A calorimeter is an object used for calorimetry, or the process of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity. Differential scanning calorimeters, isothermal micro calorimeters, titration calorimeters and accelerated rate calorimeters are among the most common types. A simple calorimeter just consists of a thermometer attached to a metal container full of water suspended above a combustion chamber, it is one of the measurement devices used in the study of thermodynamics and biochemistry. To find the enthalpy change per mole of a substance A in a reaction between two substances A and B, the substances are separately added to a calorimeter and the initial and final temperatures are noted. Multiplying the temperature change by the mass and specific heat capacities of the substances gives a value for the energy given off or absorbed during the reaction. Dividing the energy change by how many moles of A were present gives its enthalpy change of reaction.
Q = C v Where q is the amount of heat according to the change in temperature measured in joules and Cv is the heat capacity of the calorimeter, a value associated with each individual apparatus in units of energy per temperature. In 1761 Joseph Black introduced the idea of latent heat which lead to creation of the first ice-calorimeters. In 1780, Antoine Lavoisier used the heat from the guinea pig's respiration to melt snow surrounding his apparatus, showing that respiratory gas exchange is combustion, similar to a candle burning. Lavoisier dubbed this apparatus the calorimeter, based on both Latin roots. One of the first ice calorimeters was used in the winter of 1782 by Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace, which relied on the heat required to melt ice to water to measure the heat released from chemical reactions. An adiabatic calorimeter is a calorimeter used to examine a runaway reaction. Since the calorimeter runs in an adiabatic environment, any heat generated by the material sample under test causes the sample to increase in temperature, thus fueling the reaction.
No adiabatic calorimeter is adiabatic - some heat will be lost by the sample to the sample holder. A mathematical correction factor, known as the phi-factor, can be used to adjust the calorimetric result to account for these heat losses; the phi-factor is the ratio of the thermal mass of the sample and sample holder to the thermal mass of the sample alone. A reaction calorimeter is a calorimeter in which a chemical reaction is initiated within a closed insulated container. Reaction heats are measured and the total heat is obtained by integrating heatflow versus time; this is the standard used in industry to measure heats since industrial processes are engineered to run at constant temperatures. Reaction calorimetry can be used to determine maximum heat release rate for chemical process engineering and for tracking the global kinetics of reactions. There are four main methods for measuring the heat in reaction calorimeter: The cooling/heating jacket controls either the temperature of the process or the temperature of the jacket.
Heat is measured by monitoring the temperature difference between heat transfer fluid and the process fluid. In addition, fill volumes, specific heat, heat transfer coefficient have to be determined to arrive at a correct value, it is possible with this type of calorimeter to do reactions at reflux, although it is less accurate. The cooling/heating jacket controls the temperature of the process. Heat is measured by monitoring the heat lost by the heat transfer fluid. Power compensation uses a heater placed within the vessel to maintain a constant temperature; the energy supplied to this heater can be varied as reactions require and the calorimetry signal is purely derived from this electrical power. Constant flux calorimetry is derived from heat balance calorimetry and uses specialized control mechanisms to maintain a constant heat flow across the vessel wall. A bomb calorimeter is a type of constant-volume calorimeter used in measuring the heat of combustion of a particular reaction. Bomb calorimeters have to withstand the large pressure within the calorimeter as the reaction is being measured.
Electrical energy is used to ignite the fuel. When the air is escaping through the copper tube it will heat up the water outside the tube; the change in temperature of the water allows for calculating calorie content of the fuel. In more recent calorimeter designs, the whole bomb, pressurized with excess pure oxygen and containing a weighed mass of a sample and a small fixed amount of water, is submerged under a known volume of water before the charge is electrically ignited; the bomb, with the known mass of the sample and oxygen, form a closed system — no gases escape during the reaction. The weighed reactant put inside the steel container is ignited. Energy is released by the combustion and heat flow from this crosses the stainless steel wall, thus raising the temperature of the steel bomb, its contents, the surrounding water jacket; the temperature change in the water is accurately measured with a thermometer. This reading, along with a bomb factor (which is dependent on the heat capacity
Kanteerava Studios is a public film studio in Bangalore, predominantly used for the production of Kannada language movies from Kannada film industry. Rajkumar, a popular actor in Kannada cinema, was buried in the premises of the studios. In 1966 the Kanteerava Studio was launched as a joint stock company on 20 acres of land; the studio was started with the Government of Karnataka holding 93 per cent of the share capital and the remaining 7 per cent by private shareholders. Over the several decades, the studio suffered losses, as new generation of film-makers and new techniques took over the industry. In 2005, the State Government initiated a proposal to revive the studio by leashing in private firms for the maintenance; this was followed by two recommendations by the Public Sector Reforms Commission — that is, either to close down unhealthy government undertakings or to go for private partnerships to revive them. The government informed that, it was open to offer seventy four per cent maintenance-related investments to private partners, without compensating the government's authority over the decision-making.
On 13 April 2006, Kanteerava Studios, considered as a major landmark in the history of Kannada cinema, became the burial ground of Rajkumar, considered as Kannada cinema's greatest son. Dr. Rajkumar died at his home in Sadashiva Nagar, Bangalore, on 12 April 2006 following a cardiac arrest. Due to his larger than life image, the city came to a halt as the news spread about the death, his death precipitated a citywide reaction comparable to the time. Following the news of his death, Bangalore city saw violence by people claiming to be his fans; the Chief Minister H. D. Kumaraswamy claimed that the violence was instigated by vested political interests. An unofficial bandh was announced; the state government declared a statewide holiday on 13 April as a mark of respect to the departed soul, a recipient of Karnataka Ratna award. Private firms and businesses all over the city and many parts of the state remained closed due to the holiday; the body was kept at Rajkumar's home in Sadashiva Nagar. Due to the immense crowd pressure, the body was moved to Palace Grounds and later to the Sree Kanteerava Stadium.
