Calligraphy is a visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad-tipped instrument, brush, or other writing instrument. A contemporary calligraphic practice can be defined as "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive and skillful manner". Modern calligraphy ranges from functional inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the letters may or may not be readable. Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may practice both. Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding invitations and event invitations, font design and typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious art, graphic design and commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions, memorial documents, it is used for props and moving images for film and television, for testimonials and death certificates and other written works. The principal tools for a calligrapher are the brush. Calligraphy pens round, or pointed.

For some decorative purposes, multi-nibbed pens—steel brushes—can be used. However, works have been created with felt-tip and ballpoint pens, although these works do not employ angled lines. There are some styles such as Gothic script, that require a stub nib pen. Writing ink is water-based and is much less viscous than the oil-based inks used in printing. Certain specialty paper with high ink absorption and constant texture enables cleaner lines, although parchment or vellum is used, as a knife can be used to erase imperfections and a light-box is not needed to allow lines to pass through it. Light boxes and templates are used to achieve straight lines without pencil markings detracting from the work. Ruled paper, either for a light box or direct use, is most ruled every quarter or half inch, although inch spaces are used; this is the case with litterea unciales, college-ruled paper acts as a guideline well. Common calligraphy pens and brushes are: Quill Dip pen Ink brush Qalam Fountain pen Chinese calligraphy is locally called shūfǎ.

The calligraphy of East Asian characters is an important and appreciated aspect of traditional East Asian culture. In ancient China, the oldest Chinese characters existing are Jiǎgǔwén characters carved on ox scapulae and tortoise plastrons, because the dominators in Shang Dynasty carved pits on such animals' bones and baked them to gain auspice of military affairs, agricultural harvest, or procreating and weather. During the divination ceremony, after the cracks were made, the characters were written with a brush on the shell or bone to be carved.. With the development of Jīnwén and Dàzhuàn "cursive" signs continued. Mao Gong Ding is one of the most famous and typical Bronzeware scripts in the Chinese calligraphy history, it has 500 characters on the bronze, the largest number of bronze inscription we have discovered so far. Moreover, each archaic kingdom of current China had its own set of characters. In Imperial China, the graphs on old steles—some dating from 200 BC, in Xiaozhuan style—are still accessible.

About 220 BC, the emperor Qin Shi Huang, the first to conquer the entire Chinese basin, imposed several reforms, among them Li Si's character unification, which created a set of 3300 standardized Xiǎozhuàn(小篆) characters. Despite the fact that the main writing implement of the time was the brush, few papers survive from this period, the main examples of this style are on steles; the Lìshū style, more regularized, in some ways similar to modern text, have been authorised under Qin Shi Huangdi. Between clerical script and traditional regular script, there is another transition type of calligraphy works called Wei Bei, it had ended before Tang Dynasty. Kǎishū style —still in use today—and attributed to Wang Xizhi and his followers, is more regularized, its spread was encouraged by Emperor Mingzong of Later Tang, who ordered the printing of the classics using new wooden blocks in Kaishu. Printing technologies here allowed a shape stabilization; the Kaishu shape of characters 1000 years ago was similar to that at the end of Imperial China.

But small changes have been made, for example in the shape of 广, not the same in the Kangxi Dictionary of 1716 as in modern books. The Kangxi and current shapes have tiny differences, while stroke order is still the same, according to old style. Styles which did not survive include Bāfēnshū, a mix made of Xiaozhuan style at 80%, Lishu at 20%; some variant Chinese characters were locally used for centuries. They were understood but always rejected in official texts; some of these unorthodox variants, in addition to some newly created characters, compose the Simplified Chinese character set. Traditional East Asian writing uses the Four Treasures of the Study: the ink brushes known as máobǐ to write Chinese characters, Chinese ink and inkstone, known as the Four Friends of the Study in Korea. In addition to these four tools, desk pads and paperweights are used; the shape, size and hair type of the ink brush, the color, color density and water density of the ink, as well as the paper's water absorption

