A caltrop is an area denial weapon made up of two or more sharp nails or spines arranged in such a manner that one of them always points upward from a stable base. Caltrops were part of defences that served to slow the advance of troops horses and war elephants, were effective against the soft feet of camels. In modern times, caltrops are effective; the modern name "caltrop" is derived from the Latin calcitrapa, such as in the French usage chausse-trape. The synonymous Latin word tribulus provides part of the modern Latin name of a plant called the caltrop, Tribulus terrestris, whose spiked seed case can injure feet and puncture tires; this plant can be compared to Centaurea calcitrapa, sometimes referred to as the "caltrop". A water plant with similarly-shaped spiked seeds is called Trapa natans. Caltrops were known to the Romans as tribulus or sometimes as murex ferreus, the latter meaning "jagged iron". In Ancient Greek the word "tribalos" meant three spikes, they were used in the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC.
The late Roman writer Vegetius, referring in his work De Re Militari to scythed chariots, wrote: The armed chariots used in war by Antiochus and Mithridates at first terrified the Romans, but they afterwards made a jest of them. As a chariot of this sort does not always meet with plain and level ground, the least obstruction stops it, and if one of the horses be either killed or wounded, it falls into the enemy's hands. The Roman soldiers rendered them useless chiefly by the following contrivance: at the instant the engagement began, they strewed the field of battle with caltrops, the horses that drew the chariots, running full speed on them, were infallibly destroyed. A caltrop is a device composed of four spikes or points arranged so that in whatever manner it is thrown on the ground, it rests on three and presents the fourth upright. Another example of the use of caltrops was found in Jamestown, Virginia, in the United States: Undoubtedly the most unusual weapon or military device surviving from seventeenth-century Virginia is known as a caltrop, a single example of, found at Jamestown.
It amounts to a spread iron tripod about three inches long with another leg sticking vertically upward, so that however you throw it down, one spike always sticks up.... There is no doubt that the most inscrutable Indian treading on a caltrop would be shocked into noisy comment.... The fact that only one has been found would seem to suggest that they were used little; as with all military equipment designed for European wars, the caltrop's presence in Virginia must be considered in the light of possible attacks by the Spaniards as well as assaults from the Indians. The Japanese version of the caltrop is called "makibishi". Makibishi were sharp spiked objects that were used in feudal Japan to slow pursuers and were used in the defence of samurai fortifications. Iron makibishi were called "tetsubishi", while the makibishi made from the dried seed pod of the water caltrop, or water chestnut, formed a natural type of makibashi called "tennenbishi". Both types of makibishi could penetrate the thin soles of shoes, such as the waraji sandals, which were worn in feudal Japan.
Punji sticks perform a similar role to caltrops. These are sharpened, their use in modern times targets the body and limbs of a falling victim by means of a pit or tripwire. During the Second World War, large caltrop-shaped objects made from reinforced concrete were used as anti-tank devices, although it seems that these were rare. Much more common were concrete devices called dragon's teeth, which were designed to wedge into tank treads. Large ones weighing over 1 tonne are still used defensively by the army to deny access to wheeled vehicles in camp areas; as dragon's teeth are immobile, the analogy with the caltrop is inexact. Another caltrop-like defence during World War II was the massive steel; these were used by the Germans to defend beaches at other coastal areas. Tetrapods are concrete blocks shaped like caltrops, they are used as riprap in the construction of breakwaters and other sea defences, as they have been found to let the water pass through them and interrupt natural processes less than some other defenses.
Researchers have tried to develop a caltrop-like device to deflate vehicle tires in a manner useful to law enforcement agencies or the military. During service in World War I, Australian Light Horse troops collected caltrops as keepsakes; these caltrops were either made by welding two pieces of wire together to form a four-pointed star or pouring molten steel into a mould to form a solid, seven-pointed star. The purpose of these devices was to disable horses, they were exchanged with French troops for bullets. The Australian Light Horse troops referred to them as "Horse Chestnuts". Caltrops were used extensively and during World War II; the modifications and variants produced by the Special Operations Executive and the Office of Strategic Services of the United States are still in use today within special forces and law enforcement bodies. The Germans dropped crowsfeet; these were made from two segments of sheet metal welded together into a tetrapod with four barbed points and painted in camouflage colours.
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Old LP is a 2019 album by American alternative rock band that dog. Released on October 4, 2019 by UMe; the release received positive reviews from critics. This is the first album from the band in 22 years, with lead singles "If You Just Didn’t Do It" released in August and the music video for "Just the Way" debuting two days before the album release. Songwriting started in 2012 and recording began in 2016 after the band's 2011–2012 tours and was funded in part via Kickstarter. Petra Haden declined to participate in the recordings; the release follows the 2015 single "Mean What I Say". An tape edition was released for Cassette Store Day. Old LP was met with positive reviews from critics noted at review aggregator Metacritic; this release received a weighted average score of 85 out of 100, based on six reviews. Writing for The New York Times, Jon Pareles gave the album a positive review, concluding, "The music is denser and more intricate, conjuring symphonic grandeur alongside overdriven noise; the jokes are gone.
