Calw is a town in the middle of Baden-Württemberg in the south of Germany and largest town of the district Calw. It is located in the Northern Black Forest and is 18 km south of Pforzheim and 33 km west of Stuttgart, it has the status of a große Kreisstadt. Calw is located in the valley of the Nagold in the Northern Black Forest at an altitude between 330 and 630 metres above sea level; the historic centre lies west of the river. The newer parts of town have developed on the surrounding slopes; the following streams exist within the town: the Tälesbach, Wurstbrunnenbach, Schießbach, Schlittenbach und Schweinbach. In the northern part of the town, on the western slope of the Nagold valley is the cave known as the Bruderhöhle; the following towns and communities border on the town of Calw: Bad Liebenzell, Gechingen, Neubulach, Bad Teinach-Zavelstein, Bad Wildbad and Oberreichenbach. Calw has 13 subdivisions known as Stadtteile: Altburg, Speßhardt, Weltenschwann, Alzenberg, Wimberg, Ernstmühl, Holzbronn und Stammheim.
The subdivision known as Calw corresponds to the historic town centre. The following subdivisions are centered on historic villages: Altburg, Hirsau and Stammheim. Calw was first mentioned in records in 1037. In the 11th century, the town grew around the older castle of the Grafen of Calw. In the Middle Ages, Calw was an important commercial town in the cloth and leather trades. In 1345, Calw became part of Württemberg, by the 16th century, it had become the summer residence of the Dukes of Württemberg. In the 18th century, Calw flourished from the lumber trade and rafting of timber on the river Nagold. In 1945, a small subcamp of Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp, where parts for aircraft were assembled by female Jewish forced laborers, was located here; the most prominent resident of Calw was Nobel prize winner Hermann Hesse. The district reform of 1 January 1973 gave the district of Calw its current size, it became a part of the newly founded Northern Black Forest Region, which itself was assigned to the administrative region of Karlsruhe.
On 1 January 1975, Calw was combined with the communities of Altburg and Stammheim into the town of Calw-Hirsau. On 1 January 1976, the combined municipality was renamed as Calw. Calw was part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Speyer. From 1534, in Calw as in the rest of the Duchy of Württemberg, the Reformation took force. In 1555, Calw became the seat of a deanery; the Deanery of Calw encompasses 43 congregations of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg. In the town of Calw there is the greater congregation of Calw, comprising the town-centre congregation, the Bergkirche congregation of Wimberg/Alzenberg, the Versöhnungskirche congregation of Heumaden, of which the last two did came into existence only after the arrival of Heimatvertriebene after World War II. There are congregations in the villages of Altburg, Holzbronn und Stammheim. There is a congregation of the United Methodist Church, an independent Protestant church, in Calw. In the 19th century, Catholics returned to Calw. In 1885–1886, they founded the parish of St. Josef, which became the seat of a deanery within the diocese of Rottenburg.
The parish of St. Josef covers the entire territory of the town as well as several surrounding communities; the New Apostolic Church is represented in Calw and in the villages or hamlets of Heumaden, and. A congregation of Seventh-day Adventists was founded in Calw in 1914. Populations within the town limits of Calw. Furthermore, the Lord Mayor acts as the chairperson of the council, on which he or she has a vote; the municipal election of 25 May 2014 yielded these results: By the 15th century Calw had an electoral system that chose a new mayor every two years. Proof exists for a council as far back as 1453. Since its elevation to the rank of a große Kreisstadt in 1976, the mayor has carried the title of Oberbürgermeister. An elected deputy mayor carries the title Bürgermeister; the coat of arms of the town of Calw shows a red lion with a blue tongue and blue crown standing atop a blue hill with three ridges, all against a golden background. The town flag is red-gold; the lion on the three-ridged hill is the coat of arms of the counts of Calw, the former lords of the town.
