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Camberley

Camberley is a town in Surrey, England, 31 miles southwest of Central London, between the M3 and M4 motorways. The town is in the far west of the county, close to the borders of Berkshire, it is the main town in the borough of Surrey Heath. Camberley's suburbs include Crawley Hill, York Town, Diamond Ridge and Old Dean. Before the 19th century, the area now occupied by Camberley was referred to as Bagshot or Frimley Heath. An Iron Age fort liberally among one of many examples known as Caesar's Camp was to the north of this area alongside the Roman road The Devil's Highway; the Intenarium Curiosum, published in 1724, describes a collection of Roman pottery around the area, a further collection was discovered at Frimley Green in the late 20th century. In the Middle Ages, the area was part of Windsor Forest. In the 17th century, the area along the turnpike road through Bagshot Heath was known as a haunt of highwaymen, such as William Davies – known as the Golden Farmer – and Claude Duval; the land remained undeveloped and uncultivated due to a sandy topsoil making it unsuitable for farming.

In A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, written between 1724 and 1726, Daniel Defoe described the area as barren and sterile. A brick tower was built on top of The Knoll by John Norris of Blackwater, it may have been used for communications but there is no firm evidence. The remains are now known as The Obelisk; the town as it now stands has its roots in the building of The Royal Military College, which became the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, in 1812. A settlement known as "New Town" grew in the area around the college which in 1831 was renamed Yorktown, after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. At this time, the population was 702. In 1848, the first parish church of St. Michael, Yorktown was built by Henry Woodyer, in an area part of Frimley, itself only a chapelry of Ash; the Staff College was established to the east of the Academy, a property speculator built the nearby Cambridge Hotel. The surrounding area became known as Cambridge Town, but was renamed "Camberley" in January 1877 to avoid confusion by the General Post Office with Cambridge in Cambridgeshire.

The renaming of Camberley was mentioned in the 1963 film adaptation of William Golding's Lord of the Flies. The character Piggy states. Hugh Edwards, the child actor who played Piggy, attended Camberley Primary School, demolished in the 1960s to make way for the town centre redevelopment. During the 19th century, Camberley grew in size; this was given added impetus with the arrival of the branch-line railway and railway station in 1878 and a reputation for healthy air, due to the vast number of pine trees, which were said to be good for those suffering from pulmonary disorders. By the end of the century the population had reached 8,400. Since the town has absorbed the original settlement of Yorktown, now regarded as part of Camberley; the Southern Scott Scramble, the first known motorcycle scrambling event, took place on Camberley Heath on 29 March 1924. The event, won by A. B. Sparks, attracted a crowd in the thousands and is considered to be the first instance of what developed in the sport of motocross.

During the Second World War, the Old Dean common was used as an instruction camp of the Free French Forces. The Kremer prize was conceived in the Cambridge Hotel in Camberley in 1959 after Henry Kremer toured a Microcell factory. Barossa Golf Club was located on Barossa Common; the club was founded in 1893 and continued until WW2. The Old Dean housing estate was built in the 1950s on the "Old Dean Common" for residents of bombed Surrey-area's homeless after World War II. Many of the roads on that half of the Old Dean are named after areas of London, with the others named after places on the common. Camberley falls under the siren test area of Broadmoor Hospital, a secure mental hospital in nearby Crowthorne; the siren was installed following a public outcry at the escape of child-murderer John Thomas Straffen in April 1952. The siren is still tested every Monday at 10am. In 1969 there was an outbreak of rabies when a dog, just released from a sixth month quarantine after returning from Germany, attacked two people on Camberley Common.

The scare resulted in restriction orders for dogs and large-scale shoots to carry out the destruction of foxes and other wildlife. After debate and delay, in 2006, a 7-acre mixed-use development west of Park Street named The Atrium was built of residential and retail buildings with wide pedestrianised areas and 683 public parking spaces, its 217 mid-rise apartments split into courtyards in the Barcelona style. Fourteen new retail units face directly opposite the Main Square shopping centre. Park Street has been landscaped as part of the development. Leisure facilities include a nine-screen cinema, a bowling alley, a health and fitness club, cafés and restaura

Belgian First Division A

The Belgian First Division A is the top league competition for association football clubs in Belgium. Following the 2015–16 season it was renamed from the Belgian Pro League (officially known as Jupiler Pro League. Contested by 16 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the Belgian First Division B. Seasons run from late July to early May, with teams playing 30 matches each in the regular season, entering play-offs I or play-offs II according to their position in the regular season. Play-offs I are contested by the top-six clubs in the regular season, with each club playing each other twice. Play-offs II are contested by teams ranked 7 to 16 in the regular season, divided in four groups of four teams playing each other twice; the team finishing in 16th place is relegated. As of 2014 the league was sponsored by AB InBev, brewers of Jupiler beer, known as Jupiler Pro League; the competition was created in 1895 by the Royal Belgian Football Association and was first won by FC Liégeois.

Of the 74 clubs to have competed in the first division since its creation, 15 have been crowned champions of Belgium. RSC Anderlecht is the most successful league club with 34 titles, followed by Club Brugge KV, Union Saint-Gilloise and Standard Liège, it is ranked 8th in the UEFA rankings of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the last five-years. The competition was ranked 3rd when the UEFA first published their ranking in 1979 and the next year in 1980, the best ranking the Belgian First Division has achieved; the first league in Belgian football was held in 1895–96 as a round-robin tournament with seven teams: Antwerp FC, FC Brugeois, FC Liégeois, RC de Bruxelles, Léopold Club de Bruxelles, SC de Bruxelles and Union d'Ixelles. FC Liégeois became the first champion of Belgium; the first eight titles in Belgian football were all won by RC de Bruxelles. There was no promotion and relegation system at the time but the last two clubs of the league withdrew and a new club entered the competition.

