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Call sign

In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of America, they are used for all FCC-licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity; the use of call signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one telegraph line linking all railroad stations, there needed to be a way to address each one when sending a telegram. In order to save time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose; this pattern continued in radiotelegraph operation. These were not globally unique, so a one-letter company identifier was added. By 1912, the need to identify stations operated by multiple companies in multiple nations required an international standard. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities.

In the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters. United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters "W" or "K" while US naval ships are assigned call signs beginning with "N". Both ships and broadcast stations were assigned call signs in this series consisting of three or four letters. Ships equipped with Morse code radiotelegraphy, or life boat radio sets, Aviation ground stations, broadcast stations were given four letter call signs. Maritime coast stations on high frequency were assigned three letter call signs; as demand for both marine radio and broadcast call signs grew American-flagged vessels with radiotelephony only were given longer call signs with mixed letters and numbers. Leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US still wishing to have a radio license are under FCC class SA: "Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped."

Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number, shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the nominal length of the boat in feet. For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47-foot motor lifeboats; the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example: Coast Guard zero two one. Aviation mobile stations equipped with radiotelegraphy were assigned five-letter call signs.. Land Stations in Aviation were assigned four letter call signs; these call signs were phased out in the 1960s when flight radio officers were no longer required on international flights. USSR kept FROs for the Moscow-Havana run until around 2000. All signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation and whether or not the caller is in an aircraft or at a ground facility.

In most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircraft's registration number. In this case, the call sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet. Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, followed by a unique identifier made up of letters and numbers. For example, an aircraft registered as N978CP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa. However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would omit saying November, instead use the name of the aircraft manufacturer or the specific model. At times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters; this is true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions or at towered airports after establishing two-way communication with the tower controller. For example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base.

In most countries, the aircraft call sign or "tail number"/"tail letters" are linked to the international radio call sign allocation table and follow a convention that aircraft radio stations receive call signs consisting of five letters. For example, all British civil aircraft have a five-letter registration beginning with the letter G, which can serve for a call sign. Canadian aircraft have a call sign beginning with C–F or C–G, such as C–FABC. Wing In Ground-effect vehicles in Canada are eligible to receive C–Hxxx call signs, ultralight aircraft receive C-Ixxx call signs. In days gone by American aircraft used five letter call signs, such as KH–ABC, but they were replaced prior to World War II by the current American system of civilian aircraft call signs. One exception to the parallelism between registration and call sign is Ultralight aeroplanes in France, who are not

Advanced Mobile Location

Advanced Mobile Location is an emergency location-based service available on smartphones that, when a caller dials the local short dial emergency telephone number, sends the best available geolocation of the caller to a dedicated end-point a Public Safety Answering Point, making the location of the caller available to emergency call takers in real-time. AML improves the time taken by emergency call takers to verify the location of callers and can improve the time taken to dispatch an emergency response. AML was standardised by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute Emergency Telecommunications Subcommittee in 2016 as Technical Report EMTEL-00035. AML was developed in the United Kingdom by British Telecom, EE Limited, HTC as a solution to problematic caller location in emergencies; when a person in distress calls the emergency services with a smart-phone where AML is enabled, the telephone automatically activates its location service to establish its position and sends this information to the emergency services via an SMS.

The services uses either a global navigation satellite system or WiFi depending on which one is better at the given moment. It was estimated that this technique is up to 4000 times more accurate than the used system. AML is being implemented in the UK by an increasing number of smart-phone manufacturers and mobile network operators: BT, the mobile networks EE, O2 and Three, together with Apple Inc. Google, HTC, Sony and Samsung handsets, have successfully implemented AML. Google announced in July 2016 that all Android phones running version 2.3.7, Gingerbread or include AML. Google calls their implementation Emergency Location Service. Apple devices running iOS 11.3 or also support AML. AML is deployed in 17 countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Moldova, New Zealand, Slovenia, Czech Republic, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom and United States. Several tests planned to run in Hungary. Several countries around Europe are testing AML with the aim of deploying it by April 2020. Furthermore the European Electronic Communications Code mandates that all EU states must implement AML by December 2020.

AML works in some countries when using their emergency SMS service, but is only implemented in Android phones. AML automatically turns on Wi-Fi and location services on the handset and computes location data sends an SMS to the emergency services containing the caller's location, before turning location services and Wi-Fi off again; the service can send the data via an HTTPS POST request to the specified endpoint. The country implementing AML decides whether to use an SMS endpoint or an HTTPS endpoint or both

One Way Down

One Way Down is a post-hardcore rock band that formed in late 1996 under the name decepticans. Chris Ekstedt started the band to have a resource to let out some nervous energy; the name "decepticans" was taken from a French slang for liars. "We changed the name because so many people wanted to not spell it and I was tired of being related to the fucking TV cartoon the old name was when we were kids. One Way Down's more mature and I don't feel like an idiot with the name" - said Chris Ekstedt, they have shared the stage with bands such as L. A. Guns, Gilby Clarke, Snapcase, Stretch Armstrong and Social Distortion. Most they completed their first European tour with Wanker Records and Al Cheapo Between 1998 and 2002 and under the guise of Decepticans, there was a drop off in activity from the band. Not a lot of interest lead to many changes in the band. Randomly, while doing work for Buddyhead Records, Paul Kostabi contacted Chris Ekstedt to see if there was a band that would fit on a "B Side" of a band he is working with, The Willowz.

