families residing in the county. The population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 9,982 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.8% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 2.1% Native American, 3.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 18.2% from other races, 3.9% from two or more races. 29.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 10.8% were of German, 9.4% American, 6.2% English and 5.9% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 69.5 % spoke 27.0 % Spanish and 2.1 % Hmong as their first language. There were 9,172 households out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.7% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.6% were non-families.
22.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.33. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.8% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 102.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.5 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,107, the median income for a family was $37,023. Males had a median income of $29,480 versus $21,766 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,069. About 12.5% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.3% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. Glenn is a Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections; the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Lyndon Johnson in 1964.
Glenn County is split between California's 1st and 3rd congressional districts, represented by Doug LaMalfa and John Garamendi, respectively. In the State Assembly, Glenn County is in the 3rd Assembly District, represented by Republican James Gallagher. In the State Senate, the county is in the 4th Senate District, represented by Republican Jim Nielsen. On November 4, 2008 Glenn County voted 73.3% for Proposition 8 which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. Interstate 5 State Route 32 State Route 45 State Route 162 Glenn Ride runs buses from Willows to Hamilton City, on into Chico; the nearest Amtrak station is in Chico. Willows-Glenn County Airport and Haigh Field are both general aviation airports. California Northern Railroad shortline serves Willows; the main line runs north to Tehama and south to Davis, where the railroad interchanges with the Union Pacific Railroad.
Prior to the line being leased to the California Northern, the route was operated by Southern Pacific and was known as the West Side Line. The railroad first reached Willows on December 1879, from Davis. In 1882 the extension from Willows to Tehama was completed. In 1884 the West Side and Mendocino Railroad constructed a line east from Willows to Fruto. Orland Willows Artois Elk Creek Hamilton City Butte City Fruto The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Glenn County.† county seat Hiking trails in Glenn County National Register of Historic Places listings in Glenn County, California Orland Buttes Thomas D. Harp, mentions formation of the county Official website Glenn County Resource Guide
Yuba City, California
Yuba City is a city in Northern California and the county seat of Sutter County, United States. The population was 64,925 at the 2010 census. Yuba City is the principal city of the Yuba City Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Sutter County and Yuba County; the metro area's population is 164,138. It is the 21st largest metropolitan area in California ranked behind Chico, its metropolitan statistical area is part of the Greater Sacramento CSA. The Maidu people were settled in the region when they were first encountered by Spanish and Mexican scouting expeditions in the early 18th century. One version of the origin of the name "Yuba" is that during one of these expeditions, wild grapes were seen growing by a river, so it was named "Uba", a variant spelling of the Spanish word uva; the Mexican government granted a large expanse of land which included the area in which Yuba City is situated to John Sutter, the same John Sutter upon whose land gold was subsequently discovered in 1848.
He sold part of this tract to some enterprising men who wished to establish a town near the confluence of the Yuba River and the Feather River, tributaries of the Sacramento River, with an eye to developing a commercial center catering to the thousands of gold miners headed upstream to the gold fields. At the same time, another town was developing on the eastern bank of the Feather River, the beginnings of what would become Marysville. By 1852, Yuba City was a steamboat landing, had one hotel, a grocery store, a post office, 20 dwelling homes with a population of about 150. Yuba City was chosen as county seat for Sutter County in 1854; the same year, voters decided that Nicolaus would be a better location, the county seat was moved there. County voters returned to their first choice of Yuba City two years in 1856, it has remained the county seat since. Yuba City saw its first major influx of population after World War II, pushing residential areas west and south from the city's original center.
Orchards were turned into residential areas as new homes were built for people migrating to the city. In December 1955, a series of storms dropped torrential rain throughout northern California; the deluge caused all the rivers in the region to break through levees. The Christmas Eve levee break at Yuba City was disastrous, with 38 people losing their lives, heavy damage occurring in the downtown section. According to Dick Brandt, manager of the Yuba County airport in 1955, between 550 and 600 Sutter County residents were rescued from the floodwater by helicopter. On March 14, 1961, a Boeing B-52 Stratofortress carrying nuclear weapons, flying near Yuba City encountered a pressurization problem, had to drop to a lower altitude; because of this, more fuel than expected was used, the aircraft ran out of fuel. It crashed before meeting with a tanker aircraft; the pilot gave the bailout command, the crew egressed at 10,000 ft, except for the pilot, who ejected at 4,000 ft, while avoiding a populated area.
The aircraft was destroyed. The weapons, two Mark 39 thermonuclear bombs were destroyed on impact though no explosion took place, there was no release of radioactive material as a result. On May 21, 1976, a school bus carrying members of the Yuba City High School's choir to a performance at Miramonte High School in Orinda, California plunged 28 feet off the exit ramp on I-680 at Marina Vista Road in Martinez, California. Twenty-seven students and one adult chaperone died and twenty-three students were injured. On February 24, 1978, five young men from Yuba City, called Gary Dale Mathias, Jack Madruga, Jackie Huett, Theodore Weiher and William Sterling, aged between 24 and 32 years, disappeared under mysterious circumstances, they went to a basketball game in Chico and on their way back drove up to a mountain road away from the main road back to Yuba, where their car had been found undamaged and with enough gas to drive back to Yuba City. Four of the men were found in and near a trailer on June 4 of the same year.
Ted Weiher was found inside the trailer, covered in blankets. Inside the trailer there was enough food to supply all five men for about a year, enough paper and wood to light a fire, but nothing was used this way; the corpses and bones of three of the other men were found outside the trailer, but Gary Mathias was never found. Yuba City has been home to a significant Muslim population, including Pakistani Americans descended from c. 1902 immigrants. In 1994 the Muslim community completed a mosque that cost an estimated $1.8 million and many hours of donated work. Soon after, the mosque was destroyed by an act of arson, the first time that a mosque was destroyed in the United States; the mosque was rebuilt with help of Sikhs, Mormons and other groups. The story is told in the 2012 documentary An American Mosque. Yuba City is located at 121 ° 37' 34" West. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.7 square miles, of which, 14.6 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water.
The total area is 0.53% water. The Yuba City area is situated in the Sacramento Valley, it is home to the Sutter Buttes, the smallest mountain range in the world. The Feather River borders the city to the east and the area is sometimes referred to as the "Feather River Valley", which divides the city from its neighbor Marysville. Yuba City has a hot-summer mediterranean climate which consists of cool, wet winters
Federal Highway Administration
The Federal Highway Administration is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. The agency's major activities are grouped into two programs, the Federal-aid Highway Program and the Federal Lands Highway Program, its role had been performed by the Office of Road Inquiry, Office of Public Roads and the Bureau of Public Roads. The organization has a complicated history; the Office of Road Inquiry was founded in 1893. In 1905 that organization's name was changed to the Office of Public Roads which became a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the name was changed again to the Bureau of Public Roads in 1915 and to the Public Roads Administration in 1939. It was shifted to the Federal Works Agency, abolished in 1949 when its name reverted to Bureau of Public Roads under the Department of Commerce. With the coming of the bicycle in the 1890s, interest grew regarding the improvement of streets and roads in America; the traditional method of putting the burden on maintaining roads on local landowners was inadequate.
New York State took the lead in 1898, by 1916 the old system had been discarded everywhere area. Demands grew for local and state government to take charge. With the coming of the automobile after 1910, urgent efforts were made to upgrade and modernize dirt roads designed for horse-drawn wagon traffic; the American Association for Highway Improvement was organized in 1910. Funding came from automobile registration, taxes on motor fuels, as well as state aid. In 1916, federal-aid was first made available to improve post-roads, promote general commerce. Congress appropriated $75 million over a five-year period, with the Secretary of Agriculture in charge through the Bureau of Public Roads, in cooperation with the state highway departments. There were 2.4 million miles of rural dirt rural roads in 1914. The increasing speed of automobiles, trucks, made maintenance and repair high-priority item. Concrete was first used in 1893, expanded until it became the dominant surfacing material in the 1930s. Federal aid began in 1917.
From 1917 through 1941, 261,000 miles of highways were built with federal aid, cost $5.31 billion. Federal funds totaled $3.17 billion, state-local funds were $2.14 billion. The FHWA was created on October 15, 1966. In 1967 the functions of the Bureau of Public Roads were transferred to the new organization, it was one of three original bureaus along with the'Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety' and the'National Highway Safety Bureau'. The FHWA’s role in the Federal-aid Highway Program is to oversee federal funds used for constructing and maintaining the National Highway System; this funding comes from the federal gasoline tax and goes to state departments of transportation. FHWA oversees projects using these funds to ensure that federal requirements for project eligibility, contract administration and construction standards are adhered to. Under the Federal Lands Highway Program, the FHWA provides highway design and construction services for various federal land-management agencies, such as the Forest Service and the National Park Service.
In addition to these programs, the FHWA performs and sponsors research in the areas of roadway safety, highway materials and construction methods, provides funding to local technical assistance program centers to disseminate research results to local highway agencies. The FHWA publishes the “Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices”, used by most highway agencies in the United States; the MUTCD specifies such things as the size and height of traffic signs, traffic signals and road surface markings. The Federal Highway Administration is overseen by an Administrator appointed by the President of the United States by and with the consent of the United States Senate; the Administrator works under the direction of the Secretary of Transportation and Deputy Secretary of Transportation. The internal organization of the FHWA is as follows: Administrator Executive Director Office of Infrastructure Office of Research and Technology Public Roads magazine Office of Planning and Realty Office of Policy and Government Affairs Office of the Chief Financial Officer Office of Administration Office of Operations Office of Safety Office of Federal Lands Highway Office of Chief Counsel Office of Civil Rights Office of Public Affairs Long-Term Pavement Performance is a program supported by FHWA to collect and analyse road data.
