A tsunami or tidal wave known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water in an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Unlike normal ocean waves, which are generated by wind, or tides, which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water. Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or sea waves because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead resemble a rising tide. For this reason, it is referred to as a "tidal wave", although this usage is not favoured by the scientific community because it might give the false impression of a causal relationship between tides and tsunamis. Tsunamis consist of a series of waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "internal wave train".
Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous, they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history, with at least 230,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The Ancient Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his 5th century BC History of the Peloponnesian War that tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of tsunamis remained slim until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include determining why some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; the term "tsunami" is a borrowing from the Japanese tsunami 津波, meaning "harbour wave". For the plural, one can either follow ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese; some English speakers alter the word's initial /ts/ to an /s/ by dropping the "t", since English does not natively permit /ts/ at the beginning of words, though the original Japanese pronunciation is /ts/.
Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as tidal waves. This once-popular term derives from the most common appearance of a tsunami, that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunamis and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of a tsunami, the inland movement of water may be much greater, giving the impression of an high and forceful tide. In recent years, the term "tidal wave" has fallen out of favour in the scientific community, because the causes of tsunamis have nothing to do with those of tides, which are produced by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun rather than the displacement of water. Although the meanings of "tidal" include "resembling" or "having the form or character of" the tides, use of the term tidal wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers. A 1969 episode of Hawaii Five-O entitled "Forty Feet High And It Kills!" used the terms "tsunami" and "tidal wave" interchangeably. The term seismic sea wave is used to refer to the phenomenon, because the waves most are generated by seismic activity such as earthquakes.
Prior to the rise of the use of the term tsunami in English, scientists encouraged the use of the term seismic sea wave rather than tidal wave. However, like tsunami, seismic sea wave is not a accurate term, as forces other than earthquakes – including underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, the weather when the atmospheric pressure changes rapidly – can generate such waves by displacing water. While Japan may have the longest recorded history of tsunamis, the sheer destruction caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami event mark it as the most devastating of its kind in modern times, killing around 230,000 people; the Sumatran region is accustomed to tsunamis, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes occurring off the coast of the island. Tsunamis are an underestimated hazard in the Mediterranean Sea and parts of Europe. Of historical and current importance are the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami, the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes, each causing several tens of thousands of deaths and the 1908 Messina earthquake and tsunami.
The tsunami claimed more than 123,000 lives in Sicily and Calabria and is among the most deadly natural disasters in modern Europe. The Storegga Slide in the Norwegian Sea and some examples of tsunamis affecting the British Isles refer to landslide and meteotsunamis predominantly and less to earthquake-induced waves; as early as 426 BC the Greek historian Thucydides inquired in his book History of the Peloponnesian War about the causes of tsunami, was the first to argue that ocean earthquakes must be the cause. The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be sought in the earthquake. At the point where its shock has been the most violent the sea is driven back, recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation. Without an earthquake I do not see; the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus described the typical sequence of a tsunami, including an incipient earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a followin
Battle of Callao
The Battle of Callao occurred on May 2, 1866 between a Spanish fleet under the command of Admiral Casto Méndez Núñez and the fortified battery emplacements of the Peruvian port city of Callao during the Chincha Islands War. The Spanish fleet bombarded the port of Callao, withdrew without any notable damage to the city structures, according to the Peruvian and American sources; this proved to be the final battle of the war between Peruvian forces. President Juan Antonio Pezet assumed the presidency of Peru in April 1863, at a time when Spain was making efforts to recover some prestige by recovering its lost colonies in America. Spain began its campaign by seizing the Chincha Islands, which were rich in guano, demanding indemnity as recompense for the murder of two Spanish citizens in Lambayeque. Vacillating, President Pezet began removing vast quantities of Peru's guano deposits to give to Spain when Spanish ships threatened Callao and the neighboring coastline. Pezet believed. In November 1865, in a moment of nationalism, Colonel Mariano Ignacio Prado seized power from Pezet after a coup, organized an effective defense against Spanish aggression that culminated with the Battle of Callao.
