The California condor is a New World vulture, the largest North American land bird. It became extinct in the wild in 1987, but has since been reintroduced to northern Arizona and southern Utah, the coastal mountains of central and southern California, northern Baja California. Although other fossil members are known, it is the only surviving member of the genus Gymnogyps; the species is listed by the IUCN as critically endangered. The plumage is black with patches of white on the underside of the wings, its 3.0 m wingspan is the widest of any North American bird, its weight of up to 12 kg nearly equals that of the trumpeter swan, the heaviest among native North American bird species. The condor eats large amounts of carrion, it is one of the world's longest-living birds, with a lifespan of up to 60 years. Condor numbers declined in the 20th century due to poaching, lead poisoning, habitat destruction. A conservation plan was put in place by the United States government that led to the capture of all the remaining wild condors, completed in 1987, with a total population of 27 individuals.
These surviving birds were bred at the Los Angeles Zoo. Numbers rose through captive breeding and, beginning in 1991, condors were reintroduced into the wild. Since its population has grown, but the California condor remains one of the world's rarest bird species: as of 2017 there are 463 California condors living wild or in captivity, while in 2018 they reached 488; the condor is a significant bird to many Californian Native American groups and plays an important role in several of their traditional myths. The California condor was described by English naturalist George Shaw in 1797 as Vultur californianus, it was classified in the same genus as the Andean condor, due to the Andean condor's different markings longer wings, tendency to kill small animals to eat, the California condor has now been placed in its own monotypic genus. The generic name Gymnogyps is derived from the Greek gymnos/γυμνος "naked" or "bare", gyps/γυψ "vulture", while the specific name californianus comes from its location in California.
The word condor. The exact taxonomic placement of the California condor and the other six species of New World vultures remains unclear. Though similar in appearance and ecological roles to Old World vultures, the New World vultures evolved from a different ancestor in a different part of the world. Just how different the two are is under debate, with some earlier authorities suggesting that the New World vultures are more related to storks. More recent authorities maintain their overall position in the order Falconiformes along with the Old World vultures or place them in their own order, Cathartiformes; the South American Classification Committee has removed the New World vultures from Ciconiiformes and instead placed them in Incertae sedis, but notes that a move to Falconiformes or Cathartiformes is possible. As of the 51st Supplement of the American Ornithologists' Union, the California Condor is in the Cathartiformes order and the Cathartidae family; the genus Gymnogyps is an example of a relict distribution.
During the Pleistocene epoch, this genus was widespread across the Americas. From fossils, the Floridan Gymnogyps kofordi from the Early Pleistocene and the Peruvian Gymnogyps howardae from the Late Pleistocene have been described. A condor found in Late Pleistocene deposits on Cuba was described as Antillovultur varonai, but has since been recognized as another member of Gymnogyps, Gymnogyps varonai, it may have derived from a founder population of California condors. Today's California condor has no accepted subspecies. However, there is a Late Pleistocene form, sometimes regarded as a palaeosubspecies, Gymnogyps californianus amplus. Current opinions are mixed regarding the classification of the form as a chronospecies or a separate species Gymnogyps amplus. Gymnogyps amplus occurred over much of the bird's historical range – extending into Florida – but was larger, having about the same weight as the Andean condor; this bird had a wider bill. As the climate changed during the last ice age, the entire population became smaller until it had evolved into the Gymnogyps californianus of today, although more recent studies by Syverson query that theory.
