Marie Harel was a French cheesemaker, along with Abbot Charles-Jean Bonvoust, invented Camembert cheese, according to local legend. She worked as a cheesemaker at the Manor of Beaumoncel and made Camembert cheeses according to local custom, her main contribution was to have initiated a dynasty of entrepreneurial cheesemakers who developed the production of Camembert cheese on a large scale, notably her grandson Cyrille Paynel, born in 1817, who created a cheese factory in the commune of Le Mesnil-Mauger in Calvados at France. Marie Harel was born Marie Catherine Fontaine on April 28, 1761, at Crouttes, near Vimoutiers in Normandy. On May 10, 1785, in Camembert, she married Jacques Harel, a laborer at Roiville, she died November 1844, at Vimoutiers, Orne. Since the end of the 17th century, a renowned cheese was being produced in the Camembert region of Normandy. In his Geographic Dictionary, published in 1708, Thomas Corneille wrote: "Vimonstiers: every Monday a large market is held, to which are brought excellent cheeses from Livarot and Camembert."
However, according to a legend which appeared at the beginning of the 20th century, the invention of Camembert cheese was attributed to Marie Harel who would have benefited from the advice of a refractory priest, Abbot Charles-Jean Bonvoust, hidden in 1796-97 at the Manor of Beaumoncel where she worked. He was a native of Brie and passed along to Marie a recipe for a kind of cheese with a bloomy edible rind, such as was produced in his native area. In reality, Bonvoust came from Pays de Caux; this apocryphal story, for which there is no evidence, is still accepted as true. Marie Harel did make Camembert cheese, according to local custom, she initiated a dynasty of entrepreneurial cheese makers who produced Camembert cheese on a large scale, notably her grandson Cyrille Paynel, born in 1817, who created a cheese factory in the commune of Le Mesnil-Mauger in Calvados. The success of the production of Camembert in the first half of the 19th century was due to the descendants of Harel, who considered themselves the only legitimate users of the designation "Camembert".
However, beginning in 1870, other Norman cheese makers contested this family monopoly. The town of Vimoutiers had a statue to her. On 14 June 1944, during the Battle of Normandy, Vimoutiers was bombarded by Allied forces; the village was destroyed and 220 people died. 400 people of Van Wert, Ohio contributed in the costs of reconstruction and reparation of the town including the replacement of Marie Harel's statue in 1953. This is recorded by a plaque in the market square of Vimoutiers. A legend says that she died in Champosoult, but it was her daughter named Marie, who died there. Harel was honored with a Google Doodle on the occasion of her 256th birthday in 2017. Types of cheese Pierre Boisard, Le Camembert, mythe français, Odile Jacob, 2007
A mold or mould is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae. In contrast, fungi that can adopt a single-celled growth habit are called yeasts. Molds are a large and taxonomically diverse number of fungal species in which the growth of hyphae results in discoloration and a fuzzy appearance on food; the network of these tubular branching hyphae, called a mycelium, is considered a single organism. The hyphae are transparent, so the mycelium appears like fine, fluffy white threads over the surface. Cross-walls may delimit connected compartments along the hyphae, each containing one or multiple, genetically identical nuclei; the dusty texture of many molds is caused by profuse production of asexual spores formed by differentiation at the ends of hyphae. The mode of formation and shape of these spores is traditionally used to classify molds. Many of these spores are colored, making the fungus much more obvious to the human eye at this stage in its life-cycle. Molds are considered to be microbes and do not form a specific taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping, but can be found in the divisions Zygomycota and Ascomycota.
In the past, most molds were classified within the Deuteromycota. Molds cause biodegradation of natural materials, which can be unwanted when it becomes food spoilage or damage to property, they play important roles in biotechnology and food science in the production of various foods, antibiotics and enzymes. Some diseases of animals and humans can be caused by certain molds: disease may result from allergic sensitivity to mold spores, from growth of pathogenic molds within the body, or from the effects of ingested or inhaled toxic compounds produced by molds. There are thousands of known species of molds, which have diverse life-styles including saprotrophs, mesophiles and thermophiles and a few opportunistic pathogens of humans, they all require moisture for growth and some live in aquatic environments. Like all fungi, molds derive energy not through photosynthesis but from the organic matter on which they live, utilising heterotrophy. Molds secrete hydrolytic enzymes from the hyphal tips; these enzymes degrade complex biopolymers such as starch and lignin into simpler substances which can be absorbed by the hyphae.
