Nicolas Clément known as Mr. Nicolas Calorie, was a French physicist and chemist. Known as Nicolas Clément-Desormes, he was born in Dijon, he was a colleague of Charles Desormes. The two chemists are credited with determining an accurate value of gamma in the gas law that relates the heat capacity of air when expanded at constant pressure vs. constant temperature. They conducted research on iodine and played a role in determining that it was an element; this research led others to invent the process of photography, Clément-Desormes is recognized as a contributor in the early history of that industry. Among their accomplishments was establishing a value for absolute zero. Clément married Desormes' daughter and adopted the family surname as Clément-Desormes known as DeCalories. Professor Clément held one of the first chairs in chemistry at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers in Paris, he taught a course in industrial chemistry that emphasized the thermodynamics of steam in relation to powering steam engines.
In about 1819, he befriended Sadi Carnot, the two men developed methods for calculating the maximum amount of energy that could be obtained from a kg of coal. Clément and Carnot understood the concept of a Mechanical equivalent of heat, developed formulae for calculating energy efficiency 20 years before Mayer and Joule's work on this subject in the 1840s. Evidence concerning the connection between Clément and Carnot is summarized in a book by the historian, Robert Fox. and in an article on the history of the calorie. Clément was the first man known to utilize the Calorie as a unit of heat; the definition was published in the journal, Le Producteur, in 1824. His calorie was a kg-calorie, his definition entered French dictionaries as early as 1842. One of his lasting influences was to help the calorie enter the international lexicon, it was defined as heating a kg of water by 1 degree C until about 1929, but was superseded when a committee of the British Academy of Sciences proposed the g-calorie as an alternate unit of energy.
This marked the beginning of "calorie confusion" because the kilocalorie had to be introduced as a unit in the m-kg-s system. Thus, the reason that U. S. food labels describe food energy in calories can be traced to Nicolas Clément-Desormes' lectures of 1819-1824. Clément-Desormes was a successful young industrialist, owner or partner in several chemical companies, including one that made sugar from beets, he was sought after as an industrial consultant. Some speculate that his sudden death was brought on by a business disagreement concerning payments that were owed to him for successful introduction of a profitable process. Gas laws Iodine Calorie Category:Thermodynamics
Wesleyan University is a private liberal arts college in Middletown, Connecticut. Founded in 1831, Wesleyan is a baccalaureate college that emphasizes undergraduate instruction in the arts and sciences, grants research master's degrees in many academic disciplines, grants PhD degrees in biology, chemistry and computer science, molecular biology and biochemistry and physics. Along with Amherst College and Williams College, Wesleyan is a member of the Little Three colleges. In the 2016 Forbes ranking of American colleges, which combines national research universities, liberal arts colleges and military academies in a single survey, Wesleyan University is ranked 9th overall. Founded under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church and with the support of prominent residents of Middletown, the now-secular university was the first institution of higher education to be named after John Wesley, the founder of Methodism. About 20 unrelated colleges and universities were subsequently named after Wesley.
Since its inception, Wesleyan University has graduated 13 Pulitzer Prize winners—including playwright and Hamilton creator Lin-Manuel Miranda—14 Rhodes Scholars, 3 Truman Scholars, 3 Guggenheim Fellows, 7 MacArthur Fellows, 156 Fulbright Scholars. Additionally, 4 Nobel Laureates have been associated with the university: T. S. Eliot, Satoshi Omura, V. S. Naipaul, US President Woodrow Wilson. Wesleyan was twice named a top producer of Fulbright scholars for the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 school years. Other prominent alumni include 34 members of United States Congress, 16 US Cabinet members, 11 US Governors, 6 US Agency directors and heads, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 companies, 2 Attorneys General of the United States. Three histories of Wesleyan have been published, Wesleyan's First Century by Carl F. Price in 1932, another in 1999, Wesleyan University, 1831–1910: Collegiate Enterprise in New England and Wesleyan University, 1910-1970, Academic Ambition and Middle-Class America, released in May 2015, both authored by David B.
