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Calorimetry

Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints. Calorimetry is performed with a calorimeter; the word calorimetry is derived from the Latin word calor, meaning heat and the Greek word μέτρον, meaning measure. Scottish physician and scientist Joseph Black, the first to recognize the distinction between heat and temperature, is said to be the founder of the science of calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry calculates heat that living organisms produce by measuring either their production of carbon dioxide and nitrogen waste, or from their consumption of oxygen. Lavoisier noted in 1780 that heat production can be predicted from oxygen consumption this way, using multiple regression; the dynamic energy budget theory explains. Heat generated by living organisms may be measured by direct calorimetry, in which the entire organism is placed inside the calorimeter for the measurement.

A used modern instrument is the differential scanning calorimeter, a device which allows thermal data to be obtained on small amounts of material. It involves heating the sample at a controlled rate and recording the heat flow either into or from the specimen. Calorimetry requires that a reference material that changes temperature have known definite thermal constitutive properties; the classical rule, recognized by Clausius and Kelvin, is that the pressure exerted by the calorimetric material is and determined by its temperature and volume. There are many materials that do not comply with this rule, for them, the present formula of classical calorimetry does not provide an adequate account. Here the classical rule is assumed to hold for the calorimetric material being used, the propositions are mathematically written: The thermal response of the calorimetric material is described by its pressure p as the value of its constitutive function p of just the volume V and the temperature T. All increments are here required to be small.

This calculation refers to a domain of volume and temperature of the body in which no phase change occurs, there is only one phase present. An important assumption here is continuity of property relations. A different analysis is needed for phase change When a small increment of heat is gained by a calorimetric body, with small increments, δ V of its volume, δ T of its temperature, the increment of heat, δ Q, gained by the body of calorimetric material, is given by δ Q = C T δ V + C V δ T where C T denotes the latent heat with respect to volume, of the calorimetric material at constant controlled temperature T; the surroundings' pressure on the material is instrumentally adjusted to impose a chosen volume change, with initial volume V. To determine this latent heat, the volume change is the independently instrumentally varied quantity; this latent heat is not one of the used ones, but is of theoretical or conceptual interest. C V denotes the heat capacity, of the calorimetric material at fixed constant volume V, while the pressure of the material is allowed to vary with initial temperature T.

The temperature is forced to change by exposure to a suitable heat bath. It is customary to write C V as C V, or more as C V; this latent heat is one of the two used ones. The latent heat with respect to volume is the heat required for unit increment in volume at constant temperature, it can be said to be'measured along an isotherm', the pressure the material exerts is allowed to vary according to its constitutive law p = p. For a given material, it can have a positive or negative sign or exceptionally it can be zero, this can depend on the temperature, as it does for water about 4 C; the concept of latent heat with respect to volume was first recognized by Joseph Black in 1762. The term'latent heat of expansion' is used; the latent heat with respect to volu

S├ęsamo

Sésamo, titled Plaza Sésamo prior to 2016, is one of the first international co-productions of the American children's television program Sesame Street. Its first season premiered in Mexico in 1972, the last season ended in 2018 during the holiday season and the 50th anniversary of Sesame Street, was a ratings hit, it aired throughout Latin America, to a potential audience of 25 million children in 34 countries. Unlike some of the earliest co-productions, which consisted of dubbed versions of Sesame Street with local language voice-overs, Sésamo was a true co-production. Half of the show was adapted from the American show, half was original material, created in Mexico by Mexican writers and producers; the first season consisted of 130 half-hour episodes. Plaza Sèsamo's development process was similar to that of the American show, its goals were developed by local experts in television, child development, early education during curriculum seminars in Caracas, Venezuela. Sésamo's goals emphasized problem solving and reasoning, included perception, symbolic representation, human diversity, the child's environment.

Other goals included community cooperation, family life, health, self-esteem, expressing emotions. Early reading skills were taught through the whole language method; the show's budget for the first and second seasons was US$1.6 million. The show's set consisted of a typical neighborhood square found throughout the region. New Muppets and human characters were created. In all, four seasons of Sésamo were filmed; the first season resulted in some of the highest ratings in Mexico. The fourth season, filmed in 1995, was broadcast in the U. S. making it the first foreign-language co-production shown in the U. S. Studies conducted after the first season of Sésamo showed that it had a demonstrable impact on the educational achievement levels of its young audience. Significant difference were found in tests about general knowledge and numbers after children were exposed to the show. Significant gains were made in several cognitive and perceptual areas by regular viewers in subjects that were not taught by the show.

