England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Thames Rowing Club
Thames Rowing Club is the joint third-oldest non-academic rowing club on the Thames and is in Putney, London. It was founded in the same year as Twickenham Rowing Club; the club colours are red and black in stripes, the white stripe lying between the red and black and being of half their width. The TRC clubhouse is situated on Putney Embankment between Rotherwood Road and Festing Road 400 metres from the Putney end of the Championship Course, its neighbouring clubs are Imperial College Boat Club. As such, the club's training water is the tidal stretch of the Thames; the clubhouse itself was constructed in 1879 with several additions. In 2005, the club opened a new building behind the clubhouse, named in memory of former Club President and benefactor Alan Burrough, providing additional training facilities and boat storage. In May 2011, work began on substantial improvements to the clubhouse; these works were completed in November 2011. Thames Rowing Club's stated focus is on racing and competition but it is open to complete beginners.
Thames appears to have one of the largest active memberships of any UK rowing club. Since first admitting women in 1973, the club has gained a strong reputation in women's rowing, with over 50 wins since 1988 at Henley Women's Regatta, most Elite Lightweight Coxless Pair and Senior Lightweight Single Scull in 2017. Thames has frequently won pennants in the Women's Eights Head of the River Race. Thames' men's squad have performed in recent years, with wins in the Club and Intermediate events at Henley Royal Regatta and two wins of the Vernon Trophy at the Head of the River Race for the fastest tideway club. Thames has a junior squad and additionally provides facilities to London Youth Rowing. Masters Rowing at Thames is strong, at all such levels, both men and women competing and winning at the FISA World Masters Regatta; as at July 2017, Thames had won events at Henley Royal Regatta 78 times. The most recent wins were the Thames Challenge Cup for men's club eights in both 2017 and 2015, the Visitors' Challenge Cup for intermediate men's coxless fours in 2016, the Wyfold Challenge Cup for men's club coxless fours in 2006 and 2003, the Remenham Challenge Cup for women's open eights in 2005.
The club had a member in each of the composite crews which won the Remenham Challenge Cup in 2008 and 2009. The current Head Coach is Ben Lewis. Under him are the Men's coach, Sander Smulders and Women's coach, Bill Lucas. Thames was one of five clubs which retained the right until 2012 to appoint representatives to the Council of British Rowing; the others were Leander Club, London Rowing Club, Oxford University Boat Club and Cambridge University Boat Club. Thames is one of the founding clubs of Remenham Club. Thames hosts Cambridge University Women's Boat Club for their winter Tideway training ahead of the Women's Boat Race, on race day itself. Thames houses the Boat Race's media centre and administrative office. Thames Rowing Club was founded under the name City of London Rowing Club and according to its first rules, its objects were'organised pleasure or exercise rowing'; the earliest surviving minutes of a club meeting are dated January 1861 but are headed'City of London Rowing Club. Founded 1860', 1860 is accepted as the year of foundation, the same year as Twickenham Rowing Club.
Three academic institutions aside, this makes it the third oldest rowing club on the Thames. The initial members were chiefly clerks and salesmen working in London's textiles trade around Fore Street and St Paul's Churchyard. At least one of the early meetings is known to have taken place in the Lord Raglan public house in St Martin's-le-Grand; the club had boats at Simmons Boathouse and a room at the Red Lion Hotel at the foot of Putney High Street. There were few members at first, but the numbers increased, in 1862, when club races were first started, the club numbered nearly 150. In 1862, the club sought and gained the permission of Frank Playford, the only traceable member of "The Thames Club" which had rowed on the Tideway in the 1840s, to rename itself "The Thames Rowing Club". By 1864 a growing interest in competition led to the club’s first recorded win, in a four-oared race against the Excelsior Boat Club of Greenwich; the club put on a crew for the Metropolitan Junior Eights, started in 1865, followed this up the next year by securing the Challenge Cup for Junior Eights at the first Metropolitan Regatta.