Potts. Wesleyan was founded as an all-male Methodist college in 1831; the university, established as an independent institution under the auspices of the Methodist conference, was led by Willbur Fisk, its first president. Despite its name, Wesleyan was never a denominational seminary, it remained a leader in educational progress throughout its history and erected one of the earliest comprehensive science buildings devoted to undergraduate science instruction on any American college or university campus, Judd Hall. It has maintained a larger library collection than institutions comparable in size; the Wesleyan student body numbered about 300 in 1910 and had grown to 800 in 1960, the latter being a figure that Time described as "small". Although Wesleyan developed into a peer of Amherst and Williams, Wesleyan was always decidedly the smallest of the Little Three institutions until the 1970s, when it grew to become larger than the other two. In 1872, the university became one of the first U. S. colleges to attempt coeducation by allowing a small number of female students to attend, a venture known as the "Wesleyan Experiment".
"In 1909, the board of trustees voted to stop admitting women as undergraduates, fearing that the school was losing its masculine image and that women would not be able to contribute to the college financially after graduation the way men could." Given that concern, Wesleyan ceased to admit women, from 1912 to 1970 Wesleyan operated again as an all-male college. Wesleyan became independent of the Methodist church in 1937, although in 2000, the university was designated as a historic Methodist site. Beginning in the late 1950s, president Victor Lloyd Butterfield began an ambitious program to reorganize the university according to Butterfield's "College Plan" somewhat similar to Harvard's House system or Yale's colleges, where undergraduate study would be divided into seven smaller residential colleges with their own faculty and centralized graduate studies, including doctoral programs and a Center for Advanced Studies; the building program begun under this system created three residential colleges on Foss Hill and three more residential colleges.
Although the facilities were created, only four of the academic programs were begun, only two of those continue today: the College of Letters and the College of Social Studies. Fund raising proved effective and by 1960 Wesleyan had the largest endowment, per student, of any college or university in America, a student-faculty ratio of 7:1. Butterfield's successors, Edwin Deacon Etherington and Colin Goetze Campbell, completed many of the innovations begun during Butterfield's administration, including the return of women in numbers equal to men; the university and several of its admissions deans were featured in Jacques Steinberg's 2002 book The Gatekeepers: Inside The Admissions Process of a Premier College. In the fall 2007 semester, Michael S. Roth, a 1978 graduate of Wesleyan and former president of the California College of the Arts, was inaugurated as the university's 16th president. Wesleyan occupies a 360-acre campus, with over 340 buildings, including the five-building College Row.
A cheeseburger is a hamburger topped with cheese. Traditionally, the slice of cheese is placed on top of the meat patty, but the burger can include variations in structure and composition; the cheese is added to the cooking hamburger patty shortly before serving, which allows the cheese to melt. As with other hamburgers, a cheeseburger may include toppings, such as lettuce, onion, bacon, ketchup, mustard or other toppings. In fast food restaurants, the cheese used is processed cheese, but any other meltable cheeses may be used. Common examples include cheddar, mozzarella, blue Cheese, pepper jack. By the late nineteenth century, the opening of the vast grasslands of the Great Plains to cattle ranching had made it possible for many Americans to consume beef daily; the hamburger was, remains, one of the cheapest sources of beef in America. Adding cheese to hamburgers became popular in the late-1920s to mid-1930s, there are several competing claims as to who created the first cheeseburger. Lionel Sternberger is reputed to have introduced the cheeseburger in 1926 at the age of 16 when he was working as a fry cook at his father's Pasadena, California sandwich shop, "The Rite Spot", "experimentally dropped a slab of American cheese on a sizzling hamburger."An early example of the cheeseburger appearing on a menu is a 1928 menu for the Los Angeles restaurant O'Dell's which listed a cheeseburger smothered with chili for 25 cents.