The coat of arms has been used for centuries and was reapproved for use by the state government when the town was expanded in 1976. More than 8,000 people are employed in Calw, of which more than 5,200 work in the service sector and around 2,700 in the goods-producing sector. Calw is served by Bundesstraßen 295, 296 und 463. Climbing out of the Nagold valley toward Stuttgart, Bundesstraße 296 has two lanes; this 2.7 km section thereby makes it possible to pass slower vehicles in two switchbacks. The Nagold Valley Railway, which runs from Pforzheim to Hochdorf in Nagold, has two stops in Calw: the new Calw Station, adjacent to the central bus station, as well as a stop in Hirsau
The Sixth Party System is the era in United States politics following the Fifth Party System. As with any periodization, opinions differ on when the Sixth Party System may have begun, with suggested dates ranging from the 1960s to the 1990s. In Parties and Elections in America: The Electoral Process, authors L. Sandy Maisel and Mark D. Brewer argue that the consensus among experts is that the Sixth System is underway based on American electoral politics since the 1960s: Although most in the field now believe we are in a sixth party system, there is a fair amount of disagreement about how we arrived at this new system and about its particular contours. Scholars do, agree that there has been significant change in American electoral politics since the 1960s; the Sixth Party System is characterized by an electoral shift from the electoral coalitions of the Fifth Party System during the New Deal: the Republican Party became the dominant party in the South, rural areas, suburbs. A critical factor was the major transformation of the political system in the Reagan Era of the 1980s and beyond.
According to the 2017 edition of The Logic of American Politics, "a sixth party system is now in place." Although the precise starting date is a matter of debate, "the most salient difference between the current and New Deal party systems is the Republican Party's increased strength, exemplified by 20 majorities in the house and senate in six straight elections, unprecedented since the fourth party system, retaking of the House and 2010 and the Senate in 2014...and its sweeping national victory in 2016."However, no clear disciplinary consensus has emerged pinpointing an electoral event responsible for shifting presidential and congressional control since the Great Depression of the 1930s, when the Fifth Party System emerged. Much of the work published on the subject has come from political scientists explaining the events of their time either as the imminent breakup of the Fifth Party System, the installation of a new one. Other current writing on the Fifth Party System expresses admiration of its longevity: the first four systems lasted about 30 to 40 years each, which would have implied that the early twenty-first century should see a Seventh Party System.
Previous party systems ended with the dominant party losing two consecutive House elections by large margins, losing a presidential election coinciding with or following the second House election—decisive electoral evidence of political realignment. Such a shift took place between 2006 and 2008 in favor of the Democrats, but the Republicans won the elections of 2010 by their biggest landslide since 1946 and finished the 2014 elections with their greatest number of House seats since 1928. Opinions on when the Sixth Party System began include the following: The elections of 1966 to 1968. Political scientist Stephen C. Craig argues for the 1972 elections, when Richard Nixon won a 49-state landslide, he notes that, "There seems to be consensus on the appropriate name for the sixth party system... Changes that occurred during the 1960s were so great and so pervasive that they cry out to be called a critical-election period; the new system of candidate-centered parties is so distinct and so portentous that one can no longer deny its existence or its character."The Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History dates the start in 1980, with the election of Reagan and a Republican Senate.
Arthur Paulson argues, "Whether electoral change since the 1960s is called “realignment” or not, the “sixth party system” emerged between 1964 and 1972." One possible explanation for the lack of an agreed-upon beginning of the Sixth Party System is that there was a brief period of dealignment preceding it. Dealignment is a trend or process whereby a large portion of the electorate abandons its previous partisan affiliation without developing a new one to replace it. Ronald Inglehart and Avram Hochstein identify the time period of the American dealignment as 1958 to 1968. Although the dealignment interpretation remains the consensus view among scholars, a few political scientists argue that partisanship remained so powerful that dealignment was much exaggerated. Harris and Tichenor argue: At the level of issues, the sixth party system was characterized by clashes over what rights to extend to various groups in society; the initial manifestations of these clashes were race-based school desegregation and affirmative action, but women's issues abortion rights, soon gained equal billing...