In this way molds play a major role in causing decomposition of organic material, enabling the recycling of nutrients throughout ecosystems. Many molds synthesise mycotoxins and siderophores which, together with lytic enzymes, inhibit the growth of competing microorganisms. Molds can grow on stored food for animals and humans, making the food unpalatable or toxic and are thus a major source of food losses and illness. Many strategies for food preservation are to prevent or slow mold growth as well as growth of other microbes. Molds reproduce by producing large numbers of small spores, which may contain a single nucleus or be multinucleate. Mold spores can be sexual; some molds produce small, hydrophobic spores that are adapted for wind dispersal and may remain airborne for long periods. Other mold spores are more suited to water dispersal. Mold spores are spherical or ovoid single cells, but can be multicellular and variously shaped. Spores may cling to fur. Although molds can grow on dead organic matter everywhere in nature, their presence is visible to the unaided eye only when they form large colonies.
A mold colony does not consist of discrete organisms but is an interconnected network of hyphae called a mycelium. All growth occurs at hyphal tips, with cytoplasm and organelles flowing forwards as the hyphae advance over or through new food sources. Nutrients are absorbed at the hyphal tip. In artificial environments such as buildings and temperature are stable enough to foster the growth of mold colonies seen as a downy or furry coating growing on food or other surfaces. Few molds can begin growing at temperatures of 4 °C or below, so food is refrigerated at this temperature; when conditions do not enable growth to take place, molds may remain alive in a dormant state depending on the species, within a large range of temperatures. The many different mold species vary enormously in their tolerance to temperature and humidity extremes. Certain molds can survive harsh conditions such as the snow-covered soils of Antarctica, refrigeration acidic solvents, anti-bacterial soap and petroleum products such as jet fuel.
Xerophilic molds are able to grow in dry, salty, or sugary environments, where water activity is less than 0.85. Common genera of molds include: The Kōji molds are a group of Aspergillus species, notably Aspergillus oryzae, secondarily A. sojae, that have been cultured in eastern Asia for many centuries. They are used to ferment a wheat mixture to make soybean paste and soy sauce. Koji molds break down the starch in rice, sweet potatoes, etc. A process called saccharification, in the production of shōchū and other distilled spirits. Koji molds are used in the preparation of Katsuobushi. Red rice yeast is a product of the mold Monascus purpureus grown on rice, is common in Asian diets; the yeast contains several compounds collectively known as monacolins, which are known to inhibit cholesterol synthesis. A study has shown that red rice yea
Île-de-France called the région parisienne, contains the city of Paris, is the most populous of the 18 regions of France. It covers 12,012 square kilometres, or two percent of the national territory, has official estimated population of 12,213,364 as of January 1, 2019, or 18.2% of the population of France. The region accounts for nearly 30 percent of the French Gross Domestic Product; the region is made up of eight administrative departments: Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Val-d'Oise and Yvelines. It was created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961 renamed in 1976 after the historic province of Île-de-France, when its status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Residents are sometimes referred to an administrative word created in the 1980s; the GDP of the region in 2016 was €681 billion. It has the highest per-capita GDP among regions in France and the third-highest of regions in the European Union. In 2018 all of the twenty-eight French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 had their headquarters in the Paris region.
Besides the landmarks of Paris, the region has many important historic sites, including the Palace of Versailles and the Palace of Fontainebleau, as well as the most-visited tourist attraction in France, Disneyland Paris. Although the modern name Île-de-France means "Island of France", the etymology is in fact unclear; the "island" may refer to the land between the rivers Oise and Seine, or it may have been a reference to the Île de la Cité, where the French royal palace and cathedral were located. The Île-de-France was inhabited by the Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris's Left Bank, it became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris. In 987, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks, was elected King of the Franks. Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris became the largest and most prosperous city in France; the Kings of France enjoyed getting away from Paris and hunting in the game-filled forests of the region. They built palatial hunting lodges, most notably Palace of Fontainebleau and the Palace of Versailles. From the time of Louis XIV until the French Revolution, Versailles was the official residence of the Kings and the seat of the French government; the Ile-de-France became the term used for the territory of Paris and the surrounding province, administered directly by the King.