Other restaurants claim to have invented the cheeseburger. For example, Kaelin's Restaurant in Louisville, said it invented the cheeseburger in 1934. One year a trademark for the name "cheeseburger" was awarded to Louis Ballast of the Humpty Dumpty Drive-In in Denver, Colorado. According to Steak'n Shake archives, the restaurant's founder, Gus Belt, applied for a trademark on the word in the 1930s; the steamed cheeseburger, a variation exclusively served in central Connecticut, is believed to have been invented at a restaurant called Jack’s Lunch in Middletown, Connecticut, in the 1930s. The largest cheeseburger made in the world weighed 2,014 pounds, "60 pounds of bacon, 50 pounds of lettuce, 50 pounds of sliced onions, 40 pounds of pickles, 40 pounds of cheese." The record was broken by Minnesota's Black Bear Casino breaking the previous Cheeseburger record 881 pounds. In the United States, National Cheeseburger Day is celebrated annually on 18 September; the ingredients used to create cheeseburgers follow similar patterns found in the regional variations of hamburgers, although most start with ground beef.
Common cheeses used for topping are American and other meltable cheeses. Popular toppings include lettuce, onion, bacon, avocado or guacamole, sliced sautéed mushrooms or onions, cheese sauce and/or chili, but the variety of possible toppings is broad. A cheeseburger may have more than one patty and/or more than one slice of cheese—it is reasonably common, but by no means automatic, for the number to increase at the same rate with cheese and meat interleaved. A stack of two or more patties follows the same basic pattern as hamburgers: with two patties will be called a double cheeseburger. Sometimes cheeseburgers are prepared with the cheese enclosed within the ground beef, rather than on top; this is sometimes known as a Jucy Lucy. Traditionally, this dish breaches the kosher laws observed by Judaism as it combines ground beef and cheese. Mixtures of milk and meat are prohibited according to Jewish religious law, following a verse in the Book of Exodus in which Jews are forbidden from "boiling a goat in its mother's milk".
This prohibition appears again in Deuteronomy. This dietary law sparked controversy in Jerusalem when McDonald's began opening franchises there that sold cheeseburgers. Since that time, McDonald's has opened both non-kosher restaurants in Israel. In an attempt to provide a "kosher cheeseburger", a kosher restaurant in New York City created a controversial cheeseburger variation which replaces cheese with soy cheese. Henerson, Evan. "The Tale of the Cheeseburger". San Gabriel Valley Tribune. Archived from the original on April 12, 2003. Nosowitz, Dan. "The Price of Cheeseburgers Has Gone Up". Modern Farmer. Retrieved February 25, 2019. Gilad, Elon. "Can Jews eat cheeseburgers after all?". Haaretz. Retrieved February 25, 2019
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon and oxygen atoms with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 and thus with the empirical formula Cmn. This formula holds true for monosaccharides; some exceptions exist. The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; the term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest carbohydrates, are referred to as sugars; the word saccharide comes from the Greek word σάκχαρον, meaning "sugar". While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides often end in the suffix -ose, as in the monosaccharides fructose and glucose and the disaccharides sucrose and lactose. Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve as structural components; the 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA.
The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, development, they are found in a wide variety of processed foods. Starch is a polysaccharide, it is abundant in cereals and processed food based on cereal flour, such as bread, pizza or pasta. Sugars appear in human diet as table sugar, lactose and fructose, both of which occur in honey, many fruits, some vegetables. Table sugar, milk, or honey are added to drinks and many prepared foods such as jam and cakes. Cellulose, a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of all plants, is one of the main components of insoluble dietary fiber. Although it is not digestible, insoluble dietary fiber helps to maintain a healthy digestive system by easing defecation. Other polysaccharides contained in dietary fiber include resistant starch and inulin, which feed some bacteria in the microbiota of the large intestine, are metabolized by these bacteria to yield short-chain fatty acids.