But the band’s underlying moxie hasn’t changed." Nina Corcoran of The A. V. Club included this on a list of the staff's releases they love; the editorial staff at AllMusic Guide gave the release 4.5 out of five stars, with reviewer Heather Phares writing, "All of the time invested in the album pays off richly: Old LP shows how that dog. Has grown into their legacy" and praising the band's diversity. Maura Johnston of Pitchfork Media gave the album a 7.4 out of 10, praising the band's mix of pop sensibilities and rock performance: "Old LP works because its growth doesn’t pander to modern notions of “cool.” But the way the band re-balances the grime-vs.-grandiosity equation with each song demonstrates that when it comes to musical math, the proof matters as much as the outcome." Scott D. Elingburg of Under the Radar gave the album a 7.5 out of 10, calling it, "a steady, hard-won set of songs that unfold after many, compounded listens". For Line of Best Fit, Alex Wisgard gave the album nine out of 10, praising it for expanding the band's sound and writing that, "Old LP is so assured and confident, it’s easy to imagine another two decades of additional back catalogue we never heard".
In Paste, Ben Salmon gave the album a 7.8 and summed up his review by writing that after they pick up where they left off, "They were—and are—a band that offers a unique voice within their field, it’s wonderful to have them back". "Your Machine" – 2:58 "Just the Way" – 3:41 "Bird on a Wire" – 4:28 "Drip Drops" – 2:27 "If You Just Didn’t Do It" – 3:40 "When We Were Young" – 4:18 "Alone Again" – 3:01 "Down Without a Fight" – 2:54 "Never Want to See Your Face Again" – 3:47 "Least I Could Do" – 4:27 "Old LP" – 4:22 that dog. Rachel Haden – bass guitar, vocals Tony Maxwell – drums Anna Waronker – guitar, vocalsAdditional personnel Lauren Baba – viola on "Old LP" Melia Badalian – French horn on "Old LP" Erin Barnes – bass drum on "Old LP" Gordon Bash – contrabass on "Old LP" Charlotte Caffey Paul Cartwright – violin on "Old LP" Elizabeth Chorley – violin on "Old LP" Rob Covacevich – flute on "Old LP" Graham Coxon – guitar on "Never Want to See Your Face Again" Andrew Dost Brandon Encinas – viola on "Old LP" Sean Franz – clarinet on "Old LP" Steve Gregoropolous – conductor on "Old LP" Tanya Haden Leah Harmon – accordion on "Old LP" Erik Hughes – trombone on "Old LP" Josh Klinghoffer – piano and keyboard on "Never Want to See Your Face Again" Petri Korpela – timpani on "Old LP" Nate Laguzza – cymbals on "Old LP" Danny Levin – flugel horn on "Old LP" Luis Mascaro – violin on "Old LP" Bianca McClure – violin on "Old LP" Steve McDonald – mixing Fuzzbee Morse – flute on "Old LP" Randy Newman – arrangement on "Old LP" Kate Nockels – bassoon on "Old LP" Ken Oak – cello on "Old LP" Corrine Olsen – viola on "Old LP" Neil Rosengarden – French horn on "Old LP" Maya Rudolph – vocals Jacob Szekely – cello on "Old LP" Andres Trujillo – tuba on "Old LP" Joey Waronker – drums on "Old LP" Kaitlin Wolfberg – violin on "Drop Drops" and "Old LP" Chick Wolverton – guitar on "Bird on a Wire" List of 2019 albums Stream of album with commentary Mini-documentary on making the album Old LP at MusicBrainz Old LP at Discogs
St Barbara's Church is a redundant Anglican church in the village of Haceby, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building, is under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust; the church is situated some 8 miles to the east of Grantham, about 1 mile south of the A52 road. It has a double dedication to Saint Margaret; the church dates from the 12th century, with additions and alterations in each of the following four centuries. A partial restoration took place in 1890, a further restoration in 1924; the village of Haceby is mentioned in the Domesday Book, was once a thriving community, but it has shrunk in size and now consists of a few cottages, a farm and the church. The church was declared redundant in October 1973; the church is constructed in limestone with tiled roofs. Its plan consists of a nave with a clerestory, a south aisle, a south porch, a chancel, a west tower; the tower is in three stages with a plain parapet. The lower two are constructed in rubble.
There are round-headed windows in the bottom stage on the west side, in the middle stage on the south. The top stage contains two-light louvred bell openings with ogee quatrefoils on each side; the north wall of the nave contains a blocked doorway. In the north wall of the chancel is a 13th-century lancet window; the east window in the chancel dates from the 16th century, has three lights, in the south wall are a two-light window containing Y-tracery and a lancet window. The south aisle has three-light Perpendicular windows in the south walls; the 14th-century south porch is gabled, contains benches on its sides. In the clerestory are two three-light windows on the south side, a single similar window on the north; the 13th-century south arcade has two bays carried on octagonal piers. The tower arch has traces of red paint; the chancel arch dates from the 11th century, is in Norman style with a round arch. Above the arch are the painted Royal arms of Queen Anne, under which are traces of a medieval Doom or Harrowing of Hell painting.
The chancel contains aumbries on south sides. The octagonal font dates from the 14th century; the oak pulpit and panelling in the nave and chancel are from the 18th century. List of churches preserved by the Churches Conservation Trust in the East of England Media related to St Margaret and St Barbara, Haceby at Wikimedia Commons