In 1870 the Club won at Henley Royal Regatta for the first time, taking the Wyfold Challenge Cup from the Oscillators Club of Surbiton and the Oxford Etonians in a race that, according to the Rowing Almanack, was ‘a pretty hollow affair, the Thames crew winning as they pleased from first to last.’ Over the next twenty years, Thames had its first great flowering, with 22 wins at Henley by 1890, including four victories in the most prestigious event, the Grand Challenge Cup for eights. In 1877 the Thames Boathouse Company was formed for the purpose of providing a boat and club house for the club. Money was raised by means of the club and the company being kept quite distinct; the construction of the present Thames boathouse on a site about 300 yards above that of London Rowing Club followed and the building was completed in 1879 at a cost of over £3000. Thames, under its captain James Hastie, was now esta
Oxford University Women's Boat Club
Oxford University Women's Boat Club is the rowing club for female rowers who are students at the University of Oxford. The club was founded in 1926 and is now based in Wallingford at the Fleming Boat House, along with OUBC, OUWLRC and OULRC; the training season runs from September through to July, with the major event, the Women's Boat Race against Cambridge University Women's Boat Club, happening in March or April. Up until 2015 the Women's Boat Race had taken place over 2000m as part of the Henley Boat Races on the Henley Reach. In 2015, for the first time, the Women’s Boat Race took place on the 6.8 km Championship Course on the Tideway, was televised on the BBC alongside the Men’s Boat Race. The original challenge between the Oxford and Cambridge University boat clubs was issued in 1829; as a result two men's eights raced on the river at Henley-on-Thames. In 1836 the race was moved to the Tideway in London, it has remained there since. At this time rowing was not seen as an appropriate sport for a lady.
However, towards the end of the century attitudes began to change. The two universities caught onto the trend a few decades and OUWBC was formed in May 1926. Following on from this the'Ladies' Boat Race' was founded in 1927; the first races took place on The Isis in Oxford and took the form of a time and style contest, since the Principals of the women's colleges disapproved of racing. The OUWBC was disbanded for financial reasons in 1953 but re-formed in 1964; the races were held alternately on The Isis and The Cam and in 1975 a 2nd VIII race was added. In 1977 the'Women's Boat Race' was invited to joint the men's lightweights at Henley and so the'Henley Boat Races' were established. At this time, the women's reserve race crews were named'Osiris' and'Blondie' to parallel the men's reserves'Isis' and'Goldie'. From 1977 to 2014 the Women’s Boat Race continued to be held at Henley over 2000m. Following a sponsorship deal with Newton Investment Management, established shortly before the Women's Boat Race 2011, parent company BNY Mellon announced in February that they would be sponsoring both the men's and women's boat races from the 2013 race.
This sponsorship was key in enabling the Women's Boat Race to move to the Tideway in 2015. Since the 2012 race, Newton Investment Management has provided equal funding to OUWBC and CUWBC to enable the clubs to employ full time professional coaches and a support team to transition ‘from a student-run club to a pre-elite team’ on their road to the Tideway. In 2015, the Women's Boat Race took place on the Championship Course between the University stones at Putney and Mortlake on the 11th April at 4:50pm. For the first time it was televised on the BBC; the Reserve boat, raced the Cambridge reserve boat, Blondie, on the 10th April over the same course. In 2016, this race will be moved to be on the same day as Women's Blue Boat races. Trailing begins for athletes in early September and although the pinnacle of the season is The Boat Race which takes place in March/April, the season runs through to the start of July. For most of the year the training is split between Wallingford. With on land fitness training happening at various locations around Oxford, water training happening out of the Fleming Boat House in Wallingford shared with OUBC, OULWRC and OULRC.
From the start of the season, training is focused on The Boat Race, although OUWBC do compete in other races throughout this period as preparation. This varies from season to season however there are some fixed events in the calendar: In December Trial Eights takes place; this is an opportunity for each of the four clubs to race two of their own eights against each other. Traditionally, the coaches try to field two eights that are as matched as possible to emulate race day itself. In January the crews leave Oxford for a short Training Camp; as the boat race approaches, some water sessions move to the Tideway, for the final week before the Boat Race, crews move to London to train full time on the Championship Course. Following the Boat race, the club looks towards other national competitions such as the British Universities and Colleges Sport Regatta, Henley Women’s Regatta and Henley Royal Regatta. Windrush is the OUWBC alumni association, it provides support to the Club and its current members, helps former OUWBC oarswomen and coxes to keep in touch after leaving Oxford.
British Rowing University rowing Women's rowing OUWBC Website Henley Boat Races Oxford University Rowing Clubs Newton Investment Management
James Hugh Calum Laurie, is an English actor, singer, musician and author. Laurie first gained recognition for his work as one half of the comedy double act Fry and Laurie with his friend and comedy partner Stephen Fry, whom he met through their mutual friend Emma Thompson whilst attending Cambridge University, where Laurie was president of the Cambridge Footlights; the duo acted together in a number of projects during the 1980s and 1990s, including the sketch comedy series A Bit of Fry & Laurie and the P. G. Wodehouse adaptation Jeeves and Wooster. Laurie's other roles during the period include the period comedy series Blackadder and the films Sense and Sensibility, 101 Dalmatians, The Borrowers and Stuart Little. Laurie portrayed the title character in the U. S. medical drama series House on Fox, for which he won two Golden Globe Awards. He was listed in the 2011 Guinness World Records as the most watched leading man on television and was one of the highest-paid actors in a television drama, earning £250,000 per episode of House.