In scientific literature, the term "carbohydrate" has many synonyms, like "sugar", "saccharide", "ose", "glucide", "hydrate of carbon" or "polyhydroxy compounds with aldehyde or ketone". Some of these terms, specially "carbohydrate" and "sugar", are used with other meanings. In food science and in many informal contexts, the term "carbohydrate" means any food, rich in the complex carbohydrate starch or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar. In lists of nutritional information, such as the USDA National Nutrient Database, the term "carbohydrate" is used for everything other than water, fat and ethanol; this includes chemical compounds such as acetic or lactic acid, which are not considered carbohydrates. It includes dietary fiber, a carbohydrate but which does not contribute much in the way of food energy though it is included in the calculation of total food energy just as though it were a sugar. In the strict sense, "sugar" is applied for sweet, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The name "carbohydrate" was used in chemistry for any compound with the formula Cm n. Following this definition, some chemists considered formaldehyde to be the simplest carbohydrate, while others claimed that title for glycolaldehyde. Today, the term is understood in the biochemistry sense, which excludes compounds with only one or two carbons and includes many biological carbohydrates which deviate from this formula. For example, while the above representative formulas would seem to capture the known carbohydrates and abundant carbohydrates deviate from this. For example, carbohydrates display chemical groups such as: N-acetyl, carboxylic acid and deoxy modifications. Natural saccharides are built of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general formula n where n is three or more. A typical monosaccharide has the structure H–x–y–H, that is, an aldehyde or ketone with many hydroxyl groups added one on each carbon atom, not part of the aldehyde or ketone functional group. Examples of monosaccharides are glucose and glyceraldehydes.
However, some biological substances called "monosaccharides" do not conform to this formula and there are many chemicals that do conform to this formula but are not considered to be monosaccharides. The open-chain form of a monosaccharide coexists with a closed ring form where the aldehyde/ketone carbonyl group carbon and hydroxyl group react forming a hemiacetal with a new C–O–C bridge. Monosaccharides can be linked togeth
Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints. Calorimetry is performed with a calorimeter; the word calorimetry is derived from the Latin word calor, meaning heat and the Greek word μέτρον, meaning measure. Scottish physician and scientist Joseph Black, the first to recognize the distinction between heat and temperature, is said to be the founder of the science of calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry calculates heat that living organisms produce by measuring either their production of carbon dioxide and nitrogen waste, or from their consumption of oxygen. Lavoisier noted in 1780 that heat production can be predicted from oxygen consumption this way, using multiple regression; the dynamic energy budget theory explains. Heat generated by living organisms may be measured by direct calorimetry, in which the entire organism is placed inside the calorimeter for the measurement.
A used modern instrument is the differential scanning calorimeter, a device which allows thermal data to be obtained on small amounts of material. It involves heating the sample at a controlled rate and recording the heat flow either into or from the specimen. Calorimetry requires that a reference material that changes temperature have known definite thermal constitutive properties; the classical rule, recognized by Clausius and by Kelvin, is that the pressure exerted by the calorimetric material is and determined by its temperature and volume. There are many materials that do not comply with this rule, for them, the present formula of classical calorimetry does not provide an adequate account. Here the classical rule is assumed to hold for the calorimetric material being used, the propositions are mathematically written: The thermal response of the calorimetric material is described by its pressure p as the value of its constitutive function p of just the volume V and the temperature T. All increments are here required to be small.
This calculation refers to a domain of volume and temperature of the body in which no phase change occurs, there is only one phase present. An important assumption here is continuity of property relations. A different analysis is needed for phase change When a small increment of heat is gained by a calorimetric body, with small increments, δ V of its volume, δ T of its temperature, the increment of heat, δ Q, gained by the body of calorimetric material, is given by δ Q = C T δ V + C V δ T where C T denotes the latent heat with respect to volume, of the calorimetric material at constant controlled temperature T; the surroundings' pressure on the material is instrumentally adjusted to impose a chosen volume change, with initial volume V. To determine this latent heat, the volume change is the independently instrumentally varied quantity; this latent heat is not one of the used ones, but is of theoretical or conceptual interest. C V denotes the heat capacity, of the calorimetric material at fixed constant volume V, while the pressure of the material is allowed to vary with initial temperature T.