Mr. Kostabi fell in love with One Way Down's music and signed him to his label Artmonkey Records After enlisting the help of Producer Paul Kostabi, One Way Down began re-recording and re-mastering Decepticans album "No Holding Back" into what has become a popular CD called "Scheisse" with new cover tracks of "I Am A Patriot" by Steve Van Zandt, "Redemption Song" by Bob Marley and "Indifference" by Pearl Jam. Recorded in the Summer of 2005, One Way Down recorded four more tracks for a split CD with Al Cheapo for the European tour called "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik”. One Way Down tracks include "Redundant", "Ignition", "Side By Side" and "Liars & Backstabbers"; the much anticipated disc saw schizophrenic dynamics emerge. “Eine Kleine Nachtmusik” is proof that One Way Down have the ability to mature and continue to grow as artists. Chris Ekstedt - vocals/guitar/keyboard/bass Jeff Blanco - bass Mike Schoettler - drums Matt Philips - drums Nick Wanker - bassist Paul Kostabi - guitar, backing vocals, keyboards No Holding Back Focused-Grouped to Death Buddy List Scheisse Scheisse Eine Kleine Nachtmusik Live In Berlin Swaying In The Breeze V/A Killer In Your Radio Vol.03 CD feat.'I'm leaving here' Track V/A Ox Fanzine Sampler #48 CD feat.'I'm leaving here' Track V/A Ox Fanzine Sampler #50 CD feat.'My Breaking Point' Track One Way Down - MySpace page

George Clymer

George Clymer was an American politician and Founding Father of the United States. He was one of the first Patriots to advocate complete independence from Britain; as a Pennsylvania representative, Clymer was, along with five others, a signatory of both the Declaration of Independence and the U. S. Constitution, he attended the Continental Congress, served in political office until the end of his life. Clymer was born in Philadelphia on 16 March 1739. Orphaned when only a year old, he was apprenticed to his maternal aunt and uncle and William Coleman, to prepare to become a merchant, he married Elizabeth Meredith on March 22, 1765. In a letter written by George Clymer to the rector of Christ Church, the Reverend Richard Peters, Clymer states that he had fathered a child. George Clymer and Elizabeth Meredith had nine children, his oldest surviving son, married the Philadelphia socialite Mary Willing in 1794. John Meredith, Margaret and Ann survived to adulthood, though John Meredith was killed in the Whiskey Rebellion in 1787 at the age of 18.

Clymer was a patriot and leader in the demonstrations in Philadelphia resulting from the Tea Act and the Stamp Act. Clymer accepted the command as a leader of a volunteer corps belonging to General John Cadwalader's brigade, he became a member of the Philadelphia Committee of Safety in 1773, was elected to the Continental Congress 1776–1780. Clymer shared the responsibility of being treasurer of the Continental Congress with Michael Hillegas the first Treasurer of the United States, he served ably on several committees during his first congressional term and was sent with Sampson Mathews to inspect the northern army at Fort Ticonderoga on behalf of Congress in the fall of 1776. When Congress fled Philadelphia in the face of Sir Henry Clinton's threatened occupation, Clymer stayed behind with George Walton and Robert Morris. Clymer’s business ventures during and after war served to increase his wealth. In 1779 and 1780, Clymer and his son Meredith engaged in a lucrative trade with St. Eustatius.

Although not partial to the merchant business, Clymer continued in business with his father-in-law and brother-in-law until 1782. He resigned from Congress in 1777 and, in 1780, was elected to a seat in the Pennsylvania Legislature. In 1782, he was sent on a tour of the southern states in a vain attempt to get the legislatures to pay up on subscriptions due to the central government, he was reelected to the Pennsylvania legislature in 1784, represented his state at the Constitutional Convention in 1787. He was elected to the first U. S. Congress in 1789, he was the first president of the Philadelphia Bank and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and vice-president of the Philadelphia Agricultural Society. When Congress passed a bill imposing a duty on spirits distilled in the United States in 1791, Clymer was placed as head of the excise department in the state of Pennsylvania, he was one of the commissioners to negotiate a treaty with the Creek Indian confederacy at Colerain, Georgia on June 29, 1796.

He is considered the benefactor of Indiana Borough, as it was he who donated the property for a county seat in Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Clymer died on January 23, 1813, he was buried at the Friends Burying Ground in New Jersey. USS George Clymer was named in his honor. Clymer, Indiana County, Pennsylvania was named in his honor as was New York. There is a George Clymer Elementary School in the School District of Philadelphia; this school has educated majority children of color following Clymer's legacy of rights for all people. Clymer's home in Morrisville, known as Summerseat, still stands, as does a house he owned in Philadelphia's Fairmount Park known as Ridgeland Mansion. One of the streets running alongside Summerseat in Morrisville is Clymer Avenue. In Reading, Clymer Street is named in honor of George Clymer. At its intersection with Hill Road once stood the mansion of William H. Luden, who founded Luden's in Reading in 1879; that mansion hosted Central Catholic—a now-defunct Roman Catholic parochial high school.