Laurie portrayed the antagonist Richard Onslow Roper in the miniseries The Night Manager, for which he won his third Golden Globe Award, Senator Tom James in the HBO sitcom Veep, for which he received his 10th Emmy Award nomination. He played the lead role of forensic psychiatrist Dr. Eldon Chance in the Hulu series Chance. Outside acting, Laurie has released two blues albums, Let Them Talk and Didn't It Rain, both to favourable reviews, has authored a novel, The Gun Seller, published in 1996. Among his honours, Laurie has won three Golden Globe Awards, two Screen Actors Guild Awards and has been nominated for ten Primetime Emmy Awards, he received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2016. He was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2007 New Year Honours and Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2018 New Year Honours, both for services to drama. James Hugh Calum Laurie was born on 11 June 1959 in Blackbird Leys, the youngest of four children of Patricia and William George Ranald Mundell "Ran" Laurie, a physician and winner of an Olympic gold medal in the coxless pairs at the 1948 London Games.
He has an older brother, Charles Alexander Lyon Mundell Laurie, two older sisters and Janet. He had a strained relationship with his mother, he notes that she was "Presbyterian by character, by mood" and that he was "a frustration to her... she didn't like me". She died from motor neurone disease at the age of 73, in 1989, when Laurie was 30. According to Laurie, she endured the disease for two years and suffered "painful, plodding paralysis" while being cared for by Laurie's father, whom he called "the sweetest man in the whole world". Laurie's parents, who were both of Scottish descent, attended St. Columba's Presbyterian Church of England in Oxford, he notes that "belief in God didn't play a large role" in his home, but "a certain attitude to life and the living of it did". He followed this by stating, "Pleasure was something, treated with great suspicion, pleasure was something that... I was going to say it had to be earned but the earning of it didn't work, it was something to this day, I mean, I carry that with me.
I find pleasure a difficult thing. He stated, "I don't believe in God, but I have this idea that if there were a God, or destiny of some kind looking down on us, that if he saw you taking anything for granted he'd take it away."Laurie was brought up in Oxford and attended the Dragon School from ages seven to 13 and stated, "I was, in truth, a horrible child. Not much given to things of a bookey nature, I spent a large part of my youth smoking Number Six and cheating in French vocabulary tests." He went on to Eton College, which he describes as "the most private of private schools". He arrived at Selwyn College, Cambridge in autumn 1978 and says he attended "as a result of family tradition" since his father went there. Laurie notes that his father was a successful rower at Cambridge and that he was "trying to follow in his father's footsteps", he read archaeology and anthropology, specialising in social anthropology, graduating with a third class degree. Like his father, Laurie rowed at university.
In 1977, he was a member of the junior coxed pair that won the British national title before representing Britain's Youth Team at the 1977 Junior World Rowing Championships. In 1980, Laurie and his rowing partner, J. S. Palmer, were runners-up in the Silver Goblets coxless pairs for Eton Vikings rowing club. Laurie achieved a Blue while taking part in the 1980 Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. Cambridge lost that year by five feet. During this time, Laurie was training for up to eight hours a day and was on course to become an Olympic-standard rower. Laurie is a member of one of the oldest rowing clubs in the world, he was a member of the Hermes Club and the Hawks' Club. Forced to abandon rowing during a bout of glandular fever, Laurie joined the Cambridge Footlights, a university dramatic club that has produced many well-known actors and comedians. There he met Emma Thompson, she introduced him to Stephen Fry. Laurie and Thompson parodied themselves as the University Challenge representatives of "Footlights College, Oxbridge" in "Bambi", an episode of The Young Ones, with the series' co-writer Ben Elton completing their team.
In 1980–81, his final year at university, besides rowing, Laurie was president of the Footlights, with Thompson as vic
Thomas Matthew Ransley is a British rower educated at the King's School, University of York and University of Cambridge. At the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro he was part of the British crew that won the gold medal in the eight and in 2015 was the European Champion in the men's coxless four. 2012 London – Bronze, Men's Eight 2016 Rio de Janeiro – Gold, Men's Eight 2010 Karapiro – Silver, Men's eight 2011 Bled – Silver, Men's eight 2013 Chungju – Gold, Men's eight 2014 Amsterdam – Gold, Men's eight 2009 Banyoles – Bronze, Eight 2009 Munich – Bronze, Eight 2011 Munich – Silver, Eight 2011 Lucerne – Bronze, Eight 2012 Belgrade – Silver, Eight 2012 Lucerne – Silver, Eight 2012 Munich – Bronze, Eight 2008 Bronze – Coxless four British Rowing Biography Tom Ransley at FISA WorldRowing.com
Head of the River Race
The Head of the River Race is an against-the-clock rowing race held annually on the River Thames in London, England between eights, other such races being the Schools' Head of the River Race, Women's Head of the River Race and Veterans' Head of the River Race. Its competitors are, with a few experienced junior exceptions, seniors of UK or overseas competitors and it runs with the ebb tide down the 4.25 mile Championship Course from Mortlake to Putney which hosts the Oxford and Cambridge head-to-head races between one and two weeks later. The race was founded on a much smaller scale, in 1925, by Steve Fairbairn – an influential rower rowing coach of the early 20th century, who transformed the sport into one involving today's lengthier slides enabling conventional racing shell propulsion. "My dear boy, you are under a wrong impression. It is not a race, it is a means of getting crews to do long rows" The race was founded by the rowing coach Steve Fairbairn, a great believer in the importance of distance training over the winter.