To these were added in the 1980s environmental defense and in the 1990s gay rights."New voter coalitions included the emergence of the "religious right"—a combination of traditionalist Roman Catholics and Evangelical Protestants united on opposition to abortion and gay marriage. Southern white voters started voting for Republican presidential candidates in the 1960s, Republican state and local candidates in the 1990s; the Sixth Party System saw major new rule changes involved campaign financing, which allowed large sums to be raised. Citizens United v. FEC was a major Supreme Court decision that opened the floodgates for large-scale spending on politics by corporations, labor unions and rich individuals using "Super PACS". Two years before the decision, the presidential election of 2008 saw spending independent of the parties of $144 million. Two years after that, in the presidential election of 2012, independent spending had soared to over $1 bi
Georg Haupt was a Swedish cabinet maker. Haupt was the son of a Nuremberg carpenter and learnt his trade as an apprentice of Johan Conrad Eckstein in Stockholm, after which he travelled as a journeyman to Amsterdam and London, he became cabinetmaker to King Adolphus Frederick in 1769 and a master carpenter and burgess in Stockholm in 1770 and 1771, respectively. Haupt learnt his trade during a period when the French rococo had established itself in Swedish furniture design, but came to Paris in 1764, when the neoclassical style known under the name of Louis XVI had started to gain ground. Details of his life in Paris are scarce but he was employed in the workshop of Simon Oeben, the brother of the better-known Jean-François Oeben, he had come to London at some point before early February 1768, may have been independently active as a cabinetmaker—a possibility thanks to the more liberal trade regulations in England—and remained there until July 1769, when his appointment as cabinetmaker to the King prompted him to return to Stockholm.
His first royal commission was to be a desk intended as a gift for the Queen. After some pressure from the King, the Stockholm carpentry guild allowed him to use the completed piece to qualify as a master though there were Stockholm journeymen older than him waiting for their turn. Having been allowed into the Guild in 1770, he became a burgess in Stockholm the following year, establishing a workshop in rented premises at Trumpetarbacken, which during the following years would employ three and four journeymen and a few apprentices and produce furniture for the royal court and the Swedish social and economic elite, his reputation increased after his finishing of a mineral cabinet for the Prince of Condé. Haupt's style was characterized by detailed intarsia combining different woods of varying colour and structure. Though Haupt's own furniture never reached outside the elite that could afford his prices, his style was popularized by a number of contemporaries and his influence on Swedish furniture making was great during his own lifetime.
Soon after his sudden death from a stroke in 1784, fashion moved towards a more simplified style. After his death, his widow, Sara Catharina Thuring, continued to run the workshop until she remarried one of her husband's former journeymen, Gustaf Adolf Ditzinger, who had at that point become a master. References SourcesLagerquist, Marshall: "Haupt, Georg", Svenskt biografiskt lexikon, Vol. 18, pp. 349–352
WCCG is an American radio station licensed to broadcast to Hope Mills, North Carolina on FM frequency of 104.5 MHz with 5,000 kW of power, serving the Fayetteville, North Carolina area. The station is programmed with a Mainstream Urban music format and carries the Rickey Smiley Morning Show, it is locally owned and operated by Dr. James E. Carson, d.b.a. Carson Communications, its studios are located in downtown Fayetteville, just less than one block south of Market House, its transmitter is located east of Hope Mills. The 104.5 frequency was allocated in 1986. Among the applicants were John Dawson of WQSM. Dr. James Carson, a former Fayetteville State University vice chancellor, applied with the FCC in 1987 and was awarded a construction permit three years later. On April 16, 1997, WCCG signed on with commercial-free classical music performed on a piano; the station was not yet at full power."The Vibe" began broadcasting at 6000 watts June 19, 1997 with "Love and Happiness" by Al Green. The format was classic R&B with such artists as Marvin Gaye, the Supremes, the Shirelles, Brook Benton, Wilbert Harrison, Rick James, Ruth Brown, James Brown, Ike and Tina Turner.