Conewago Recreation Trail

The Conewago Recreation Trail is a public recreational rail trail that follows the once Cornwall-Lebanon Railroad rail corridor for a total of over 5.0 miles. The trail stretches from Elizabethtown, PA to the Lebanon County Line, PA, at which point it links up to the Lebanon Valley Rail Trail which continues for another 15.0 miles. The Conewago Recreation Trail runs adjacent to the Conewago Creek running through quiet farmland and forested areas. Trail goers can enjoy walking, bicycling, horseback riding and other non-motorized recreational uses from dawn to dusk, seven days a week throughout the year; the majority of the trail is shaded by tree cover which limits the direct sunlight in the summer months. The level and crushed limestone makes the trail suitable for walkers, joggers and horseback riding. Popular winter activities include cross-country snowshoeing. Historical significance The Conewago Recreation Trail served as the Cornwall-Lebanon Railroad. Robert H. Coleman, the owner of the Cornwall Iron Furnace at the time, built the line in 1883.

The railroad was built with the intention of competing with the Cornwall Railroad, served as a transportation system for heavy loads of iron, as well a way for people to travel to the popular resort owned by Coleman, Mt. Gretna. By 1910 it had up to 8 passengers a day. On the Pennsylvania Railroad purchased the railroad line from Coleman. After Hurricane Agnes destroyed the tracks in 1972, the railroad line was left abandoned and untouched until 1979, when it was acquired and restored by the County of Lancaster, it is now maintained by the Lancaster County Department of Parks and Recreation. Trail’s history and evolution The Lancaster County Department of Parks and Recreation purchased the portion of the Cornwall-Lebanon Railroad that runs from Route 230 to the Lancaster/Lebanon County line in 1979 for $50,000, developed the land into the Conewago Recreation Trail; the trail underwent great renovations in 2006 at a price of $560,420, getting 50% in funding support from the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.

The trail itself runs 5.0 miles, but connects at its northeastern terminus to the Lebanon Valley Rail Trail, 15.0 miles in length. Design and Construction The Conewago Recreation Trail is just over 5.0 miles in length and no wider than 8 feet. The crushed stone and level surface make it wheelchair accessible excluding the intersection crossing at Mill Road. While the trail is handicap inaccessible at the Mill Road crossing intersection, from this point in either direction the trail remains handicap accessible; the Path is suitable for a number of activities such as, running, cross-country skiing, horseback riding. It is a scenic route, as it runs alongside the Conewago Creek for majority of the way, goes through the Lancaster County farmland; as the trail comes to an end the surface changes, it connects into the Lebanon Valley Rail Trail, marked with signs. Trail Amenities There are 5 different parking locations throughout the Conewago Recreation Trail; the trail has six street crossings of which all have well marked signs that make it safe for trail use.

The Rails to Trails Bike Shop located on the trail serves multiple purposes as people can go there for bike malfunctions, to buy new equipment, or ask a question with regard to the trail. A limited number of benches can be observed on the trail, the majority of the trail is surrounded by trees which provides shade on a hot day. Distance markers are located at every half mile. Trail Ownership The Conewago Recreation Trail is managed and maintained by the Lancaster County Department of Parks and Recreation; the Department of Parks and Recreation is a division of the Lancaster County Government. Among other obligations, the Department of Parks and Recreation is responsible for the county’s land and water assets dedicated to recreation; these locations hold value and significance to the community in regard to their various historical and ecological values. Maintenance and Preservation The Lancaster Department of Parks and Recreation is responsible for all work and maintenance on the trail, as well as establishing trail regulations aimed to preserve the trail.