The adult California condor is a uniform black with the exception of large triangular patches or bands of white on the underside of the wings. It has gray legs and feet, an ivory-colored bill, a frill of black feathers surrounding the base of the neck, brownish red eyes; the juvenile is a mottled dark brown with blackish coloration on the head. It has mottled gray instead of white on the underside of its flight feathers; the condor's head and neck have few feathers, the skin of the head and neck is capable of flushing noticeably in response to emotional state, a capability that can serve as communication between individuals. The skin color varies from yellowish to a glowing reddish-orange; the birds do not have true syringeal vocalizations. They can make a few hissing or grunting sounds only heard when close. Contrary to the usual rule among true birds of prey, the female is smaller than the male. Overall length can range from 109 to 140 cm (43 to 55
Bingo is a 1998 computer-animated short film directed by Chris Landreth. The short is based on the stage play Disregard This Play by the theater troupe The Neo Futurists, it uses surrealistic imagery and dialogue to tell the story of an ordinary man, surrounded by characters who insist that he is someone named "Bingo the Clown" though he is not. The man is worn down by their unwavering insistence and comes to believe that he is Bingo the Clown. At the time of Bingo's creation, Landreth was employed as an animator at Alias|Wavefront, the film was used to demonstrate the capabilities of the company's new Maya animation software. Bingo was shown at both technology trade shows, like the 1998 SIGGRAPH conference where it was shown as the grand finale of the Electronic Theater, at more traditional film festivals; some notable film festivals that showed Bingo during its initial release include the Sundance Film Festival, the Ottawa International Animation Festival, Toronto's CFC Worldwide Short Film Festival, the Aspen Short Film Festival, the Los Angeles Independent Film Festival.
The film received critical acclaim upon its release. Landreth did not submit Bingo to the Sundance Film Festival, but the festival organizers asked to show it anyway — a rare honor. At the Aspen Short Film Festival it won the "Animated Eye" award, it won the Audience Award for Best Short Film at the Los Angeles Independent Film Festival, it won the Media Prize for Best Computer Animation at the Ottawa International Animation Festival. In 1999, Bingo was given the Genie Award for Best Animated Short. Bingo was created with a pre-release version of Alias|Wavefront's Maya computer graphics and animation software; the Maya software and the film were developed concurrently at Alias|Wavefront, the company used the finished film as a demonstration of the software's capabilities. Some of the Maya features that were showcased in Bingo included blend shapes, custom shaders and soft body dynamics, particle systems, interactive lighting setups; the film opens with a brief, live-action video sequence of the Neo-Futurists performing part of Disregard This Play before a live audience.
A man in a strange hat greets a man sitting in a chair and addresses him as "Bingo". When the man in the chair denies being named Bingo, the man in the hat insists that he is, in fact, "Bingo the Clown-o"; as the man in the chair tries to correct him, the man in the hat continues to address him as Bingo at greater and greater volume, ending with a loud shout and cutting off the protests. After a fade to black, the same basic scene begins to play out again, this time with computer-animated characters. A man, "Dave," is surrounded by darkness. A clown enters, smoking a cigarette, addresses Dave as "Bingo." Dave starts to protest that he's not "Bingo the Clown," but the clown ignores him and repeats the phrases "Hi, Bingo!" and "Bingo the Clown!" With each repetition, the clown's voice gets louder and he grows physically larger until he is screaming at Dave with a head larger than Dave's entire body. A female harlequin enters, calling for "Music, please!" As she exits, the stage is illuminated and an instrumental version of the song "Daisy Bell" begins to play.
Strange screens rise up from under the floor and begin displaying a series of random images interspersed with pictures of clowns and the words "Hi Bingo!" At the same time, the clown begins riding a bicycle in circles around Dave while balancing a piano on one hand, Dave is bombarded with peanuts. The harlequin descends from orders the music to stop; as she exits, the music stops and the lights dim, leaving Dave alone in a spotlight once again. A little girl clown enters, holding a balloon that keeps re-inflating in new colors, she addresses Dave as "Bingo" and warns him that "he" is coming to "check on your progress." When Dave asks if Bingo is the one, coming, the balloon girl's face transforms into a gigantic, snake-like monster and she shouts that Dave is Bingo. She turns back into a little girl to inform Dave that "he" is coming; the first clown walks through the spotlight, still carrying the piano in one hand, drops his bicycle beside Dave's chair before leaving. The balloon girl calls Dave "Bingo" again, when he tries to protest, he is interrupted by the harlequin shouting "Music, please!" again.