The temperature is forced to change by exposure to a suitable heat bath. It is customary to write C V as C V, or more as C V; this latent heat is one of the two used ones. The latent heat with respect to volume is the heat required for unit increment in volume at constant temperature, it can be said to be'measured along an isotherm', the pressure the material exerts is allowed to vary according to its constitutive law p = p. For a given material, it can have a positive or negative sign or exceptionally it can be zero, this can depend on the temperature, as it does for water about 4 C; the concept of latent heat with respect to volume was first recognized by Joseph Black in 1762. The term'latent heat of expansion' is used; the latent heat with respect to
Food and Agriculture Organization
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate arguments and debate policy. FAO is a source of knowledge and information, helps developing countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all, its Latin motto, fiat panis, translates as "let there be bread". As of August 2018, The FAO has 197 member states, including the European Union and The Cook Islands, the Faroe Islands and Tokelau, which are associate members; the idea of an international organization for food and agriculture emerged in the late 19th and early 20th century advanced by the US agriculturalist and activist David Lubin. In May–June 1905, an international conference was held in Rome, which led to the creation of the International Institute of Agriculture by the King of Italy Victor Emmanuel III.
In 1943, the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt called a United Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture. Representatives from forty-four governments gathered at The Homestead Resort in Hot Springs, Virginia, US, from 18 May to 3 June, they committed themselves to founding a permanent organization for food and agriculture, which happened in Quebec City, Canada, on 16 October 1945 with the conclusion of the Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization. The First Session of the FAO Conference was held in the Château Frontenac in Quebec City from 16 October to 1 November 1945. World War II ended the International Agricultural Institute, though it was only dissolved by resolution of its Permanent Committee on 27 February 1948, its functions were transferred to the established FAO. From the late 1940s on, FAO attempted to make its mark within the emerging UN system, focusing on supporting agricultural and nutrition research and providing technical assistance to member countries to boost production in agriculture and forestry.
During the 1950s and 1960s, FAO partnered with many different international organizations in development projects. In 1951, FAO's headquarters were moved from DC, United States, to Rome, Italy; the agency is directed by the Conference of Member Nations, which meets every two years to review the work carried out by the organization and to Work and Budget for the next two-year period. The Conference elects a council of 49 member states that acts as an interim governing body, the Director-General, that heads the agency. FAO is composed of eight departments: Agriculture and Consumer Protection, Biodiversity and Water Department and Social Development and Aquaculture, Corporate Services and Technical Cooperation and Programme Management. Beginning in 1994, FAO underwent the most significant restructuring since its founding, to decentralize operations, streamline procedures and reduce costs; as a result, savings of about US$50 million, €35 million a year were realized. FAO's Regular Programme budget is funded by its members, through contributions set at the FAO Conference.
This budget covers core technical work and partnerships including the Technical Cooperation Programme, knowledge exchange and advocacy, direction and administration and security. The total FAO Budget planned for 2016–2017 is USD 2.6 billion. The voluntary contributions provided by members and other partners support mechanical and emergency assistance to governments for defined purposes linked to the results framework, as well as direct support to FAO's core work; the voluntary contributions are expected to reach US$1.6 billion in 2016–2017. This overall budget covers core technical work and partnerships, leading to Food and Agriculture Outcomes at 71 per cent; the world headquarters are located in Rome, in the former seat of the Department of Italian East Africa. One of the most notable features of the building was the Axum Obelisk which stood in front of the agency seat, although just outside the territory allocated to FAO by the Italian Government, it was taken from Ethiopia by Benito Mussolini's troops in 1937 as a war chest, returned on 18 April 2005.
Regional Office for Africa, in Accra, Ghana Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, in Bangkok, Thailand Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia, in Budapest, Hungary Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, in Santiago, Chile Regional Office for the Near East, in Cairo, Egypt Sub-regional Office for Central Africa, in Libreville, Gabon Sub-regional Office for Central Asia, in Ankara, Turkey Sub-regional Office for Eastern Africa, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Sub-regional Office for Mesoamerica, in Panama City, Panama Sub-regional Office for North Africa, in Tunis, Tunisia Sub-regional Office for Southern Africa and East Africa, in Harare, Zimbabwe Sub-regional Office for the Caribbean, in Bridgetown, Barbados Sub-regional Office for the Gulf Cooperation Council States and Yemen, Abu Dhabi Sub-regional Office for the Pacific Islands, in Apia, Samoa Liaison Office for North America, in Washington, DC Liaison Office with J