In the Leedom Estates section of Ridley Township, Clymer Lane is named after George Clymer. In Pentwater, Clymer Street is named after George Clymer. Burnell, Jim. George Clymer the Signer. United States Congress. "George Clymer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Biography by Rev. Charles A. Goodrich, 1856 George Clymer Bio Biography and portrait at the University of Pennsylvania George Clymer at Find a Grave George Clymer biography, from the website of The Society of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence, from the website of the Pennsylvania Center for the Book

Timothy Crouse

Timothy Crouse is an American journalist and writer. Crouse is the son of Russel Crouse, his maternal grandparents were Pauline and author and former Columbia professor John Erskine. Timothy Crouse's affinity for campaign reporters and the theater took root from his father, Russel Crouse, a career newspaperman and playwright. "The stories he told me of his newspaper days—especially traveling around the country with prankish sports teams—had a fatal tinge of romance about them," said Crouse. His father's career in theatre began in 1928 when he played Bellflower in the play Gentlemen of the Press, his father turned his attention to writing. In 1934, he and his long-time partner Howard Lindsay together revised P. G. Wodehouse and Guy Bolton's book for the Cole Porter musical Anything Goes. "My father and Howard's trademark was a painstaking craftsmanship," says Crouse. "They spent months on an outline for a play worked on the dialogue rewrote and rewrote until everything was just right." And more than fifty years after his father collaborated on the original score, Timothy Crouse's revised libretto of Anything Goes opened on Broadway.

Crouse is the brother of actress Lindsay Crouse. He attended Harvard University. Crouse served as a Peace Corps Volunteer in Morocco from 1968 to 1969. Returning to the United States he wrote for the Boston Herald before joining the staff of Rolling Stone where he worked as a contributing editor from 1971 to 1972. Crouse is the author of The Boys on the Bus, a critical look at the journalists who covered the 1972 US presidential campaign; as a young Rolling Stone reporter he wrote music stories, but he wanted to try his hand at political reporting. At a 1972 Rolling Stone staff meeting the only other writer interested in covering the election was his colleague, the legendary writer Hunter S. Thompson, so Crouse latched onto him. "It only took a few days of riding the bus for me to see that the reporters themselves would make a great story," Crouse said. Crouse profiled Hunter S. Thompson in the book. "wrote to provoke, shock and annoy," wrote Crouse. Crouse profiled R. W. Apple, the legendary reporter and editor at the New York Times.

Reporters "recognized many of their own traits in him, grotesquely magnified. The shock of recognition frightened them. Apple was like them, only more blatant, he displayed the faults they tried to hide: the insecurity, the ambitiousness, the name-dropping" and "the weakness for powerful men." David Broder and Robert Novak are profiled in the book. In the book, Crouse coins the term pack journalism. "The press likes to demonstrate its power by destroying lightweights, pack journalism is never more doughty and complacent than when the pack has tacitly agreed that a candidate is a joke." After The Boys on the Bus, Crouse became the Washington columnist for Esquire and wrote articles for The New Yorker and The Village Voice. In 1982 Crouse conceived, he co-authored a new libretto for the musical with John Weidman that opened at the Vivian Beaumont Theater on October 19, 1987, ran for 784 performances. They re-ordered the musical numbers, borrowing Cole Porter pieces from other Porter shows, a practice which the composer engaged in.

In 2002 the musical was produced at the Royal National Theatre in London. In 2000 Alfred A. Knopf published Crouse and Luc Brébion's translation of Nobel-prize winner Roger Martin du Gard's nearly 800-page memoir Lieutenant-Colonel de Maumort. Crouse has been working on fiction for the past several years and his story Sphinxes appeared in the Spring 2003 issue of Zoetrope: All-Story. Interview with Timothy Crouse PBS interview with Crouse Yardley, Review of Boys on the Bus for the Washington Post

Camilo (singer)

Camilo Echeverry Correa, who records as Camilo, is a Colombian singer and songwriter. Born and raised in Montería, Camilo rose to fame in 2007 after winning the Colombian talent show Factor XS; the singer has released Regálame tu corazón and Tráfico de Sentimientos. Camilo is known for his smash-hits "Tutu", alongside Pedro Capó, "Desconocidos" and "La Boca", with Mau y Ricky, he is known for writing hits including Becky G and Natti Natasha's "Sin Pijama" and Lali and Mau y Ricky's "Sin Querer Queriendo". His parents are Eugenio Echeverry, he has a sister named Manuela. In February 2020, he married to Evaluna Montaner, daughter of the Venezuelan singer and songwriter Ricardo Montaner and sister of the Venezuelan duo Mau y Ricky. Regálame tu corazón Tráfico de Sentimientos Sin pijama Becky G and Natti Natasha