Ron Scurry was morning host, Tracey Vee, another DJ, went by the name "TV on Your Radio." WFLB was the area's other oldies station. On November 13, 2000, The Vibe stopped playing older music except on Saturdays, switching to a mix of current R&B and 80s and 90s hits but no rap, intending to reach a younger audience. B. B. Holland, "Bam-Bam" from WRCQ, became the new host of "Wake Up Shake Up." Sonny Pagan of WKQB, was the new operations manager. The change gave The Vibe its best ratings ever. In October 2002, WCCG played James Brown's "The Payback" for several days, leading to rumors of a format change. One woman nearly called 911. Although Carson denied any change was coming, WCCG was soon calling itself "Hot 104.5" and playing more rap. In 2005, WCCG dropped the morning show "240 Degrees of Therapy" and replaced it first with music and with Steve Harvey. Jose "Chico" Vargas hosted a Spanish language show, "Caliente 104.5," on WCCG during 2003 but was fired for offensive comments about a woman he considered a friend.
Spanish-language programming returned on Sunday afternoons August 20, 2006, with "Domingo Tropical," including news, salsa and Latin jazz. Afternoon host Vic Frost was replaced with Michael Baisden, the station dropped its old school rap programming for a younger audience. WCCG promotes Production Manager, Kalim Hasan to Program Director in 2006, becoming the youngest Urban AC Program Director in the South Eastern US. Under the direction of Kalim Hasan, WCCG has gravitated to a larger younger listening audience, 24-hour live on-air jocks and mix shows, a more diverse play list including new music by artists such as. O. B, Roscoe Dash, Drumma Boy, French Montana, more. WCCG began playing Old School Rap music on September 21, 2009. After that it play Hip Hop and R&B and in 2011 they switched their name WCCG FM 104.5 "The Hip Hop Station" and picked up Big Bruce in the morning for 2 years in 2011 WCCG began playing the Rickey Smiley Morning Show. WCCG launches the largest FREE community Hip Hop and R&B concert in Fayetteville, North Carolina, held every 4th Friday of July, every year since 2004: dubbed, "The Soul Summer Music Festival in 2009" - Then changed the title of the concert to "The Summer Music Festival in 2010" Official Website Query the FCC's FM station database for WCCG Radio-Locator information on WCCG Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WCCG
The North Frisian Islands are the Frisian Islands off the coast of North Frisia. The term covers both the North Frisian Islands in the narrow sense and the Danish Wadden Sea Islands; however and linguistically, the Danish islands are not reckoned as being part of North Frisia, since they are not inhabited by native speakers of the North Frisian language. The remote island of Heligoland is included in this group for reasons of administrative convenience, despite not being located in the Wadden Sea, since the island is home to its own unique dialect of Frisian. After the Frisian and Danish colonisation of the islands in the 8th century, the Frisian-populated hundreds became the Uthlande; the North Frisians in the Uthlande were ruled directly by the Danish king and were known as Königsfriesen or "King's Frisians". Only did the Uthlande transfer to the Duchy of Schleswig, with the exception of small Danish royal enclaves. Part of Rømø was ruled by the Schleswig duke. After the German-Danish wars, the islands from Nordstrand to Rømø became Prussian in 1866.