After the indecisive Battle of Abtao in February 1866, Méndez Núñez decided to take punitive action against South American ports, his first target being the undefended Chilean port of Valparaíso. The neutral British and American naval commanders in Chilean waters were unable to prevent this action, the Spanish bombarded the town and destroyed the Chilean merchant fleet. Méndez Núñez continued afterward for Spain by attacking a strong port and went with his fleet towards the well-defended Peruvian port of Callao; the battle, starting on May 2, was characterized by arduous, long-range combat with ironclads utilized by both sides. Observing the combat were American and French ships; the Spaniards arrived at Callao, on April 25, with 7 warships and 7 auxiliary ships carrying 252 guns, most of them 68-pounder cannons. The Spanish ships included the ironclad Numancia and the steam frigates Reina Blanca, Resolución, Villa de Madrid and the corvette Vencedora. A V-Shaped formation characterized the Spanish fleet, with the smaller ships on the back.
This was the most formidable fleet that had assembled up to that point in the waters of the American Pacific Ocean. Prior to the battle, Peruvian president Mariano Ignacio Prado rallied and mobilized the military and the townspeople against Spain; the strong forts and batteries of the stronghold at Callao, which had once repelled Sir Francis Drake and John Hawkins, were reinforced with 5 heavy British-made 22-ton Blakely rifles. Moreover, four Armstrong guns were placed in two armoured turrets, Junín and La Merced, both protected with a 10 cm thick iron belt; the Armstrong and the Blakely guns were the most potent cannons of the time, they were a national pride for Peru. In total, the Peruvians had 52 guns and 13 additional guns mounted on the warships Colon and Sachaca. Peru had two locally built ironclads: The Confederate-style casemated ram ironclad Loa and the monitor Victoria, as well as infantry and cavalry; the Spanish fleet, forming a V-shaped line of attack, enter into the bay at 10:00 hours, formed two lines of battle: In the north, the ironclad Numancia and the frigates Almansa and Resolución, while the frigates Villa de Madrid and Reina Blanca moved south.
The rest of the fleet, including the corvette Vencedora, remained back near the island of San Lorenzo. The Numancia, one of the largest ships to have existed at the time, went forward in order to begin the attack. At 11:50 hours, the ironclad Numancia opened fire on the defenses; the Peruvian fort Santa Rosa fired back soon after. No shot hit the Spanish warships, so the guns had to be recalibrated; when the batteries resumed their fire, a shot hit the Numancia injuring the Spanish Admiral Méndez Nuñez. The ship, suffered no damage thanks to its armor; the Cañón del Pueblo, a 500-pound Blakely gun, became unusable. The Spanish frigate Villa de Madrid, was hit by a Blakely 450-pound projectile, which inflicted 35 casualties and destroyed her boilers; the ship had to be towed out of the battle by the corvette Vencedora, while she fired over 200 shots on the Peruvian forts during the maneuver. The Berenguela, pierced side-to-side at the waterline by an Armstrong 300-pound projectile, was forced to retreat.
She had silenced all the Armstrong guns from the Junín armoured turret. The frigate Almansa was hit by another shot at 14:30, resulting in the deaths of 13 crewman and causing an explosion of her powder room, thus forcing her to retreat. Half an hour having made the necessary repairs, she returned to her position and resumed the action against the Peruvians. By this time, there was heavy fire from both sides. A Spanish shot from the Blanca hit the armored turret La Merced, destroying it and killing or injuring 93 men, including Peruvian Secretary of Defense José Gálvez and colonels Cornelio Borda and Enrique Montes. Chacabuco battery was affected, losing several cannons and a great number of its volunteer crew, as well as Santa Rosa and Pinchicha forts. In the first one was wounded Ship's captain Muñón, the second one lost 2 cannons. In adittion, Maipú and
National University of Callao
The National University of Callao is a post-secondary institution in the Bellavista District of the Constitutional Province of Callao in the country of Peru. It was established on 2 September 1966; this scholarly institute retains its original technical character, unique to Peru. The University has maintained its technical character, has grown to eleven departments, fifteen professional schools, a postgraduate school; the university had in 1967 the following departments: Hydrobiological and fishing research Industrial chemistry Naval, industrial and electrical engineering Economic and administrative sciences. Now, in 2015, the UNAC has 17 careers: Fishing & Food Engineering. Mechanical Engineering.. Electrical and Electronic Engineering. Industrial & Systems Engineering. Chemistry Engineering. Accountancy. Economics. Management. Nursing. Physical Education Faculty of Science. Environmental engineering; the University's website
The Peru–Bolivian Confederation was a short-lived state that existed in South America between 1836 and 1839. The country was a loose confederation between the states of Peru, divided into the Republic of North Peru and the Republic of South Peru, Bolivia, with the capital located in Tacna; the Peru–Bolivian Confederation's formation was influenced by Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz, the President of Bolivia, who served as the first and only head of state under the title "Supreme Protector". The Peru–Bolivian Confederation was opposed by neighboring countries from its inception Chile and Argentina, as a potential military and economic threat, for its support for dissidents in exile; the War of the Confederation was triggered shortly after its formation when Chile and Argentina independently invaded the country. Argentina was defeated in 1837, but a combined force of Chile and North Peruvian dissidents known as the United Restoration Army were victorious at the Battle of Yungay in January 1839, which de facto ended the confederation as Peru and Bolivia were restored as independent states, Santa Cruz fled into exile.
