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Calydon

Calydon or Kalydon was a Greek city in ancient Aetolia, situated on the west bank of the river Evenus, 7.5 Roman miles from the sea. Its name is most famous today for the Calydonian Boar that had to be overcome by heroes of the Olympian age. According to Greek mythology, Calydon was founded by Aetolus in the land of the Curetes, was called Calydon, after the name of his son, Calydon. Calydon and the neighbouring town of Pleuron are said by Strabo to have been once the "ornament" of Greece, but by his time had sunk into insignificance, it is mentioned in the Iliad by Homer, who celebrates the fertility of the plain of "lovely" Calydon. In the earliest times the inhabitants of Calydon appear to have been engaged in incessant hostilities with the Curetes, who continued to reside in their ancient capital Pleuron, who endeavoured to expel the invaders from their country. A vivid account of one of the battles between the Curetes and Calydonians is given in an episode of the Iliad; the heroes of Calydon are among the most celebrated of the heroic age.

It was the residence of Oeneus, father of Tydeus and Meleager, grandfather of Diomedes. In the time of Oeneus Artemis sent a monstrous boar to lay waste the fields of Calydon, hunted by Meleager and numerous other heroes; the Calydonians took part in the Trojan War under the son of Oeneus. Calydon is not mentioned in the historical period. In 391 BC we find it in the possession of the Achaeans, but we are not told how it came into their hands. In the above-mentioned year the Achaeans at Calydon, were so hard pressed by the Acarnanians that they applied to the Lacedaemonians for help. Calydon remained in the hands of the Achaeans till the overthrow of the Spartan supremacy by the Battle of Leuctra, when Epaminondas restored the town to the Aetolians. In the civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey it still appears as a considerable place, it continues however to be mentioned by the geographers. Calydon was the headquarters of the worship of Artemis Laphria, when the inhabitants of the town were removed to Nicopolis, Augustus gave to Patrae in Achaea the statue of this goddess which had belonged to Calydon.

There was a statue of Dionysus at Patrae, removed from Calydon. Near Calydon there was a temple of Apollo Laphrius, its site is located north of the modern Evinochori. One of the four tunnels Motorway 5 consists of crosses near the ruins of Calydon and is named the Calydon Tunnel after it. Previous and more recent excavations have revealed many buildings including: the Hellenistic theatre of an unusual square plan the Hellenistic Heroon with a rich tomb underneath the Heroon the Artemis Laphria sanctuary with the temple of Artemis, smaller temple of Apollo, remains of other buildings spanning the Geometric to the Hellenistic period the Lower Acropolis where excavations were carried out uncovering a house from the 2nd cent BC the Lower Town where a peristyle house and kilns were found Many finds from the site including ancient terracottas from the temple of Artemis are exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Agrinion and in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Calydonian Boar Oeneus Meleagros This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed..

"Calydon". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray

National Council of the Congregational Churches of the United States

The National Council of Congregational Churches of the United States was a mainline Protestant, Christian denomination in the United States. It was established in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1865 and existed until 1931. In 1928, there were 5,497 Congregational churches in the U. S. with a membership of 939,130. These churches were served by 5,648 ministers; the Congregational churches originated from the Puritans of colonial New England. Congregationalists were traditionally Calvinists committed to congregational polity, from which the denomination took its name. In 1931, the Congregationalists merged with the Christian Connection to form the Congregational Christian Churches; the National Council is a predecessor body to several American denominations, including the United Church of Christ, the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches, the Conservative Congregational Christian Conference. American Congregationalism grew out of the Puritan migration to New England in the 17th century.

The Congregational church was the established church of Connecticut until 1818 and Massachusetts until 1833. The Puritans and their Congregationalist descendants had much in common with Presbyterians. Both denominations shared a Reformed theology. In this, Congregationalists were similar to Baptists, but where Baptists practiced believers baptism by immersion, Congregationalists practiced infant baptism. Through the influence of Jonathan Edwards, Congregationalists came to adopt a moderate form of Calvinism known as New England theology and in a more radical form as New Haven theology. By the 19th century, Congregationalists were forming voluntary organizations for mutual cooperation and support among churches called associations. In some places, state-wide general associations were organized. In 1801, the Congregationalist churches of New England entered into a formal agreement with the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America called the Plan of Union, it remained in effect until 1852.

By that time, Congregationalists had developed a greater denominational consciousness, which led to the first National Council in 1865. In 1927, motivated by the ecumenical movement, Congregationalists united with the Evangelical Protestant Church of North America; this was a pietistic denomination of German origin with about six thousand members. The Evangelical Protestants were absorbed into the National Council, they shared with the Congregationalists an affinity for liberal theology, social activism and congregational polity. In 1913, the National Council adopted the Kansas City Statement of Faith; this confessional statement affirmed belief in the Trinity and the Bible's role in revealing God's will. It affirmed the "freedom and responsibility of the individual soul, the right of private judgment." The church's mission was described as "to proclaim the gospel to all mankind, exalting the worship of the one true God, laboring for the progress of knowledge, the promotion of justice, the reign of peace, the realization of human brotherhood."The Social Gospel flourished among Congregational churches, the National Council pledged itself to work for a society that guaranteed a decent wage and denied privileges for the wealthy.