"Mileage makes champions" was one of Fairbairn's repeated phrases included in his four volumes on rowing coaching and in other correspondence. He devised the race while coaching at Thames Rowing Club to encourage this form of training and raise the standard of winter training among London clubs, he transformed the sport by introducing a full body and leg-drive catch and introducing sliding seats. A race proposal meeting followed between the captains of the metropolitan clubs, who received the idea with great enthusiasm, it was agreed that the first race would be held on Sunday 12 December 1926. Despite the choice of day of the week, the race went ahead with 23 entries at a cost of 5s per crew. "So far the ARA were slumbering in sweet ignorance of the horrible fact that racing was taking place on a Sunday. So the Committee bravely fixed Sunday, 27th March as the date for the second race, but the publicity the event had received had drawn the attention of the ARA and at a meeting of the committee on February 19th a letter was read from the ruling body pointing out that it might be necessary to alter the date of the race as the ARA might pass a resolution banning racing on Sundays...
The Head of the River Committee agreed to abandon the December race and row one annual race in March or thereabouts on Saturday afternoons." With the future of the race agreed, the number of entrants rose: 1927 — 41 entries, all tideway crews. There was none from 1940 -- 45 inclusive due to the second world war; the event was restarted in 1946 and has taken place annually since, with the exceptions of 2004, 2007, 2013, 2017 when the race was cancelled due to bad weather. As of 2014, London RC have won the race most 14 times followed by Leander Club 13 times. An overtly GB National Squad its eight, have won the race 12 times; the GB National Squad men's eight tends to compete the race and may enter under a temporary club of their choice or what is in any event the main non-international season rowing club where they train that year. Given these past combinations, crews that are the GB men's eight have won the race more than 40 times. Overseas entries have claimed the top prize 4 times; the other categories pitch themselves at the top clubs around the UK and the overseas pennant is the main prize nationally only available to overseas winners of any rowing competition.
From 1979 onwards, due to the sheer volume of competitors and for reasons of safety on a small area of river and riverside, the HORR Committee had at that point to impose a limit of 420 crews, which still exists today. Entries are required and accepted in January for overseas crews and in February for UK crews; the race is only open to men's eights and is considered to be the peak of the head race season — attracting the top UK crews as well as foreign clubs. Composite crews, drawn from more than one club or institution, are not permitted; the Championship Course is that of the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race but, unlike the Boat Race, the Head of the River Race is raced on an ebb tide from Mortlake to Putney. The starting time for the race is different every year and depends on the tide — the first crew starts the race the next year. Start time is about 2 hours after high tide and crews start at about 10 second intervals; the record time of 16 min 37. The Race is held on the third or fourth Saturday in March each year, depending on tides and the date of the Boat Race.
The two events are held on separate days, although in 1987 and 1994, the Boat Race took place in the morning and the Head in the afternoon Raced over the same course in eights are the Schools' Head of the River Race organised by Westminster School, the Women's Eights Head of the River Race and Veterans' Head of the River Race organised by Vesta Rowing Club. In other boats on the same course are raced the Head of the River Fours sponsored by Fuller's Brewery, the Veterans' Fours Head of the River and the Scullers Head organised by Vesta RC; the Pairs' Head is run over a shorter course from Chiswick Bridge to Hammersmith Bridge. The Veterans' HOR and Pairs HOR sometimes race in the reverse direction if tides do not permit the usual arrangement; the race has since at lea
Goldie Boathouse is the fitness and administrative base of Cambridge University Boat Club, located on the river Cam in Cambridge, England. It was the University boathouse and was named after CUBC's President J. H. D. Goldie, who gave his name to the University's second crew; the boathouse was used for the storage of boats. This is no longer the case, the area that used to be the boat bays has now been converted to a gymnasium where ergometer and weight training takes place; the administrative offices and a physiotherapy treatment centre are based there, as is the Club's Sports Science Research and Development programme. The boathouse includes a rowing tank for indoor training on water; the boathouse is the oldest extant boathouse in Cambridge, built in 1882, is listed Grade II on the National Heritage List for England