During the French Revolution, the royal provinces were abolished and divided into departments, the city and region were governed directly by the national government. In the period after World War II, as Paris faced a major housing shortage, hundreds of massive apartment blocks for low-income residents were built around the edges of Paris. In the 1950s and the 1960s, Many thousands of immigrants settled in the communes bordering the city. In 1959, under President Charles De Gaulle, a new region was created out of six departments, which corresponded with the historic region, with the name District de la région de Paris. On 6 May 1976, as part of the process of regionalisation, the district was reconstituted and increased administrative and political powers and renamed the Île-de-France region. Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km2. It is composed of eight départements centered on Paris. Around the département of Paris, urbanization fills a first concentric ring of three departments known as the petite couronne, extends into a second outer ring of four départements known as the grande couronne.
The former département of Seine, abolished in 1968, included the city proper and parts of the petite couronne. The petite couronne consists of the départements of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, the grande couronne of those of Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines and Val-d'Oise. Politically, the region is divided into 8 départements, 25 arrondissements, 155 cantons and 1 276 communes, out of the total of 35 416 in metropolitan France, The outer parts of the Ile-de-France remain rural. Agriculture land and natu
Whey is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained. It has several commercial uses. Sweet whey is a byproduct produced during the manufacture of rennet types of hard cheese, like Cheddar or Swiss cheese. Acid whey is a byproduct produced during the making of acid types of dairy products, such as cottage cheese or strained yogurt. Whey proteins consist of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and proteose-peptones. Whey protein is the collection of globular proteins isolated from whey; the protein in cow's milk is 20% whey protein and 80% casein protein, whereas the protein in human milk is 70% whey and 30% casein. The protein fraction in whey constitutes 10% of the total dry solids in whey; this protein is a mixture of beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin, immunoglobulins. These are soluble in their native forms, independent of pH; the amino acid cysteine in whey protein is a substrate for the synthesis of glutathione in the body, a ubiquitous cellular antioxidant.
To produce cheese, rennet or an edible acid is added to heated milk. This makes the milk curdle, separating the milk solids from the liquid whey. Sweet whey is the byproduct of rennet-coagulated cheese, acid whey is the byproduct of acid-coagulated cheese. Sweet whey has a pH greater than or equal to 5.6, acid whey has a pH less than or equal to 5.1. Whey is left over when milk is coagulated during the process of cheese production, contains everything, soluble from milk after the pH is dropped to 4.6 during the coagulation process. It is a 5 % solution of lactose in water, with lactalbumin; the fat is removed and processed for human foods. Processing can be done by simple drying, or the relative protein content can be increased by removing lipids and other non-protein materials. For example, spray drying after membrane filtration separates the proteins from whey. Whey can be denatured by heat. High heat denatures whey proteins. While native whey protein does not aggregate upon renneting or acidification of milk, denaturing the whey protein triggers hydrophobic interactions with other proteins, the formation of a protein gel.
Heat-denatured whey can still cause allergies in some people. Whey is used to produce whey cheeses such as ricotta and whey butter and many other products for human consumption; the fat content of whey is low. It is an additive in many processed foods, including breads and commercial pastry, in animal feed. Whey proteins consist of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. Depending on the method of manufacture, whey may contain glycomacropeptides. Dairy whey remaining from home-made cheesemaking has many uses, it is a flour conditioner and can be substituted for skim milk in most baked good recipes that require milk. Throughout history, whey was a popular drink in inns and coffee houses; when Joseph Priestley was at college at Daventry Academy, 1752–1755, he records that, on the morning of Wednesday, 22 May 1754, he "went with a large company to drink whey." This was "sack whey" or "wine whey". Another use of whey is to make "cream of tartar whey": "Put a pint of blue milk over the fire, when it begins to boil, put in two tea spoonfuls of cream of tartar take it off the fire, let it stand till the curd settles to the bottom of the pan put it into a basin to cool, drink it milk warm.”In areas where cheese is made, excess whey byproduct is sometimes sprayed over hay fields as a fertilizer.
Whey, being a byproduct of cheese making, was considered a waste product and was pumped into rivers and streams in the U. S. Containing protein, this practice led to the growth of large concentrations of algae; these were deemed to be a hazard to the ecosystem because they prevented sunlight and oxygen from reaching the water. The government prohibited this practice which led to a disposal problem for producers, their first solution was to use it as a cheap filler in the production of ice cream. Whey found its way into many other products as a filler and into a number of health food products where it remains a popular supplement. Whey protein is a mixture of globular proteins isolated from whey containing beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, serum albumin, which are soluble in their native culture forms, independent of pH. Soy protein and Pea protein are alternatives for those who choose not to consume animal protein or are lactose intolerant. Whey protein is marketed as a dietary supplement, various health claims have been attributed to it in the alternative medicine community.