He was laid to rest in Kanteerava Studios, on 13 April 2006. In the premises of Kanteerava Studio, the Karnataka Government is setting up a memorial for Kannada thespian Rajkumar, with the estimated cost of Rs 10 crore; the blueprint of the memorial will be constituted by a panel comprising the Rajkumar family members, representatives of the Kannada film industry and the state government. A permanent exhibition on the history of the Kannada film industry and Rajkumar's movies will be an integral part of the memorial. In the respect of Rajkumar's prolonged association with the studio, the actor's trophies and souvenirs will be put up for exhibition at the memorial; the studio, located in Nandini Layout, in the northern part of the Bangalore city, has become a pilgrim and tourist spot after the demise of Rajkumar, with thousands of fans making efforts to pay their homage to the departed soul. Rajkumar Memorial Landmark studio becomes Raj’s last resting place Rs 10 crore-memorial for Rajkumar Film industry opposed to plan for Kanteerava Studios
Amazon S3 or Amazon Simple Storage Service is a service offered by Amazon Web Services that provides object storage through a web service interface. Amazon S3 uses the same scalable storage infrastructure that Amazon.com uses to run its global e-commerce network. Amazon S3 can be employed to store any type of object which allows for uses like storage for Internet applications and recovery, disaster recovery, data archives, data lakes for analytics, hybrid cloud storage. In its service-level agreement, Amazon S3 guarantees 99.9% uptime, which works out to less than 43 minutes of downtime per month. AWS launched Amazon S3 in the United States on March 14, 2006 in Europe in November 2007. Although Amazon Web Services does not publicly provide the details of S3's technical design, Amazon S3 manages data with an object storage architecture which aims to provide scalability, high availability, low latency with 99.999999999% durability and between 99.95% to 99.99% availability. The basic storage units of Amazon S3 are objects.
Each object is identified by a user-assigned key. Buckets can be managed using either the console provided by Amazon S3, programmatically using the AWS SDK, or with the Amazon S3 REST application programming interface. Objects can be managed using the AWS SDK or with the Amazon S3 REST API and can be up to five terabytes in size with two kilobytes of metadata. Additionally, objects can be downloaded using the BitTorrent protocol. Requests are authorized using an access control list associated with each object bucket and support versioning, disabled by default. Note that since buckets are the size of an entire file system mount in other systems, this access control scheme is coarse-grained, i.e. you cannot have unique access controls associated with individual files. Bucket names and keys are chosen so that objects are addressable using HTTP URLs: http://s3.amazonaws.com/bucket/key https://s3.amazonaws.com/bucket/key http://s3-region.amazonaws.com/bucket/key https://s3-region.amazonaws.com/bucket/key http://s3.region.amazonaws.com/bucket/key https://s3.region.amazonaws.com/bucket/key http://s3.dualstack.region.amazonaws.com/bucket/key https://s3.dualstack.region.amazonaws.com/bucket/key http://bucket.s3.amazonaws.com/key http://bucket.s3-region.amazonaws.com/key http://bucket.s3.region.amazonaws.com/key http://bucket.s3.dualstack.region.amazonaws.com/key http://bucket.s3-website-region.amazonaws.com/key http://bucket.s3-website.region.amazonaws.com/key http://bucket.s3-accelerated.amazonaws.com/key http://bucket.s3-accelerated.dualstack.amazonaws.com/key http://bucket/key Amazon S3 can be used to replace significant existing web-hosting infrastructure with HTTP client accessible objects.
The Amazon AWS authentication mechanism allows the bucket owner to create an authenticated URL, valid for a specified amount of time. Every item in a bucket can be served as a BitTorrent feed; the Amazon S3 store can act as a seed host for a torrent and any BitTorrent client can retrieve the file. This can drastically reduce the bandwidth cost for the download of popular objects. While the use of BitTorrent does reduce bandwidth, AWS does not provide native bandwidth limiting and, as such, users have no access to automated cost control; this can lead to users on the free-tier of small hobby users, amassing dramatic bills. AWS representatives have stated that a bandwidth limiting feature was on the design table from 2006 to 2010, but in 2011 the feature is no longer in development. A bucket can be configured to save HTTP log information to a sibling bucket. There are various User Mode File System -based file systems for Unix-like operating systems that can be used to mount an S3 bucket as a file system such as S3QL.
The semantics of the Amazon S3 file system are not that of a POSIX file system, so the file system may not behave as expected. Amazon S3 provides the option to host static HTML websites with index document support and error document support. Websites hosted on S3 may designate a default page to display and another page to display in the event of a invalid URL, such as a 404 error, which provide useful content to visitors of a URL containing a CNAME record hostname rather than a direct Amazon S3 bucket reference when the URL does not contain a valid S3 object key, such as when a casual user visits a URL, a bare non-Amazon hostname. Amazon S3 allows users to disable logging. If enabled, the logs are stored in Amazon S3 buckets which can be analyzed; these logs contain useful information such as: Date and time of access to requested content Protocol used HTTP status codes Turnaround time HTTP request messageLogs can be analyzed and managed using third-party tools like S3Stat, Qloudstat, AWStats, Splunk.
Amazon S3 provides an API for developers. The AWS console provides tools for managing and uploading files but it is not capable of managing large buckets or editing files. Third-party websites like S3edit.com or software like Cloudberry Explorer, ForkLift and WebDrive have the capability to edit files on Amazon S3. Amazon S3 offers four different storage classes that offer