The Peru–Bolivian Confederation was declared dissolved on August 25, 1839, by General Agustín Gamarra after his appointment as President of Peru. During colonial times, the territory comprising the Audiencia de Charcas known as Alto Perú, now Bolivia, was an integral territory of the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru from its creation. In 1776, it was administratively severed and became a province of the newly created Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. Still, for geographical and historical reasons, it always remained closer to Lima than to its administrative capital, Buenos Aires, in present-day Argentina; the Peru–Bolivian Confederation was the only effective attempt to unite them. This territory achieved independence in 1825. At this point in time, a union with Peru was supported. Nonetheless Simón Bolívar, who had liberated the territory and destroyed the last remnants of the Spanish army; the new Republic of Bolivia was born, with Bolívar as its first president. Political unrest and turmoil forced Bolívar to return to Colombia soon thereafter, leaving Antonio José de Sucre in charge.
The plan for reuniting Peru and Bolivia did not fade away. Marshal Sucre was elected president of Bolivia in 1826, but political pressure from Peru and internal turmoil made it impossible for him to organize the new state; the next year, an armed uprising in Chuquisaca was used by Peru as an excuse to invade Bolivia. General Agustín Gamarra marched with an army of nearly 5,000 Peruvian soldiers, he had two clear orders: force the Colombian army to withdraw and promote the creation of a new constitution for that country. The Peruvian army entered La Paz, Bolivia, on May 28, 1828. Under these circumstances, Sucre was forced to resign in September. Marshal Andres de Santa Cruz was elected president of Bolivia in 1829 to replace him, a position that he would hold for the next ten years. Both Gamarra and Santa Cruz agreed that the separation of Peru and Bolivia was a mistake that should be corrected, their plan for a federation, or at least a confederation, was accepted by the legislative branches of both countries, but they disagreed on other issues.
Gamarra was in favor of a Peruvian-led union, while Santa Cruz wanted to give more political power to Bolivia. Bolívar did not agree with either Gamarra or Santa Cruz, since Gran Colombia was his own project of federation to unite most of the former Spanish colonies. Furious about the news in Bolivia, he resolved to declare war against Peru on June 3, 1828. Marshal Sucre was soon afterwards murdered. After Bolívar's death in 1830, the Colombian troops withdrew, the war came to an end. During the war, with the Peruvian army holding off the Colombian offensive, Gamarra deposed Peruvian President José de la Mar and proclaimed himself the new head of state, titled president. A parliament was assembled, with a majority of the members in favor of his government, he was able to legalize his position, his rule was difficult. A new parliament was formed in 1833. Since his term as president was over and there was no time to call for elections, it was resolved to turn the presidency over to General Luis Orbegoso.
Gamarra did not recognize the new government, prepared himself to challenge Orbegoso. However, popular opinion and most of the army rallied against him, he was frustrated in his effort to seize power again. General Orbegoso had to deal with General Felipe Salaverry, who rebelled and overthrew him in 1835. Orbegoso, did not lose the support of southern Peru and called in to his help the president of Bolivia, it was the opportunity that himself a former president of Peru, was waiting for. The Bolivian army promptly proceeded to invade Peru. With Bolivian help, General Orbegoso regained his leadership throughout the country and had Salaverry executed; as a reward for the support he had received from Santa Cruz, he agreed to the formation of the new Peru–Bolivian Confederation. Santa Cruz assumed the supreme protectorship of the confederation and Orbegoso maintained only the presidency of the newly created Nor-Peruvian state. Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz promoted a project to reunite the two territories on the basis of a confederacy.