After the referendum in 1920, the current border between the islands of Sylt and Rømø was fixed. A good and thorough overview of the life, languages and customs of the island Frisians is portrayed by the Carl Haeberlin Frisian Museum in Wyk auf Föhr. There are ten tiny islets; the names of the large islands are Sylt, Föhr, Pellworm. The islets are called Halligen. In medieval times the present-day peninsula Nordstrand and Pellworm as well as the Halligen were part of the large island of Strand; this island was torn to pieces in a disastrous storm tide in 1634. Sylt is the largest of the North Frisian Islands, consisting of about 100 km², it is accessible by a causeway called the Hindenburgdamm. In the summer months the island is crowded with tourists, including those who have a preference for nudism. Sylt's image is that of a meeting point for the jet-set; the main town on the island is Westerland. The northern end of Sylt, the Ellenbogen, is Germany's northernmost point. Lager Sylt, the Nazi concentration camp on Alderney, was named after the island.
Compared with Sylt, Föhr is a silent island. Its area is 82 km². Sixteen old hamlets are scattered over the island, some of which existed in the 13th century; the main town is Wyk on the south eastern shore. Wyk is a popular German seaside resort. There is no bridge or causeway connecting Föhr and the mainland, so ferries are the only connection; the ferry port, the harbour and Föhr marina are in Wyk. Amrum is only 20 km ²; the western half of the island features 1 km in width. The villages are situated with Wittdün being the most important of them. Pellworm and the peninsula of Nordstrand are the remains of the submerged island of Strand; the main town of this sunken island was Rungholt, thought to be the largest town in the surrounding area, but it was destroyed and submerged by a storm in 1362, 272 years before another storm destroyed Strand itself. Nordstrand has an area of 49 km², Pellworm 37 km². Smaller remains of Strand are the ten islets called Halligen; the houses on these tiny islets are built on artificial hills.
In a storm tide only these hills rise above the sea. The names of the Halligen are Nordmarsch-Langeness, Norderoog, Süderoog, Nordstrandischmoor, Oland, Südfall, Gröde-Appelland, Hooge and the Hamburger Hallig. West off the Halligen, three drying sand banks form the so-called North Frisian Barrier Islands: Japsand, Norderoogsand and Süderoogsand. Frisia German Bight List of islands of Denmark List of islands of Germany Wernicke, Klaus. Nordfriesische Inseln und Halligen. Neumünster: Karl Wachholtz Verlag. ISBN 3-529-05505-0. Eckert, Gerhard. Nordfriesische Inseln und Küstenbadeorte. Frankfurt am Main: Umschau Verlag. ISBN 3-524-00299-4. Am Zehnhoff, Albert. Sylt, Amrum, Föhr, Pellworm, Nordstrand und Halligen. Natur und Kultur auf Helgoland und den Nordfriesischen Inseln. Entdeckungsreisen durch eine Landschaft zwischen Meer und Festlandküste. Cologne: DuMont. ISBN 3-7701-1093-5. Koehn, Henry. Die Nordfriesischen Inseln. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-000564-6. Koehn, Henry. Die Nordfriesischen Inseln.
Die Entwicklung ihrer Landschaft und die. Hamburg: Walter de Gruyter. Zeisse, O.. Beiträge zur Geologie der Nordfriesischen Inseln. ISBN 3-86031-121-2. Weigelt, G.. Die nordfriesischen Inseln vormals und jetzt. Eine Skizze des Landes und seiner Bewohner. Hamburg: Meissner. Kunz, Harry. Die Köge Nordfrieslands [Th
The 2010 FxPro Cyprus Rally, was the 12th round of the 2010 Intercontinental Rally Challenge season. The fourteen stage mixed surface rally took place over 4–6 November 2010; as well as being the final round of the IRC, the event formed the penultimate round of the 2010 Middle East Rally Championship. The rally, based in Limassol, had a 2.45 km all-asphalt Super Special Stage, purpose-built at Limassol's extensive port facilities being run twice during the event. With both the drivers and manufacturers titles decided none of the top competitors in the IRC made the trip to the event. Andreas Mikkelsen, seventh in the championship heading into the event, was the highest placed driver to take part. Other IRC regulars included Burcu Çetinkaya. Nasser Al-Attiyah headed the field of drivers competing in the MERC; the official website for the rally The official website of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge