A state highway, state road, or state route is a road, either numbered or maintained by a sub-national state or province. A road numbered by a state or province falls below numbered national highways in the hierarchy. Roads maintained by a state or province include both nationally numbered highways and un-numbered state highways. Depending on the state, "state highway" may be used for one meaning and "state road" or "state route" for the other. In some countries such as New Zealand, the word "state" is used in its sense of a sovereign state or country. By this meaning a state highway is a road maintained and numbered by the national government rather than local authorities. Australia's State Route system covers urban and inter-regional routes that are not included in the National Route or the National Highway systems; these routes are marked with a blue shield. Sometimes a state route may be formed. Most states and territories have introduced an alphanumeric route numbering system, either or replacing the previous systems.
Brazil is another country, divided into states and has state highways. Canada is divided into provinces and territories, each of which maintains its own system of provincial or territorial highways, which form the majority of the country's highway network. There is the national transcontinental Trans-Canada Highway system, marked by distinct signs, but has no uniform numeric designation across the country. In some provinces, for instance, an unnumbered Trans-Canada route marker is posted below a numbered provincial sign, with the provincial route continuing alone outside the Trans-Canada Highway section. In others, Trans-Canada routes are co-signed with major provincial highways, displayed as a single numbered Trans-Canada route marker. Canada has a designated National Highway System, but the system is unsigned, aside from the Trans-Canada routes. In Germany, state roads are a road class, ranking below the federal road network; the responsibility for road planning and maintenance is vested in the federal states of Germany.
Most federal states use the term Landesstraße, while for historical reasons Saxony and Bavaria use the term Staatsstraße. The appearance of the shields differs from state to state; the term Lande-s-straße should not be confused with Landstraße, which describes every road outside built-up areas and is not a road class. Italy's Strade Statali extend for some 18,000 km, overseen by the Azienda Nazionale Autonoma delle Strade founded in 1946, replacing the A. A. S. S. of 1928. State highways in India are numbered highways that are maintained by state governments. Mexico's State Highway System is a system of urban and state routes constructed and maintained by each Mexican state; the main purpose of the state networks is to serve as a feeder system to the federal highway system. All states except the Federal District operate a road network; each state marks these routes with a white shield containing the abbreviated name of the state plus the route number. New Zealand state highways are national highways – the word "state" in this sense means "government" or "public", not a division of a country.
New Zealand's state highway system is a nationwide network of roads covering the North Island and the South Island. As of 2006, just under 100 roads have a "State Highway" designation; the NZ Transport Agency administers them. The speed limit for most state highways is 100 km/h, with reductions when one passes through a densely populated area; the highways in New Zealand were designated on a two-tier system and provincial, with national highways having a higher standard and funding priorities. Now all of them are state highways, the network consists of SH 1 running the length of both main islands, SH 2–5 and 10–58 in the North Island, SH 6–8 and 60–99 in the South Island. National and provincial highways are numbered north to south. State Highway 1 runs the length of both islands. Local highways are the next important roads under the National highways; the number has three, or four dights. Highways with two-digit numbers routes are called State-funded local highways. State highways are a mixture of primary and secondary roads, although some are freeways.
Each state has its own system for its own marker. The default marker is a white circle containing a black sans serif number, according to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices; however each state is free to choose a different marker, most states have. States may choose a design theme relevant to its state to distinguish state route markers from interstate, county, or municipal route markers. Roads portal List of longest state highways in the United States List of numbered highways in the United States Interstate Highway System, U. S. Highway System Missouri supplemental route County highway Highways in Australia Numbered street
Blue Star Memorial Highway
Blue Star Memorial Highways are highways in the United States that are marked to pay tribute to the U. S. armed forces. The National Council of State Garden Clubs, now known as National Garden Clubs, Inc. started the program in 1945 after World War II. The blue star was used on service flags to denote a service member fighting in the war; the program has since been expanded to include Memorial Markers and Memorial By-ways. These markers are used in National Cemeteries, veterans facilities, gardens. Scenic Highway 98, Baldwin County starting at Montrose–Daphne city line and traveling north through Montrose Sponsored by the Montrose Garden Club Dedicated April 18, 2015 in a ceremony held at Knights of Columbus Hall US 31 just north of Prattville Sterling Highway, marker at Anchor Point, the westernmost point on the North American contiguous highway system. I-30. SR 58 in Southern California SR 211, in Humboldt County. US 101 at Trinidad in Humboldt County. SR 62 in Southern California from the Arizona state line to I-10.