The music begins playing again, the screens reappear, but are soon replaced by enormous, robotic faces. The balloon girl drifts away on a giant balloon, a human-sized flea walks past with a sign announcing "The Money Guy." The harlequin returns and orders the music to stop before disappearing. When the music stops, there is a strange creature with no legs, many arms, a man's head, dollar bills sprouting from its neck and arms, it yells at Dave for "looking at my money," but offers to let Dave look at his money. Confused and frightened, Dave declares; the creature congratulates him for being a "good, little Bingo." Dave says that he doesn't think that he's Bingo, asking "who am I?" The harlequin once again calls for music. This time, the lighting does not change, but the money creature is wheeled away as music plays and fades out. Left alone, Dave says; the clown reappears, sitting in wearing glasses, with an axe embedded in his head. The clown asks Dave to confirm that he is "Bingo the Clown." Dave agrees, stating enthusiastically that he is "Bingo, Bingo the Clown-o!"
He starts dancing around while shaking a baby's rattle. The lights come on illuminating the room, a voice on a loudspeaker says "Thank you. Next." The screen cuts to black, the cre
-4-Hydroxyproline, or L-hydroxyproline, is a common non-proteinogenic amino acid, abbreviated as Hyp, e.g. in Protein Data Bank. In 1902, Hermann Emil Fischer isolated hydroxyproline from hydrolyzed gelatin. In 1905, Hermann Leuchs synthesized a racemic mixture of 4-hydroxyproline. Hydroxyproline differs from proline by the presence of a hydroxyl group attached to the gamma carbon atom. Hydroxyproline is produced by hydroxylation of the amino acid proline by the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase following protein synthesis; the enzyme catalyzed reaction takes place in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Although it is not directly incorporated into proteins, hydroxyproline comprises 4% of all amino acids found in animal tissue, an amount greater than seven other amino acids that are translationally incorporated. Hydroxyproline is a major component of the protein collagen, comprising 13.5% of mammalian collagen. Hydroxyproline and proline play key roles for collagen stability, they permit the sharp twisting of the collagen helix.
In the canonical collagen Xaa-Yaa-Gly triad, a proline occupying the Yaa position is hydroxylated to give a Xaa-Hyp-Gly sequence. This modification of the proline residue increases the stability of the collagen triple helix, it was proposed that the stabilization was due to water molecules forming a hydrogen bonding network linking the prolyl hydroxyl groups and the main-chain carbonyl groups. It was subsequently shown that the increase in stability is through stereoelectronic effects and that hydration of the hydroxyproline residues provides little or no additional stability. In addition to collagen, the mammalian proteins elastin and argonaute 2 have collagen-like domains in which hydroxyproline is formed; some snail poisons, contain hydroxyproline, but lack collagen-like sequences. Hydroxylation of proline has been shown to be involved in targeting Hypoxia-inducible factor alpha subunit for degradation by proteolysis. Under normoxia EGLN1 protein hydroxylates the proline at the 564 position of HIF-1 alpha, which allows ubiquitylation by the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor and subsequent targeting for proteasome degradation.
Hydroxyproline is found in few proteins other than collagen. For this reason, hydroxyproline content has been used as an indicator to determine collagen and/or gelatin amount. Hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins are found in plant cell walls; these hydroxyprolines serve as the attachment points for glycan chains which are added as post-translational modifications. Proline hydroxylation requires ascorbic acid; the most obvious, first effects of absence of ascorbic acid in humans come from the resulting defect in hydroxylation of proline residues of collagen, with reduced stability of the collagen molecule, causing scurvy. Increased serum and urine levels of hydroxyproline have been demonstrated in Paget's disease. Other hydroxyprolines exist in nature; the most notable ones are 2,3-cis-, 3,4-trans-, 3,4-dihydroxyproline, which occurs in diatom cell walls and are postulated to have a role in silica deposition. Hydroxyproline is found in the walls of oomycetes, fungus-like protists related to diatoms.