The LTPP program was initiated by the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council in the early 1980s. Federal Highway Administration with the cooperation of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials sponsored the program; as a result of this program, FHWA has collected a huge database of road performance. FHWA and ASCE hold an annual contest known as LTPP International Data Analysis Contest, based on challenging researchers to answer a question based on the LTPP data. Current: Administrator: Brandye Hendrickson Deputy Administrator: Brandye Hendrickson Executive Director: Thomas Everett Alph Bartelsmeyer August 10, 1970- January 25, 1974 Alinda Burke - January 1, 1980 -? J. Richard Capka August 5, 2002 - May 31, 2006 Gregory G. Nadeau July 8, 2009 – July 30, 2014 Brandye Hendrickson July 24, 2017 - Present Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Hi
Yolo County, California
Yolo County the County of Yolo, is a county located in the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 200,849, its county seat is Woodland. Yolo County is included in the Greater Sacramento metropolitan area and is located in the Sacramento Valley; the majority of Yolo County remains a rural agricultural region. Much of California's multibillion-dollar tomato industry that accounts for 90% of the canned and processed tomato production in the United States and 35% worldwide, is located in Yolo County. In the original act of 1850 the name was spelled "Yola." Yolo is a Native American name variously believed to be a corruption of a tribal name Yo-loy meaning "a place abounding in rushes" or of the name of the chief, Yodo, or of the village of Yodoi. Yolo County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood; the county is governed by a board of five district supervisors as well as the governments of its four incorporated cities: Davis, West Sacramento and Woodland.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,024 square miles, of which 1,015 square miles is land and 8.9 square miles is water. Colusa County - north Sutter County - northeast Sacramento County - east Solano County - south Napa County - west Lake County - northwest Addressing in Yolo County is based on a system of numbered county roads; the numbering system works in the following way: North–South roads have numbers from 41 to 117 and increase from west to east. East–West roads have numbers from 1 to 38A, from 151 to 161, increase from north to south; each integer road number is one mile apart, with letters designating roads less than one mile apart. County roads entering urban areas become named roads once they cross a city boundary; some examples include County Road 101 in Woodland being renamed Pioneer Ave. and County Road 102 in Davis being named Pole Line Road. Yolobus runs buses throughout Yolo County and into Sacramento, Sacramento International Airport; the University of California and the city of Davis jointly run Unitrans, a combination local city bus and campus shuttle.
Fairfield-Suisun Transit Line 30 stops in Davis on its runs between Fairfield and Sacramento. Amtrak has a station in Davis. Yolo County Airport University Airport Borges-Clarksburg Airport Watts-Woodland Airport The Port of Sacramento, now known as the Port of West Sacramento, is an inland port in West Sacramento, California, in the Sacramento metropolitan area, it is 79 nautical miles northeast of San Francisco, is centered in the California Central Valley, one of the richest agricultural regions in the world. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. Yolo is a Democratic county in presidential and congressional elections; the last Republican presidential candidate to win a majority in the county was Dwight Eisenhower in 1952, the longest Republican drought for any California county. In fact, since 1932, Eisenhower's win in 1952 was the only time the county was carried by the Republican presidential nominee. Yolo County has been somewhat more to elect Republican governors since then.
In the United States House of Representatives, Yolo County is split between California's 3rd and 6th congressional districts, represented by John Garamendi and Doris Matsui, respectively. In the California State Senate, the county is split between the 3rd and 6th Senate districts, represented by Bill Dodd and Richard Pan, respectively. In the California State Assembly, the county is split between the 4th and 7th Assembly districts, represented by Cecilia Aguiar-Curry and Kevin McCarty, respectively. In June 1978, Yolo was one of only three counties in the entire state to reject Proposition 13. In November 2008, Yolo was one of just three counties in California's interior in which voters rejected Proposition 8 to ban gay marriage. Yolo voters rejected Proposition 8 by a vote of 58.65 percent to 41.35 percent. The other interior counties in which Proposition 8 failed to receive a majority of votes were Alpine County and Mono County; the 2010 United States Census reported that Yolo County had a population of 200,849.
The ethnic makeup of Yolo County was 126,883 White, 5,208 African American, 2,214 Native American, 26,052 Asian, 910 Pacific Islander, 27,882 from other races, 11,700 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 60,953 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 168,660 people, 59,375 households, 37,465 families residing in the county. The population density was 166 people per square mile. There were 61,587 housing units at an average density of 61 per square mile; the ethnic makeup of the county was 67.7% White, 2.0% Black or African American, 1.2% Native American, 9.9% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 13.8% from other races, 5.2% from two or more races. 25.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 10.0% were of German, 6.6% English and 6.4% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 68.5% spoke English, 19.5% Spanish, 2.1% Chinese or Mandarin and 1.8% Russian as their first language. There were 59,375 households out of which 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.6% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non
Woodland is the county seat of Yolo County, located 15 miles northwest of Sacramento, is a part of the Sacramento - Arden-Arcade - Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 55,468 at the 2010 census. Woodland's origins trace back to 1850 when California gained its statehood and Yolo County was established. Since the town started growing in population and resources, it has not stopped; the area was well irrigated due to the efforts of James Moore, this drew people out to try their hand at farming. The endeavor was successful as people found the soil in the area fertile; the city gained a federal post office and the next year the county seat was moved from Washington to Woodland after Washington was flooded. The addition of a railroad line, the close proximity to Sacramento, the more recent addition of Interstate 5, helped create a thriving city. Before the settlement of the area by people of European descent, the Woodland area was inhabited by the Patwin, a subgroup of the Wintun Native Americans.
There are two main groups of Patwin: Coastal Patwin. Woodland's indigenous roots stem from the River Patwin, who tended to stay closer to the Sacramento River, as opposed to the Coastal Patwin who lived in small valleys in hills and ranges; the Yolotoi, a tribelet of the Patwin, occupied area near Woodland, settled a village northwest of Woodland and another close to present day Knights Landing. Although they didn't have a permanent settlement in present-day Woodland, it is believed that the River Patwin occupied the Woodland area in seasonal camps for hunting and seed gathering; the Yolotoi and their neighboring tribelets had a main trading trail. The exchange of goods between the neighboring tribes of the Nomlaki to the north, the Nisenan to the east, the Pomo to the west served as a way of cultural and social interchange between all the tribes; the simultaneous enslavement and spread of disease through the Patwin by the Spanish missionaries had taken dramatic effects. However, it has been found that some of the first farm hands in the earliest farms in Woodland were the Patwin people.
In 1851, the year after California became a state and Yolo County was formed, "Uncle Johnny" Morris settled in what is now the corner of First and Clover Streets in Woodland. Two years Henry Wyckoff arrived and built a store he named "Yolo City"; this new Yolo City might have stayed a singular store if Frank S. Freeman had not bought it and acquired 160 acres of land in 1857. Freeman began to develop a town that he hoped would be a trading center for one of the richest crop-growing areas in America, he was giving land to anyone who would build their home on it. In 1859, Freeman suggested to the post office that the town be called Woodland and the post office accepted. On July 5, 1861, the Woodland Post Office was established and Freeman was made the Postmaster, he lost no time in further developing the town by leasing or selling buildings for businesses to use. The 1860s were a time of opportunity for Woodland; the county seat was permanently moved to Woodland after Washington, California had flooded.
Schools, churches, a cemetery were built at this time. The town's newspaper, the Daily Democrat, a post office were established, a rail line was built. In 1869, the California Pacific Railroad Company constructed a line between Davisville and Marysville with a Woodland station in the area of College Street and Lincoln Avenue; the rail line expanded and was acquired by Southern Pacific Railroad. The track was relocated from College Street to East Street, the eastern edge of the city at that point; the addition of the railroad is. Before the railroad came, people were building on Main Street and northward. Expansion headed westward and southward, as well. In 1870 the population of Woodland was estimated to be 1,600 people, 647 of whom were registered voters. Signatures were collected to petition for the incorporation of the town, successful; the City of Woodland was incorporated in 1871 and its residents soon had a multitude of services such as regular train and telegraph operations, telephone services, water, street lights, graveled streets.
Woodland's Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1900 with the aim of helping business flourish in the city. During this time public activism helped Woodland get a library, a city park, an improved cemetery. In 1910 Woodland was the most populous city in the county, with a population of 3,187. For the next forty years Woodland continued growing but in population and industries, its economic growth was based in agriculture-related businesses. After President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, which authorized military commanders to exclude "any or all persons" from certain areas in the name of national defense, the Western Defense Command began ordering Japanese Americans living on the West Coast to present themselves for "evacuation" from the newly created military zones; this included many Woodland farming families. The post-war era spurred much growth in Woodland, it is said that in the 1950s Woodland had the most millionaires per capita of any city in California. Industrial plants and distribution centers have grown in the northeast, there are new subdivisions and shopping centers around the town.
Since the late 1