Characters from the show participated in campaigns promoting nutrition. Sesame Amigos, a Sesame Workshop production for Spanish-speakers from the United States, debuted in 2015; this series aired Saturday mornings on Univision as part of their Planeta U block until October 2017 when it was replaced by Calimero. A few months after the 1969 debut of Sesame Street on PBS in the US, producers from several countries all around the world approached the Children's Television Workshop, the organization responsible for the show's production, to create and produce versions of Sesame Street in their countries. Co-creator Joan Ganz Cooney was approached by German public television officials about a year after the US version debuted. Many years Cooney recalled, "To be frank, I was surprised, because we thought we were creating the quintessential American show. We thought the Muppets were quintessentially American, it turns out they're the most international characters created", she hired former CBS executive Mike Dann, who left commercial television to become her assistant, as a CTW vice-president.

One of Dann's tasks was to field offers to produce versions of Sesame Street in other countries. By summer 1970, he had made the first international agreements for what the CTW came to call "co-productions"; as of 2006, there were 20 active co-productions. In 2000, CTW vice-president Charlotte Cole estimated that there were over 120 million viewers of all international versions of Sesame Street, by the show's 40th anniversary in 2009, they were seen in more than 140 countries. Doreen Carvajal of The New York Times reported that income from the co-productions accounted for US$96 million in 1994. Cole stated, "Children's Television Workshop can be regarded as the single largest informal educator of young children in the world". Most of the early international versions were what Cole called "fairly simple", consisting of dubbed versions of the show with local language voice-overs and instructional cutaways. Studies conducted on the effects of several co-productions found that viewers of these shows gain basic skills from watching them.

Plaza Sésamo debuted in Mexico on the Televisa network in 1972. According to Sesame Street producer Gregory J. Gettas, Plazo Sésamo was one of Sesame Street's first true co-productions, programs that were developed using a variant of a flexible model, called the CTW model, created by the producers and creators of the American show, in the countries they aired. Like the American show in the late 1960s, the producers and researchers in Mexico conducted a curriculum seminar in Caracas, Venezuela; the goals they developed, were different than the goals developed in the U. S. For example, the Plaza Sésamo team emphasized problem reasoning, their educational goals included perception, symbolic representation, human diversity, the child's environment. Other goals included community cooperation, family life, health, self-esteem, expressing emotions; the show was designed to address the educational needs of the region's 25 million children in 34 countries, including its target audience of 7 million children between the ages of 3 and 6 in Mexico alone.

Despite their common language, the show's Latin American viewers had a wide variety of c

Ernestine Rose (librarian)

Ernestine Rose was a librarian at the New York Public Library responsible for the purchase and incorporation of the Arthur A. Schomburg collection. Ernestine Rose was born on March 19, 1880, in Bridgehampton, New York, named after Ernestine Polowsky Rose, a nineteenth-century feminist, she studied at Wesleyan University and the New York State Library School in Albany, New York, where she graduated in 1904. During her study at the New York State Library School, she worked a summer at a branch of the New York Public Library on the Lower East Side during her college education where she was exposed to Russian-Jewish immigrants and their culture, she emphasized programs that would help immigrants adjust to a new country rather than programs design to "Americanize" them, as was the norm at the time. During World War I, Rose served as director of hospital libraries for the American Library Association. Returning to New York, in 1915, she served as head librarian at the Seward Park Branch, located in a Jewish immigrant community of New York City, until 1917.

At Steward Park, she encouraged her assistants to become well versed in Jewish and Russian holidays and literature, intending to make them sensitive to the surrounding community. Rose became the branch librarian at the 135th Street Branch in Harlem in 1920; the branch had opened in 1905 when the neighborhood was inhabited by middle-class Jews, but a migration of southern Blacks and South American Blacks following World War I changed the neighborhood to be a majority African-American neighborhood by the time Rose was appointed. The Harlem Renaissance of the time made Harlem a destination for black writers, artists and scholars. Rose noted that many cultural institutions weren't working with the new community and she wanted to make the library an integral part of the community that would provide guidance and promote racial pride, her first role was to integrate the library staff, hiring four new library assistants of color, starting with Catherine Allen Latimer and including Pura Belpre and Nella Larsen Imes.