Current rules as posted of the Lancaster County Department of Parks and Recreation in regard to the Conewago Recreation Trail include. Enjoy the trail from dawn to dusk The trail is designed for non-motorized vehicles Alcoholic beverages are prohibited Leave No Trace: carry out what you carry in Pets are permitted, but must be kept on a leash Remove all horse/pet waste from the trail Ride your horse at a walking pace Walk/ride single file past other trail users Keep right, announce your intent, pass with care Discharging firearms from or across trail is prohibited Please stay on designated trail Special events Various events are held on the Conewago Recreation Trail each year to promote and take advantage of the numerous benefits it bring to the community; the vast majority of events are hosted in coordination with the Lebanon Valley Rail Trail to take advantage of entire length of the combined trails. Previous events include biking and other activities organized by: • Sierra Club - Lancaster GroupLebanon Valley Hiking Club • Harrisburg Bicycle Club • Rails to Trails Bicycle Shop Lancaster County Department of Parks and Recreation Rails to Trails Conservancy - Northeast Region Conewago Recreation Trail Map

Melanie Sanford

Melanie Sarah Sanford is an American chemist, who works at the University of Michigan, where she holds the positions of Moses Gomberg Collegiate Professor of Chemistry and Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Chemistry. Sanford grew up in Providence, Rhode Island, she attended Classical High School. She graduated from Yale University with a BS and MS in Chemistry in 1996, having carried out research with Robert H. Crabtree, while competing for the Yale Gymnastics NCAA team, she graduated from the California Institute of Technology with a Ph. D. in 2001, where she studied Chemistry with Robert H. Grubbs, she did postdoctoral work at Princeton University. Sanford began her academic career as an Assistant Professor at the University of Michigan in 2003, she was promoted to Associate Professor with tenure in 2007 and Full Professor in 2013. Sanford is best known for her studies of high-valent organopalladium species those implicated in Pd-catalyzed C–H functionalization reactions, her group has developed new methods to access fluorinated and radiofluorinated materials for agrochemicals and radiology.

In a collaboration with Matthew Sigman at the University of Utah her group has designed new compounds for use in redox flow batteries. Sanford has received numerous awards and honors including but not limited to: Herbert Newby McCoy Award for Graduate Research Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation New Faculty Award Beckman Young Investigator Award Boehringer Ingelheim New Investigator Award in Organic Synthesis Eli Lilly Grantee Award National Science Foundation CAREER Award Research Corporation Cottrell Scholar Award AstraZeneca Excellence in Chemistry Award Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers GlaxoSmithKline Chemistry Scholars Award Roche Excellence in Chemistry Award ACS Arthur C. Cope Scholar Award BASF Catalysis Award LSA Excellence in Teaching Award John Dewey Award for Undergraduate Education National Fresenius Award Arthur F. Thurnau Professorship ACS Award in Pure Chemistry Royal Society of Chemistry Fluorine Prize MacArthur Fellowship Classical High School Distinguished Alumni Award Moses Gomberg Collegiate Chair Thieme IUPAC Prize ACS Ipatieff Prize Tetrahedron Young Investigator Award in Synthetic Chemistry Sackler Prize in Chemistry ACS Sierra Nevada Section: Distinguished Chemist Award UM Faculty Recognition Award OMCOS Award SABIC Young Catalysis Investigator Award Elected Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences Elected Member, National Academy of Sciences Distinguished University Professor ACS Fellow Blavatnik Award She is a Fellow for the American Association for the Advancement of Science, was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2016.

Ferguson, D. M.. Lee, S. J.. Chem. Int. Ed. 2019, ASAP Article. Yang, L.. Chem. Lett. 2018, 9, 1274–1279. Malapit, C. A.. Aguilera, E. Y.. Mantell, M.. "Improved Synthesis of 2 Complexes," Organometallics 2018, 37, 3240–3242. Schimler, S. D.. Chem. 2018 83, 11178–11190. Cabrera, P. J.. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 5599–5606. Makaravage, K. J.. Lett. 2018, 20, 1530–1533. Hendricks, K. H.. Sci. 2018, 4, 189–196. James, B. R.. 2018, 8, 2132–2137. Topczewski, J. T.. Cook, A. K.. Camasso, N. M.. Hickman, A. J..