The Peru–Bolivian Confederation was a plan that attempted to reunite the Alto Perú and Bajo Perú into a single political and economic entity. This integration was based not only on histo
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. Horses and donkeys are different species, with different numbers of chromosomes. Of the two first generation hybrids between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinny, the offspring of a female donkey and a male horse; the size of a mule and work to which it is put depend on the breeding of the mule's female parent. Mules can be lightweight, medium weight or when produced from draft horse mares, of moderately heavy weight. Mules are reputed to be more patient and long-lived than horses and are described as less obstinate and more intelligent than donkeys; the mule is valued because, while it has the size and ground-covering ability of its dam, it is stronger than a horse of similar size and inherits the endurance and disposition of the donkey sire, tending to require less food than a horse of similar size. Mules tend to be more independent than most domesticated equines other than its parental species, the donkey. Compared to horses, mules emit less of the greenhouse gas methane as a product of their digestive system The median weight range for a mule is between about 370 and 460 kg.
While a few mules can carry live weight up to 160 kg, the superiority of the mule becomes apparent in their additional endurance. In general, a mule can be packed with dead weight of up to 20% of its body weight, or 90 kg. Although it depends on the individual animal, it has been reported that mules trained by the Army of Pakistan can carry up to 72 kilograms and walk 26 kilometres without resting; the average equine in general can carry up to 30% of its body weight in live weight, such as a rider. A female mule that has estrus cycles and thus, in theory, could carry a fetus, is called a "molly" or "Molly mule", though the term is sometimes used to refer to female mules in general. Pregnancy is rare, but can occur as well as through embryo transfer. A male mule is properly called a horse mule, though called a john mule, the correct term for a gelded mule. A young male mule is called a mule colt, a young female is called a mule filly. With its short thick head, long ears, thin limbs, small narrow hooves, short mane, the mule shares characteristics of a donkey.
In height and body, shape of neck and rump, uniformity of coat, teeth, it appears horse-like. The mule comes in all sizes and conformations. There are mules that resemble huge draft horses, sturdy quarter horses, fine-boned racing horses, shaggy ponies and more; the mule is an example of hybrid vigor. Charles Darwin wrote: "The mule always appears to me a most surprising animal; that a hybrid should possess more reason, obstinacy, social affection, powers of muscular endurance, length of life, than either of its parents, seems to indicate that art has here outdone nature."The mule inherits from its sire the traits of intelligence, sure-footedness, endurance and natural cautiousness. From its dam it inherits speed and agility. Mules are reputed to exhibit a higher cognitive intelligence than their parent species; that said, there is a lack of robust scientific evidence to back up these claims. There is preliminary data from at least two evidence based studies, but they rely on a limited set of specialized cognitive tests and a small number of subjects.
Mules are taller at the shoulder than donkeys and have better endurance than horses, although a lower top speed. Handlers of working animals find mules preferable to horses: mules show more patience under the pressure of heavy weights, their skin is harder and less sensitive than that of horses, rendering them more capable of resisting sun and rain, their hooves are harder than horses', they show a natural resistance to disease and insects. Many North American farmers with clay soil found mules superior as plow animals. A mule does not sound like a donkey or a horse. Instead, a mule makes a sound, similar to a donkey's but has the whinnying characteristics of a horse. Mules sometimes whimper. Mules come in a variety of shapes and colors, from minis under 50 lb to maxis over 1,000 lb, in many different colors; the coats of mules come in the same varieties as those of horses. Common colors are sorrel, bay and grey. Less common are white, palomino and buckskin. Least common are paint tobianos. Mules from Appaloosa mares produce wildly colored mules, much like their Appaloosa horse relatives, but with wilder skewed colors.
The Appaloosa color is produced by a complex of genes known as the Leopard complex. Mares homozygous for the Lp gene bred to any color donkey will produce a spotted mule. Mules were used by armies to transport supplies as mobile firing platforms for smaller cannons, to pull heavier field guns with wheels over mountainous trails such as in Afghanistan during the Second Anglo-Afghan War; the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports that China was the top market for mules in 2003 followed by Mexico and many Central and South American nations. Mules and hinnies have 63 chromosomes, a mixture of the horse's 64 and the donkey's 62; the different structure and number prevents the chromosomes from pairing up properly and creating successful embryos, rendering most mules infertile. There are no recorded cases of fertile mule stallions. A few mare mules have produced offspring when mated with donkey. Herodotus gives an account of such an event as an ill omen of Xerxes' invasion of Greece in 480 BC: "There happe
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, of an average height of about 4,000 m; the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions; the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau; these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, the Wet Andes. The Andes Mountains are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia; the highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level.