During the 1896–97 season, SC de Bruxelles withdrew so the 1897–98 season was played by five clubs only. In the seasons 1898–99 and 1899–1900, the football association introduced a new format with two leagues at the top level and a final game in two legs; the format though changed back to one league with nine clubs in 1900–01 and again to two leagues from 1901–02 to 1903–04, this time with a final round among the top two teams of each league. In 1904–05 the championship was organised with one league of 11 teams. Athletic and Running Club de Bruxelles withdrew during the season and, from the 1906 season on, a system of promotion and relegation was introduced with the winner of the second division replacing the last-placed team of the first division. In 1906–07, Union Saint-Gilloise won their fourth consecutive title as RC de Bruxelles had from 1899–1900 to 1902–03. Both clubs claimed the next three titles before CS Brugeois won their first title, finishing one point ahead their rival of FC Brugeois.

At the end of the 1907–08 season, the number of teams in the first division was increased from 10 to 12 clubs, with Promotion champion RC de Gand and runner-up ESC Forest being promoted while no first division was relegated. As World War I approached, Daring Club de Bruxelles confirmed its status of challenger winning the title in 1911–12 and 1913–14. Only Union Saint-Gilloise could face them in that period, winning the 1912–13 championship with a better goal difference. Since 1911–12, two clubs are relegated each year to the Promotion and two clubs from the Promotion are promoted. During World War I, the football championship was suspended, it resumed in 1919–20 with FC Brugeois claiming their first title after 5-second places, among which were 2 lost final games and one lost test-match. At the end of the 1920–21 season, the number of teams was increased from 12 to 14, with only Uccle Sport, the last-placed team of the first division, being relegated, the first 3 teams from the Promotion being promoted.

From 1921–22 to 1931–32, the decade was dominated by teams from the province of Antwerp: Beerschot AC, with Raymond Braine, won their first 5 titles, Antwerp FC their first 2 and the small club of Liersche SK won their first one in 1931–32. The challengers at the time were CS Brugeois, Union Saint-Gilloise, Daring Club de Bruxelles and Standard Club Liégeois. Starting 25 December 1932, Union Saint-Gilloise had a record 60 games unbeaten run in the championship, winning the 1932–33, 1933–34 and 1934–35 titles; the rival of Union during this period was Daring Club de Bruxelles. They claimed the next two championships. Following the come-back of player Raymond Braine to Beerschot, the Antwerp club won the last two titles before World War II. On 10 May 1940 German troops invaded Belgium and the seasons 1939–40 and 1940–41 were suspended; the competition resumed in September 1941 and Liersche SK won their second title. At the end of the season, no club was relegated and the number of clubs was increased from 14 to 16.

The next season, Liersche SK lost three key players and they ended at 3rd place while the neighbours of KV Mechelen became champion for the first time in their history. In 1943–44, Antwerp FC won the title; the league was suspended again in 1944–

List of General Dynamics F-111 aircraft operated by the Royal Australian Air Force

This is a list of the General Dynamics F-111 aircraft operated by the Royal Australian Airforce between 1973 and 2010. The RAAF's fleet of F-111s included 15 F-111Gs. Several more F-111s were purchased from the United States and used for ground training and testing purposes, or as a source of spare parts; the Australian Government purchased 24 F-111Cs in 1963. These were completed during 1968 and early 1969, the first of the RAAF's aircraft was handed over to the service on 4 September 1968. However, the entire fleet was grounded in the United States shortly afterwards while serious deficiencies with the F-111's design were corrected; the RAAF accepted the 24 aircraft during 1973, they flew to Australia in four groups between 1 June and 4 December that year. Four of the F-111Cs were modified to RF-111C reconnaissance aircraft; the first, A8-126, received these modifications in the United States between October 1979 and April 1979. The RAAF purchased four ex-United States Air Force F-111As in 1981 as attrition replacements.

These aircraft were delivered to the service in 1982 and were subsequently converted to F-111C standard. In 1992 the Australian Government decided to purchase up to 18 ex-USAF F-111Gs in order to extend the type's service life. 15 F-111Gs were acquired, they were delivered to the RAAF during late 1993 and early 1994. Three more ex-USAF F-111Gs were held for Australia in the United States, but never delivered. Other ex-USAF F-111s were held at the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group in Arizona as sources of spare parts for the RAAFs fleet of aircraft; the Australian Government announced on 7 November 2003 that the RAAF's F-111s would be retired from 2010, on 16 March 2007 it was announced that the type would be withdrawn by the end of 2010. The F-111Gs were retired before the F-111Cs, with the last leaving service on 3 September 2007; the F-111C fleet was drawn down, the type was retired on 3 December 2010. Eight of the RAAF's F-111s were destroyed in crashes during the type's service, with ten airmen being killed.

Following the F-111s' retirement, 13 of the surviving aircraft were preserved in aviation museums and RAAF air bases. The remaining aircraft were buried at the Swanbank landfill site outside of Ipswich, between 21 and 23 November 2011. List of aircraft of the Royal Australian Air Force Citations Works consultedCuskelly, Ron. "Preserving the Pig". Aero Australia: 22–30. Lax, Mark. From Controversy to Cutting Edge: A History of the F-111 in Australian Service. Canberra: Air Power Development Centre. ISBN 9781920800543. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012