Although whey proteins are responsible for some milk allergies, the major allergens in milk are the caseins. It is sold as a nutritional supplement; such supplements are popular in the sport of bodybuilding. In Switzerland, where cheese production is an important industry, whey is used as the basis for carbonated soft drinks such as Rivella and Montino. I
Raw milk or unpasteurized milk is milk that has not been pasteurized, a process of heating liquid foods to decontaminate them for safe drinking. Proponents of raw milk have stated that there are benefits to its consumption, including better flavor, better nutrition, the building of a healthy immune system. However, the medical community has warned of the dangers, which include a risk of infection, has not found any clear benefit; the availability and regulation of raw milk vary around the world. In the US, some dairies have adopted low-temperature vat pasteurization, which they say produces a product similar to raw milk. Humans first learned to consume the milk of other mammals following the domestication of animals during the Neolithic Revolution or the development of agriculture; this development occurred independently in several places around the world from as early as 9000–7000 BC in Mesopotamia to 3500–3000 BC in the Americas. The most important dairy animals—cattle and goats—were first domesticated in Mesopotamia, although domestic cattle had been independently derived from wild aurochs populations several times since.
From there dairy animals spread to Europe, South Asia. Pasteurization is used to prevent infected milk from entering the food supply; the pasteurization process was developed in 1864 by French scientist Louis Pasteur, who discovered that heating beer and wine was enough to kill most of the bacteria that caused spoilage, preventing these beverages from turning sour. The process achieves this by eliminating pathogenic microbes and lowering microbial numbers to prolong the quality of the beverage. After sufficient scientific study led to the development of germ theory, pasteurization was introduced in the United States in the 1890s; this move controlled the spread of contagious bacterial diseases including E. coli, bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis. In the early days after the scientific discovery of bacteria, there was no product testing to determine whether a farmer's milk was safe or infected, so all milk was treated as contagious. After the first tests were developed, some farmers took steps to prevent their infected animals from being killed and removed from food production, sometimes falsifying test results to make their animals appear free of infection.
Recent advances in the analysis of milk-borne diseases have enabled scientists to track the DNA of the infectious bacteria to the cows on the farms that supplied the raw milk. The recognition of many deadly pathogens, such as E. coli 0157 H7, Campylobacter and Salmonella, their possible presence in poorly produced milk products has led to the continuation of pasteurization. The Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, other health agencies of the United States recommend that the public do not consume raw milk or raw milk products. Young children, the elderly, people with weakened immune systems, pregnant women are more susceptible to infections originating in raw milk. Milk can be repasteurized, as is done when pasteurized milk is shipped from the US mainland to Hawaii, which can be done to extend the expiration date; those favoring the consumption of raw milk believe that raw milk and associated products are more nutritious, build a healthy immune system and taste better.
Those favoring the consumption of pasteurized milk consider the pathogen risk associated with drinking raw milk unacceptable. Agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States, other regulatory agencies around the world say that potential pathogenic bacteria from raw milk, including tuberculosis, diphtheria and streptococcal infections, make it unsafe to consume. A recent review authored by the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain and experts from Belgian universities and institutions concluded that "raw milk poses a realistic health threat due to a possible contamination with human pathogens, it is therefore recommended that milk should be heated before consumption. In a microbiological aspect, raw milk from a healthy cow with clean teats does not contain significant amounts of pathogens. Causes of significant pathogenic bacterial amounts in raw milk include: Mastitis of the cow. Unclean teat skin of the cow.
Unclean milking equipment. Time, causing bacterial growth. With precautions against the mentioned factors, cold storage, raw milk has a shelf life of 3 to 5 days. With the exception of an altered organoleptic profile, heating will not change the nutritional value of raw milk or other benefits associated with raw milk consumption."Raw milk advocates, such as the Weston A. Price Foundation, say that raw milk can be produced hygienically, that it has health benefits that are destroyed in the pasteurization process. Research shows only slight differences in the nutritional values of pasteurized and unpasteurized milk. Three studies have found a statistically significant inverse relationship between consumption of raw milk and asthma and allergies. However, all of these studies have been performed in children living on farms and living a farming lifestyle, rather than comparing urban children living typical urban lifestyles and with typical urban exposures on the basis of consumption or nonconsumption of raw milk.