The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m; the Andes are part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated; the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east" as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. The Andes can be divided into three sections: The Southern Andes in Chile. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes; the term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel", meaning "rope".
The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates; the Andes are a Mesozoic–Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate, it is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.
To the east, the Andes range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography; the Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of oroclines; the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina; the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.
The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks the orocline is related to crustal shortening. The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow". Further south lies the Maipo Orocline or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S. Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline; the western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by the South American part of Gondwana. The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts; the development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east.
The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress and erosion. Tectonic forces above the subduction zone al
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish and French are predominantly spoken. The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics", by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao; the term was used by Napoleon III's French government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas, along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed, including the Spanish-speaking portions of the United States Today, areas of Canada and the United States where Spanish and French are predominant are not included in definitions of Latin America. Latin America consists of 13 dependencies and 20 countries which cover an area that stretches from the northern border of Mexico to the southern tip of South America, including the Caribbean, it has an area of 19,197,000 km2 13% of the Earth's land surface area.
As of 2016, its population was estimated at more than 639 million and in 2014, Latin America had a combined nominal GDP of US$5,573,397 million and a GDP PPP of 7,531,585 million USD. The idea that a part of the Americas has a linguistic affinity with the Romance cultures as a whole can be traced back to the 1830s, in the writing of the French Saint-Simonian Michel Chevalier, who postulated that this part of the Americas was inhabited by people of a "Latin race", that it could, ally itself with "Latin Europe" overlapping the Latin Church, in a struggle with "Teutonic Europe", "Anglo-Saxon America" and "Slavic Europe". Further investigations of the concept of Latin America are by Michel Gobat in the American Historical Review, the studies of Leslie Bethell, the monograph by Mauricio Tenorio-Trillo, Latin America: The Allure and Power of an Idea. Historian John Leddy Phelan (located the origins of “Latin America” in the French occupation of Mexico, his argument is that French imperialists used the concept of "Latin" America as a way to counter British imperialism, as well as to challenge the German threat to France.
The idea of a "Latin race" was taken up by Latin American intellectuals and political leaders of the mid- and late-nineteenth century, who no longer looked to Spain or Portugal as cultural models, but rather to France. French ruler Napoleon III had a strong interest in extending French commercial and political power in the region he and his business promoter Felix Belly called “Latin America” to emphasize the shared Latin background of France with the former colonies of Spain and Portugal; this led to Napoleon's failed attempt to take military control of Mexico in the 1860s. However, though Phelan thesis is still mentioned in the U. S. academy, two Latin American historians, the Uruguayan Arturo Ardao and the Chilean Miguel Rojas Mix proved decades ago that the term "Latin America" was used earlier than Phelan claimed, the first use of the term was opposite to support imperialist projects in the Americas. Ardao wrote about this subject in his book Génesis de la idea y el nombre de América latina, Miguel Rojas Mix in his article "Bilbao y el hallazgo de América latina: Unión continental, socialista y libertaria".
As Michel Gobat reminds in his article "The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism and Race", "Arturo Ardao, Miguel Rojas Mix, Aims McGuinness have revealed the term'Latin America' had been used in 1856 by Central and South Americans protesting U. S. expansion into the Southern Hemisphere". Edward Shawcross summarizes Ardao's and Rojas Mix's findings in the following way: "Ardao identified the term in a poem by a Colombian diplomat and intellectual resident in France, José María Torres Caicedo, published on 15 February 1857 in a French based Spanish-language newspaper, while Rojas Mix located it in a speech delivered in France by the radical liberal Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in June 1856". So, regarding when the words "Latin" and "America" were combined for the first time in a printed work, the term "Latin America" was first used in 1856 in a conference by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in Paris; the conference had the title "Initiative of the America.
Idea for a Federal Congress of Republics." The following year the Colombian writer José María Torres Caicedo used the term in his poem "The Two Americas". Two events related with the U. S. played a central role in both works. The first event happened less than a decade before the publication of Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo works: the Mexican–American War, after which Mexico lost a third of its territory; the second event, the Walker affair, happened the same year both works were written: the decision by U. S. president Franklin Pierce to recognize the regime established in Nicaragua by American William Walker and his band of filibusters who ruled Nicaragua for nearly a year and attempted to reinstate slavery there, where it had been abolished for three decades In both Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo's works, the Mexican-American War and Walker's expedition to Nicaragua are explicitly mentioned as examples of dangers for the region. For Bilbao, "Latin America" w