She worked to encourage community groups to hold meetings and organized story hours, free public lectures, exhibitions of Black artists and sculptors and a reference collection of Black literature. In 1922, Rose worked with the ALA to organize a group of librarians to exchange ideas and discuss issues of working with African Americans. In 1924, Rose worked with Franklin F. Hopper, chief of the circulation department of the Central Branch, the National Urban League, the American Association for Adult Education to secure a combined $15,000 grant from the Rosenwald Fund and the Carnegie Corporation, they formed the Harlem Committee, whose goals were to use the funds to develop cultural and social programs within the Harlem community. They developed programs featuring well-known speakers, vocational classes through the YWCA and the Urban League. In 1926, the committee oversaw the purchase the Arthur A. Schomburg collection to incorporate into The Division of Negro Literature and History becoming the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, at the library.

The collection included "over 5,000 volume, 3,000 manuscripts, 2,000 etchings and portraits and several thousand pamphlets" showcasing the history and culture of African Americans. The grant made possible the hiring of Schomburg to head the collection. In 1933, the library worked with the Works Progress Administration to host a writers project. Rose retired from the NYPL in 1942. "Vital Distinctions of a Library Apprentice Course"Bulletin of the American Library Association, Volume 10 "Serving New York’s Black City" Library Journal p. 255–258 "Work with Negroes Round Table" Bulletin of the American Library Association, Volume 15 "Work with Negroes Round Table" Bulletin of the American Library Association, Volume 16 "The Public Library in American Life" "Rescuing Ernestine Rose: Harlem Librarian and Social Activist, by Ann Sandford" Long Island History Journal, Volume 22, Issue 2

Malekhu

Malekhu is a small town situated halfway between Kathmandu and Narayangadh. It is situated in the bank of Trishuli River, it is famous for various types of its product. Malekhu is popular for adventurous sports such as rafting, kayaking and so on, it is one of the most dangerous rafting sites of the world. It is situated near by the famous Manakamana Temple, at the distance of 30 km from the town, it is famous for hiking. The main attraction of Malekhu includes the geological researches and geological minerals present there. International as well as national Geology students get to there for geological studies, the availability of different minerals is gathered in small area in there; the larger portion of the population consists of Tripathis and Kadels

National Police Chiefs' Council

The National Police Chiefs' Council is a national coordination body for law enforcement in the United Kingdom and the representative body for British police chief officers. Established on 1 April 2015, it replaced the former Association of Chief Police Officers, following the Parker Review of the operations of ACPO; the NPCC was established on 1 April 2015 as the replacement organisation of the Association of Chief Police Officers. In 2010, the Cameron Government announced a series of police reforms including local accountability through Police and Crime Commissioners, the creation of the National Crime Agency and the College of Policing. In 2013, the PCCs commissioned General Sir Nick Parker to review the services that ACPO provided and make recommendations about the requirements of a national policing body following the fundamental changes in policing. In 2014, a group of chief officers and PCCs began working together to implement Parker's recommendations and develop a national body. Chief officers voted in support of the group's proposals in July 2014.

Chief Constable Sara Thornton was appointed to chair the NPCC on 2 December 2014. ACPO was closed down on 31 March 2015. In October 2018 the NPCC threatened to take legal action in the high court against the government's plans to cut hundreds of millions of pounds from police funding; the Treasury plans to increase the money. This would involve forces paying a £420m bill, as well as the 19% cut to police funding since 2010. Police chiefs maintain. Leaders of three of the biggest forces fear; the NPCC fears if the £420m bill is dealt with only by cutting police numbers, this will mean 10,000 fewer officers. The NPCC is founded by a legal agreement between chief constables and Crime Commissioners, non-Home Office police force equivalents under Section 22A of the Police Act 1996, it acts independently. The NPCC brings together and is funded by police forces in England and Northern Ireland as well as the armed services and some British overseas territories, it draws on the efforts and expertise of chief officers: those ranked Assistant Chief Constable and above, or Commander and above in MPS and City of London Police, senior police staff equivalents.