In 1925, the National Council adopted a Statement of Social Ideals, which outlined a progressive "Christian social order". The five ideals include universal education, support for labor unions, the preservation and support of rural communities as well as price controls on agricultural products, the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination, the abolition of all national armed forces except for internal police; the Congregational churches adhered to congregational polity where local congregations remained autonomous and independent. Congregations managed their own internal affairs through church meetings where all church members were entitled to vote; the church meeting deacons. At the same time, congregations voluntarily cooperated together in district associations and state conferences. Meetings of the National Council occurred every two years; each district association elected one delegate to the Council, each state conference elected two delegates, one of which had to be a woman. District associations with more than 10 churches were entitled to send one delegate for each additional 10 churches.

State conferences with membership greater than 10 thousand were entitled to send two delegates for each additional 10 thousand members, half of these additional delegates had to be women. The purpose of the National Council was to provide a forum to coordinate common programs and organizations of Congregational churches, such as managing a pension fund for Congregationalist ministers. A moderator presided over sessions of the Council. An Executive Committee elected by the Council was responsible for overseeing the work of the various agencies of the Council in between biennial sessions. Day-to-day affairs were managed by a full-time Secretary of the National Council. Coordinating missionary work was one of the primary functions of the National Council. Many of the National Council's affiliated societies were interdenominational when founded. Foreign missionary work was carried out by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, an organization that predated the creation of the National Council.

In 1928, the American Board sponsored 718 missionaries throughout the world. Several missions agencies operated within the United States under the umbrella of the Church Extension Boards; the Congregational Home Missionary Society was a church planting agency that as of 1930 was responsible for four out of every

Breede River

The Breede River known as Breë River, is a river in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Travelling inland north from Cape Town, the river runs in a west to east direction; the surrounding western mountains formed the first continental divide experienced by European settlers in the 18th century. The Titus River and Dwars River become the Breë River; the first catchment area of the river is in the Skurweberg mountain range close to Ceres. The head waters runs through the modern day Mitchells Pass before plaining out on its middle course in the Worcester area; the river mouth is in an estuary at Port Beaufort on the Indian Ocean. On its course through the Breede River Valley, it is joined by the Holsloot and Smalblaar Rivers, from their catchment areas, the Du Toitskloof and Stettyn mountain ranges; the Hex River with its catchment area in the Hex River Mountains joins the Breede River from the north-east. Further downstream the Slang River and Buffeljags River drain the southern slopes of the Langeberg mountains before depositing their water in the Breede River.

Near Swellendam the river is joined by the Riviersonderend, with its catchment area in the mountains surrounding the Theewaterskloof Dam near Villiersdorp. The Greater Brandvlei Dam, completed in 1936 and extended by 1987, provides water to various irrigation schemes throughout the agricultural sector of the region. (also known as the Brandvlei Dam and the Kwaggaskloof Dam. In the catchment area are a few more dams: Stettynskloof Dam on the Holsloot River tributary of the Breede River. Zwiegelaars Dam Theewaterskloof Dam both on the Riviersonderend River Elandskloof Dam on the Elands River a tributary of the Riviersonderend River. Moordkuil Dam on the Hooks River a tributary of the Breede River. Keerom Dam on the Nuy River a tributary of the Breede River. Klipberg Dam on the Konings River itself a tributary of the Keisers River, a tributary of the Breede River. Pietersfontein Dam on the Pietersfontein River a tributary of the Kogmanskloof River, again a tributary of the Breede River. Poortjieskloof Dam on the Groot River flowing into the Kogmanskloof River Buffeljags Dam on the Buffeljags River a tributary of the Breede River.

The Breede River is a popular location for river rafting tours. The flowing water and the absence of crocodiles and mosquitoes make this a popular weekend destination. Several tour operators launch about 20 km south of Swellendam in two-man blow-up boats. Bull Sharks enter the estuary and dwell in the waters of the Breede River, having been recorded as much as 5 km upriver; these sharks were featured on the second season of the series River Monsters. As Jeremy Wade's investigations indicate, the bull sharks of the Breede River are larger than average due to their unique habit of stealing fishermen's catches, allowing them to feed and gain weight without expending much energy; this and the healthy nature of the river's ecosystem in turn has led to a record of few to no shark attacks on humans in the area. List of rivers of South Africa Skurweberg Pass Breede River Valley, Western Cape