Interstate 80 At Hunter Hill Safety Rest Area In Vallejo California US 40 in Lakewood Marker at Abbie Duston Roadside Park. And on highway 287 in Lafayette CO at Baseline Red. US 13 at the Smyrna Rest Area and in Seaford. US 92 at the intersection with CR 579 on Kennedy Hill in front of the Hardee's Restaurant between the towns of Thonotosassa and Mango. US 41 in Palmetto. US 1, Key Largo US 98 and Gautier Road in Constitution Park, Port Saint Joe, Florida Lakewood Ranch Town Hall in Lakewood Ranch, Florida near Bradenton. I-75 at the Georgia Welcome center near Ringgold. I-95 at the Georgia Welcome center near Savannah. SR 13 between Rest Haven and Buford Lumpkin Street near the University of Georgia, Athens Covington Monticello Street SW at Church Street Brunswick, Marshes of Glynn Overlook Park, off US 17 IL 43 at the intersection of Will County Route 74 in Frankfort in 1980. 95th Street & Cook Avenue in Oak Lawn. Illinois Route 43 at the intersection on North Avondale Avenue US 31 Business in Peru at the southwest Intersection with River Road.
I-70 eastbound rest area near Plainfield. US 50 in Jackson County, on the northwest area of Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge. I-29 north of Council Bluffs. Barkley Regional Airport, 2901 Fisher Road (West Paducah; the history of Blue Star Memorial Highways in Maine, according to Maine Garden Clubs: • 1946 — Garden Club Federation of Maine adopts program. • 1947 — U. S. Route 1 designated as Maine’s Blue Star Memorial Highway; this covered 546 miles from Fort Kent to Kittery. • 1957 — U. S. Route 1 and U. S. 1-A, starting at the junction of Route 1A and 1 in Stockton Springs and extending via Bangor and Brewer to the junction of Route 1A and 1 in Ellsworth, are designated as Blue Star Memorial Highways. • 1972 — U. S. Route 2, including Skowhegan, state Route 3, are designated Blue Star Memorial Highways; this gave Maine 952 miles of Blue Star Memorial Highway. • 1974 — State Route 157 and U. S. Route 201, from the junction of Route 1 at Brunswick to the Canadian border near Jackman, is designated a Blue Star Memorial Highway, giving Maine a total of 1171.6 miles of designated highway.
• 1981 — The new entrance to Maine Veterans Memorial Cemetery in Augusta is designated a Blue Star Memorial Highway. U. S. Route 301 in all of Maryland Interstate 495 and State Route 25, extending from I-95 close to the New Hampshire state line in Salisbury to Cape Cod. I-495 is the second-longest auxiliary Interstate Highway in the U. S. U. S. Route 31 U. S. Route 83 Kansas border to South Dakota border Interstate 95 throughout the state. There is a marker at the rest area in Seabrook just beyond the state line. U. S. Route 22 from Mountainside to North Plainfield County Route 632 aka Ridgedale Avenue from East Hanover, Morris County. North side of NJ 70, just west of Chairville Road, Medford Township 08055 Niagara Section of the New York State Thruway, Interstate 190, adjacent to the toll plaza for the northbound South Grand Island Bridge New Rochelle at intersection of Main Street and Pratt Street. Fanneuil Park across the street from the New Rochelle Armory. Brewster at the historic Brewster Metro-North station clock on the triangle at US 6 and Railroad Avenue.
Rockland County, New York, Thruway Extension Section of the New York State Thruway to the Garden State Parkway at Chestnut Ridge and dedicated on October 22, 1958. The marker is missing. Interstate 26, throughout state. Milepost 41 – Westbound Buncombe/Henderson County Rest Area. Milepost 68 – Westbound Welcome Center. Interstate 40, throughout state. Milepost 82 – Westbound McDowell County Rest Area. Milepost 136 – Eastbound Catawba County Rest Area. Milepost 364 – Duplin County Rest Area. Interstate 77, throughout state. Milepost 105 – Southbound Welcome Center. Interstate 85, throughout state. Interstate 95, throughout state. Milepost 181 – Southbound Welcome Center. U. S. Route 17, from Wilmington to Elizabeth City. U. S. Route 64, from Tennessee state line to Nags head. U. S. Route 70, throughout state.15th Avenue Place SE, in Hickory. U. S. Route 74
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
Twentynine Palms, California
Twentynine Palms is a city in San Bernardino County, California. It was called Twenty-Nine Palms. Twentynine Palms was named for the palm trees found there in 1852 by Col. Henry Washington while surveying the San Bernardino base line. A post office was established in 1927. A road named Utah Trail honors the late 1800s pioneers on a trail originating in Utah that went to Twentynine Palms. Nearby is a small Indian reservation belonging to the Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians; the Joshua Tree National Park, which lies just to the south of Twentynine Palms, was designated a national monument in 1936, became a national park in 1994. The nearby Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms was founded in 1952, its population as of July 1, 2013 was estimated at 25,768. As of the census of 2010, there were 25,048 people, 8,095 households, 5,847 families residing in the city; the population density was 423.5 people per square mile. There were 9,431 housing units at an average density of 159.5 per square mile, of which 2,742 were owner-occupied, 5,353 were occupied by renters.
The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.6%. 6,876 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 14,825 people lived in rental housing units. The racial makeup of the city was 71.6%, White, 8.2% African American, 1.3% Native American, 3.9% Asian, 1.4% Pacific Islander, 6.7% from other races, 6.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.8% of the population. The Census reported that 21,701 people lived in households, 3,347 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters. There were 8,095 households out of which 43.3% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 54.5% were opposite-sex married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present. There were 5.0% unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 1.6% same-sex married couples or partnerships. 21.1% of households were made up of individuals and 5.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.10.
In the city, the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 30.0% aged 18 to 24, 25.5% aged 25 to 44, 13.1% aged 45 to 64, 5.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 129.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 139.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $42,572. About 14.4% of the population were living below the poverty line.29 Palms has a good deal of racial diversity. The Hispanic population has increased 50% since the 2000 census. African-Americans, Filipinos and Native Americans form sizable percentages, and religiously, sizable communities of Mormons and Seventh-day Adventists. As of the census of 2000, there were 14,764 people, 5,653 households, 3,855 families residing in the city; the population density was 269.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,952 housing units at an average density of 126.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 71.0% White, 9.4% African American, 1.5% Native American, 3.8% Asian, 10.2% Pacific Islander, 6.2% from other races, 6.4% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.9% of the population. There were 5,653 households out of which 39.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.8% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.8% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.6 and the average family size was 3.1. In the city, the population was spread out with 31.2% under the age of 18, 15.2% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 16.7% from 45 to 64, 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,178, the median income for a family was $32,251. Males had a median income of $25,081 versus $25,141 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,613. About 13.6% of families and 16.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.3% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over.
The city is located in the Mojave Desert in Southern California. It lies on the northern side of the Joshua Tree National Park and includes one of the entrances to the park, at the Oasis of Mara. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 59.1 square miles, all land. The city is at an elevation of 1,988 feet; the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms is located there. Due in large part to its elevation of more than 1,900 ft above sea level, Twentynine Palms has a cooler climate during winter, than Palm Springs, but with the same subtropical desert characteristics. On average, temperatures reach 100 °F on 90 days, 90 °F on 155 days, the freezing mark on 24 nights annually. Extremes range from 10 °F on December 23, 1990, to 118 °F on July 11, 1961; the city uses a council-manager form of government. An elected city council appoints a city manager who executes these policies. In the California State Legislature, Twentynine Palms is in the 16th Senate District, represented by Republican Shannon Grove, in the 42nd Assembly District, represented by Repub
History of California's state highway system
The state highway system in the U. S. state of California dates back to 1896, when the state took over maintenance of the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. Construction of a large connected system began in 1912, after the state's voters approved an $18 million bond issue for over 3000 miles of highways; the last large addition was made by the California State Assembly in 1959, after which only minor changes have been made. The first state road was authorized on March 26, 1895, when a law created the post of "Lake Tahoe Wagon Road Commissioner" to maintain the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road, now US 50 from Smith Flat - 3 miles east of Placerville - to the Nevada state line; the 58 mile road had been operated as a toll road until 1886. Funding was only enough for minimal improvements, including a stone bridge over the South Fork American River in 1901. In 1895, on March 27, the legislature created the three-person Bureau of Highways to coordinate efforts by the counties to build good roads; the bureau traveled to every county of the state in 1895 and 1896 and prepared a map of a recommended system of state roads, which they submitted to the governor on November 25, 1896.
The legislature replaced the Bureau of Highways with the Department of Highways on April 1, 1897, three days after it passed a law creating a second state highway from Sacramento to Folsom - another part of what became US 50 - to be maintained by three "Folsom Highway Commissioners". This was the last highway maintained by a separate authority, as the next state road, the Mono Lake Basin State Road, was designated by the legislature in 1899 to be built and maintained by the Department of Highways. Several more state highways were legislated in the next decade, the legislature passed a law creating the Department of Engineering on March 11, 1907; this new department, in addition to non-highway duties, was to maintain all state highways, including the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. On March 22, 1909 the "State Highways Act" was passed, taking effect on December 31, 1910 after a successful vote by the people of the state in November; this law authorized the Department of Engineering to issue $18 million in bonds for a "continuous and connected state highway system" that would connect all county seats.
To this end, the department created the three-member California Highway Commission on August 8, 1911 to take full charge of the construction and maintenance of this system. As with the 1896 plan by the Bureau of Highways, the Highway Commission traveled the state to determine the best routes, which ended up stretching about 3100 miles. Construction began in mid-1912, with groundbreaking on Contract One - now part of SR 82 in San Mateo County - on August 7. Noteworthy portions of the system built by the commission included the Ridge Route in southern California and the Yolo Causeway west from Sacramento; because the first bond issue did not provide enough funding, the "State Highways Act of 1915" was approved by the legislature on May 20, 1915 and the voters in November 1916, taking effect on December 31. This gave the Department of Engineering an additional $12 million to complete the original system and $3 million for a further 680 miles specified by the law. At this time, each route was assigned a number from 1 to 34.
In 1917, the legislature gave the California Highway Commission statutory recognition, turned over the 750 miles of roads adopted by legislative act, until maintained by the State Engineer, to the commission. Where not serving as extensions of existing routes, these - and routes subsequently added legislatively in 1917 and 1919 - were given numbers from 35 to 45. A third bond issue was approved by the voters at a special election on July 1, 1919, provided $20 million more for the existing routes and the same amount for new extensions totaling about 1800 miles, adding Routes 46 to 64 to the system; the three bond issues together totaled 5560 miles, of which just over 40% was completed or under construction in mid-1920. The Department of Engineering became part of the new Department of Public Works in 1921, the California Highway Commission was separated as its own department in 1923. In order to pay for the roads, a 2-cent per gallon gasoline tax was approved in 1923; the legislature continued to add highways to the system, including the Mother Lode Highway in 1921 and the Arrowhead Trail in 1925.
In January 1928, the California State Automobile Association and Automobile Club of Southern California, placing guide and warning signs along state highways, marked the U. S. Highways along several of the most major state highways; the California Toll Bridge Authority was created in 1929 to acquire and operate all toll bridges on state highways, including the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and Carquinez Bridge. After 1927 and 1929, in which no highways were added to the system, the legislature authorized the construction of 23 new routes in 1931, which were numbered from 72 to 80 when not forming extensions of existing routes. Two years another 213 sections of highway were added doubling the total length of state highways to about 14000 miles. Many of these new routes, as well as a number of existing routes, were incorporated into the initial system of state sign routes in 1934 posted by the auto clubs; the Division of Highways took over signage on stat
San Bernardino County, California
San Bernardino County the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of California, is located within the Greater Los Angeles area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 2,035,210, making it the fifth-most populous county in California, the 12th-most populous in the United States; the county seat is San Bernardino. While included within the Greater Los Angeles area, San Bernardino County is included in the Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario metropolitan statistical area, as well as the Los Angeles–Long Beach combined statistical area. With an area of 20,105 square miles, San Bernardino County is the largest county in the United States by area, although some of Alaska's boroughs and census areas are larger; the county is close to the size of West Virginia. It is larger than each of the nine smallest states, larger than the four smallest states combined, larger than 70 sovereign nations; this vast county stretches from where the bulk of the county population resides (in two Census County Divisions, holding 1,422,745 people as of the 2010 Census, covering the 450 square miles, across the thinly populated deserts and mountains.
It spans an area from south of the San Bernardino Mountains in San Bernardino Valley, to the Nevada border and the Colorado River. Spanish Missionaries from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel established a church at the village of Politania in 1810. Father Francisco Dumetz named the church San Bernardino on May 20, 1810, after the feast day of St. Bernardino of Siena; the Franciscans gave the name San Bernardino to the snowcapped peak in Southern California, in honor of the saint and it is from him that the county derives its name. In 1819, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia, a mission farm in what is now Redlands. Following Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican citizens were granted land grants to establish ranchos in the area of the county. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, Rancho Cucamonga and El Rincon in 1839, Rancho Santa Ana del Chino in 1841, Rancho San Bernardino in 1842 and Rancho Muscupiabe in 1844. Agua Mansa was the first town in what became San Bernardino County, settled by immigrants from New Mexico on land donated from the Rancho Jurupa in 1841.
Following the purchase of Rancho San Bernardino, the establishment of the town of San Bernardino in 1851 by Mormon colonists, San Bernardino County was formed in 1853 from parts of Los Angeles County. Some of the southern parts of the county's territory were given to Riverside County in 1893. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 20,105 square miles, of which 20,057 square miles is land and 48 square miles is water, it is the largest county by the largest in the United States. It is larger than the states of New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island combined, it borders both Arizona. The bulk of the population two million, live in the 480 square miles south of the San Bernardino Mountains adjacent to Riverside and in the San Bernardino Valley. Over 300,000 others live just north of the San Bernardino Mountains, agglomerating around Victorville covering 280 square miles in Victor Valley, adjacent to Los Angeles County. Another 100,000 people live scattered across the rest of the sprawling county.
The Mojave National Preserve covers some of the eastern desert between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The desert portion includes the cities of Needles next to the Colorado River and Barstow at the junction in Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. Trona is at the northwestern part of the county west of Death Valley; this national park within Inyo County has a small portion of land within the San Bernardino County. The largest metropolitan area in the Mojave Desert part of the county is Victor Valley, with the incorporated localities of Adelanto, Apple Valley and Victorville. Further south, a portion of Joshua Tree National Park overlaps the county near the High Desert area, in the vicinity of Twentynine Palms; the remaining towns make up the remainder of the High Desert: Pioneertown, Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree and Morongo Valley. The mountains are home to the San Bernardino National Forest, include the communities of Crestline, Lake Arrowhead, Running Springs, Big Bear City, Forest Falls, Big Bear Lake.
The San Bernardino Valley is at the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley. The San Bernardino Valley includes the cities of Ontario, Chino Hills, Fontana, Colton, Grand Terrace, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino, Loma Linda, Highland and Yucaipa. Angeles National Forest Death Valley National Park Havasu National Wildlife Refuge Joshua Tree National Park Mojave National Preserve San Bernardino National Forest There are at least 35 official wilderness areas in the county that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; this is the largest number of any county in the United States. The majority are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, but some are integral components of the above listed national protected areas. Most of these wilderness areas lie within the county, but a few are shared with neighboring counties. Except as noted, these wilderness areas are managed by the Bureau of Land Management and lie within San Bernardino County: The 2010 United States Census reported that San Bernardino County had a population of 2,035,210.
The racial makeup of San Bernardino County was 1,153,16
Rice, California named Blythe Junction, is a ghost town in the Rice Valley and the southern tip of the Mojave Desert, within unincorporated San Bernardino County, southern California. The town, located on present-day California State Route 62 between Twentynine Palms and the Colorado River, grew around a Santa Fe Railroad subdivision and siding; the subdivision and siding are still in use, but have since changed hands and belong to the Arizona and California Railroad, a short line serving southeastern California from Rice to Cadiz and southwestern Arizona at Parker. It was the starting point of the abandoned Ripley Branch that goes through Blythe to Ripley, California. To the east of Rice is the Rice Municipal Airport, acquired by the United States Army's 4th Air Support Command in 1942 as a sub-base of Thermal Army Airfield, was operational by the end of the year. While the airfield's date of construction is unknown, it was not depicted on a 1932 Los Angeles Airways Chart, indicating construction sometime in the ten years between 1932 and 1942.
Rice Army Airfield consisted of two intersecting paved 5,000 foot runways and numerous dispersal pads south of the runways. In 1944 the airfield was transferred from Thermal Army Airfield to March Field. Operations at Rice Field were ended by August 1944, the field was declared surplus on October 31, 1944; the desert training area near Rice Army Airfield was at one time considered as the site for the world's first atomic-bomb test, in fact was the second-choice site. Instead, a site near Alamogordo, New Mexico, was chosen. Rice became noted for its Shoe Tree an underwear tree, a lone tamarisk on a turnout just south of the highway, adjacent to the main entrance to Rice Army Airfield; this hallmark for a trailer-based business that catered to personnel at what is now the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, customers passing on Highway 62 to and from the Colorado River would toss a pair of underwear in the tree's branches. After a fire burned most of the tree and all the underwear, the custom changed and the tree's burned husk became a collection point for old shoes.
The tree was featured on California's Gold, a PBS program hosted by Huell Howser. The tree burned flush to the ground in 2003. In the immediate area, travelers stop to spell their names and initials on the nearby Arizona and California Railroad right-of-way with the multi-colored volcanic rock used as track ballast. Hand-assembled graffiti lines the railroad for the entire distance that it parallels Highway 62. At some point during the period 1944–48, Rice Army Airfield was renamed Rice Airport and began operations as a public civilian airport, housing a small flight school for missionaries. Between 1952 and 1955, Rice Airport was changed to a private field, by 1960 it had been abandoned; as of 2007, no standing structures remain and little evidence exists of the airport's former existence. There are no residents in Rice at present. A hand-painted sign on the western outskirts of the town once announced that the townsite was for sale, but that sign has since been removed; the only building which remains in any condition is a demolished service station.
In 2010, there was filming for the 2011 movie Fast Five near Rice. It was featured during the train scene in the beginning of the movie. History of Midland, Calif