Aspects of the overall urban vs. farming environment lifestyle have been suggested
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, are most classified collectively as Bos taurus. Cattle are raised as livestock for meat, for milk, for hides, which are used to make leather, they are used as riding animals and draft animals. Another product of cattle is dung, which can be used to create fuel. In some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning. Cattle small breeds such as the Miniature Zebu, are kept as pets. Around 10,500 years ago, cattle were domesticated from as few as 80 progenitors in central Anatolia, the Levant and Western Iran. According to an estimate from 2011, there are 1.4 billion cattle in the world. In 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a mapped genome; some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth, cattle raiding one of the earliest forms of theft. Cattle were identified as three separate species: Bos taurus, the European or "taurine" cattle.
The aurochs is ancestral to both taurine cattle. These have been reclassified as one species, Bos taurus, with three subspecies: Bos taurus primigenius, Bos taurus indicus, Bos taurus taurus. Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other related species. Hybrid individuals and breeds exist, not only between taurine cattle and zebu, but between one or both of these and some other members of the genus Bos – yaks and gaur. Hybrids such as the beefalo breed can occur between taurine cattle and either species of bison, leading some authors to consider them part of the genus Bos, as well; the hybrid origin of some types may not be obvious – for example, genetic testing of the Dwarf Lulu breed, the only taurine-type cattle in Nepal, found them to be a mix of taurine cattle and yak. However, cattle cannot be hybridized with more distantly related bovines such as water buffalo or African buffalo; the aurochs ranged throughout Europe, North Africa, much of Asia. In historical times, its range became restricted to Europe, the last known individual died in Mazovia, Poland, in about 1627.
Breeders have attempted to recreate cattle of similar appearance to aurochs by crossing traditional types of domesticated cattle, creating the Heck cattle breed. The noun cattle encompasses both sexes; the singular, technically means the female, the male being bull. The plural form cows is sometimes used colloquially to refer to both sexes collectively, as e.g. in a herd, but that usage can be misleading as the speaker's intent may indeed be just the females. The bovine species per se is dimorphic. Cattle did not originate as the term for bovine animals, it was borrowed from Anglo-Norman catel, itself from medieval Latin capitale'principal sum of money, capital', itself derived in turn from Latin caput'head'. Cattle meant movable personal property livestock of any kind, as opposed to real property; the word is a variant of chattel and related to capital in the economic sense. The term replaced earlier Old English feoh ` property', which survives today as fee; the word "cow" came via Anglo-Saxon cū, from Common Indo-European gʷōus = "a bovine animal", compare Persian: gâv, Sanskrit: go-, Welsh: buwch.
The plural cȳ became ki or kie in Middle English, an additional plural ending was added, giving kine, but kies and others. This is the origin of the now archaic English plural, "kine"; the Scots language singular is coo or cou, the plural is "kye". In older English sources such as the King James Version of the Bible, "cattle" refers to livestock, as opposed to "deer" which refers to wildlife. "Wild cattle" may refer to undomesticated species of the genus Bos. Today, when used without any other qualifier, the modern meaning of "cattle" is restricted to domesticated bovines. In general, the same words are used in different parts of the world, but with minor differences in the definitions; the terminology described here contrasts the differences in definition between the United Kingdom and other British-influenced parts of the world such as Canada, New Zealand and the United States. An "intact" adult male is called a bull. A wild, unmarked bull is known as a micky in Australia. An unbranded bovine of either sex is called a maverick in the Canada.
An adult female that has had a calf is a cow. A young female before she has had a calf of her own and is under three years of age is called a heifer. A young female that has had only one calf is called a first-calf heifer. Young cattle of both sexes are called calves until they are weaned weaners until they are a year old in some areas. After that, they are referred to as stirks if between one and two years of age. A castrated male is called a steer in the United States.
Camembert is a commune in the Orne department in north-western France. It is the place. Camembert has been called "The largest small village in France." This is because the area of the commune itself is out of proportion to the center of the village which consists of the Cheese Museum, the Town Hall, the Church of St Anne, the Ferme Président, Beamoncel and 3 other small houses. The rest of the commune is scattered over 10 km2; the village is most noted for the early development of camembert cheese by Marie Harel in 1791. Communes of the Orne department INSEE commune file Camembert Country