It coordinates police forces' collective operational responses to national threats such as terrorism, organised crime and national emergencies. The current chair of the National Police Chiefs’ Council is Martin Hewitt vice-chair. Giles York and Dave Thompson support him as Vice-chairs in addition to their day jobs as chief officers within forces; the Chief Constables' Council is the senior operational decision-making body for the National Police Chiefs' Council. Every police force is represented in the work of the NPCC through the Chief Constables' Council; the Chief Constables’ Council is the primary decision-making forum for the NPCC. Chief constables meet quarterly to agree action. Working with the College of Policing, the council takes decisions on national standards and common approaches with the aim of protecting the public from the most serious and strategic threats. In addition to their day jobs, chief officers support the NPCC's work by providing national operational perspectives on particular crime and policing issues.

There are eleven broad coordination committees, each led by a chief officer. Within each area, chief officers may lead on specific issues - for example, under the Crime Operations Coordination Committee there are individual leads for domestic abuse, rape and cyber-crime; the coordination committees cover: Crime Operations Criminal Justice Equality and Human Rights Finance Information Management International Coordination Local Policing Operations Performance Management Workforce Counter terrorism Coordination committees work with the College of Policing to assist in the development of professional practice for police officers in different areas of policing. Representatives from the Government and other stakeholders in the criminal justice system and third sector are involved in the committees’ work to include a range of perspectives; the NPCC operates and/or collaborates with the following police projects: ACRO Criminal Records Office AVCIS Vehicle Crime Intelligence Service National Ballistics Intelligence Service National Domestic Extremism and Disorder Intelligence Unit National Police Coordination Centre National Police Freedom of Information and Data Protection Unit National Wildlife Crime Unit Secured by Design UK National Counter Terrorism Policing HQ Operation Hydrant Official website

Barnim X, Duke of Pomerania

Barnim X, or according to another account Barnim XII was a duke of Pomerania and a member of the House of Griffins. He administered from the Rügenwalde district. From 1600 until his death, he ruled in Pomerania-Stettin. Barnim was the sixth child of Duke Philip I of Pomerania-Wolgast and his wife Maria of Saxony, Duchess of Pomerania. Philip was survived by five of his sons. A guardianship government was set up for all the brothers, it consisted of the Lord Chamberlain Ulrich von Schwerin as a regent and a regency council of eleven people. Barnim and his brother Ernest Louis studied from 1563 at the University of Wittenberg, where they lived until 1565 at the home of a Martin Luther, the son of the reformer Martin Luther. In Wittenberg he served as Rector in the summer semester of 1564. In 1569 government in Pomerania was reorganized. Duke Barnim IX, who had no surviving sons, abdicated in favour of his second cousins John Frederick and Barnim X. Barnim waived the co-regency and agreed with his brother that he would rule the district of Rügenwalde.

On 25 July 1569, the division of Pomerania was settled in the Treaty of Jasenitz. In 1569, a marriage with a Polish princess was planned, but this did not come about. In Rügenwalde Barnim reigned since 1569 in quiet seclusion with reasonable economy. In 1581 he married Anna Maria of a daughter of Elector John George of Brandenburg; the marriage produced no children. After John Frederick's death of in 1600 Barnim succeeded him as ruler of Pomerania-Stettin. In 1602 he moved from Rügenwalde to the capital city of Stettin. In Rügenwalde, he was succeeded by his younger brother Casimir VI. Barnim didn't enjoy governing Pomerania-Stettin. John Frederick had lived beyond his means, leaving substantial debts and districts pledged to his creditors. Barnim cut expenses, he died on 1 September 1603 in Stettin, was buried in the Castle Church in Stettin. He left no children, his widow Anna Maria died in 1618 in her Wittum in Wolin. Barnim's younger brother Casimir would have succeeded him as ruler of Pomerania-Stettin.

However, Casimir in decided favour of his older brother Bogislaw XIII, who, in turn, appointed his son Philip II as Regent. Counting the rulers of the House of Griffins has always been complicated. From ancient times there were differences; the modern interpretation of Barnim as "the tenth" results if one counts only the members of the House of Griffins, who reached adulthood. If one counts with those who deceased as a child, he would be Barnim XII; this numeral was common in older literature. House of Griffins Martin Wehrmann: Genealogy of the Pomeranian Dukes, Verlag Leon Sauniers Buchhandlung, Stettin 1937, p. 122–123. Martin Wehrmann: History of Pomerania, vol. 2, Second Edition, Verlag Friedrich Andreas Perthes, Gotha 1921