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Camogie

Camogie is an Irish stick-and-ball team sport played by women. Camogie is played by 100,000 women in Ireland and worldwide among Irish communities. A variant of the game of hurling adapted to suit women, it is organised by the Dublin-based Camogie Association or An Cumann Camógaíochta; the annual All Ireland Camogie Championship has a record attendance of 33,154 while average attendances in recent years are in the region of 15,000 to 18,000. The final is televised. UNESCO lists Camogie as an element of Intangible Cultural Heritage; the game is referenced in Waiting for Godot by Irish playwright Samuel Beckett. The game consists of two thirty-minute halves. There is a half-time interval of 10 minutes. In event of extra time, halves must consist of 10 minutes each; each team has 15 players on the field. Within the 15 players the team must consist of one goalkeeper, three full back players, three half back players, two centre-field players, three half forward players and three full forward players. There is a minimum requirement of 12 players on the pitch at all times.

The rules are identical to hurling, with a few exceptions. Goalkeepers wear the same colours as outfield players; this is because no special rules apply to the goalkeeper and so there is no need for officials to differentiate between goalkeeper and outfielders. A camogie player can handpass any score from play. Camogie games last two 30-minute halves. Ties are resolved by multiple 2×10-minute sudden death extra time periods. Dropping the camogie stick to handpass the ball is permitted. A smaller sliotar is used in camogie – known as a size 4 sliotar – whereas hurlers play with a size 5 sliotar. If a defending player hits the sliotar wide, a 45-metre puck is awarded to the opposition. After a score, the goalkeeper pucks out from the 13-metre line; the metal band on the camogie stick must be covered with tape. Side-to-side charges are forbidden. Two points are awarded for a score direct from a sideline cut. Camogie players must wear skorts rather than shorts. Under the original 1903 rules both the match and the field were shorter than their hurling equivalents.

Matches were 40 minutes, increased to 50 minutes in 1934, playing fields 125–130 yards long and 65–70 yards wide. From 1929 until 1979 a second crossbar, a "points bar" was used, meaning that a point would not be allowed if it travelled over this bar, a somewhat contentious rule through the 75 years it was in use. Teams were regulated at 12 a side, using an elliptical formation, although it was more a "squeezed lemon" formation with the three midfield players grouped more together than their counterpart on the half back and half-forward lines. In 1999 camogie moved to the GAA field-size and 15-a-side, adopting the standard GAA butterfly formation; the field is not of a fixed size, but must be between 130m long by 80m wide, 145m long by 90m wide. H-shaped goals are used. A team achieves a score by making the ball go between the posts. If the ball goes over the bar for a "point", the team earns one point. If the ball goes under the bar for a "goal", the team earns three points; the name was invented by Tadhg Ua Donnchadha at meetings in 1903 in advance of the first matches in 1904.

It is derived from stick used in the game. Men play hurling using a curved stick called a camán in Irish. Women in the early camogie games used a shorter stick described by the diminutive form camóg; the suffix -aíocht was added to both words to give names for the sports: camánaíocht and camógaíocht. When the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded in 1884 the English-origin name "hurling" was given to the men's game; when an organisation for women was set up in 1904, it was decided to anglicise the Irish name camógaíocht to camogie. The experimental rules were drawn up for the female game by Máire Ní Chinnéide, Seán Ó Ceallaigh, Tadhg Ó Donnchadha and Séamus Ó Braonáin; the Official Launch of Camogie took place with the first public match between Craobh an Chéitinnigh and Cúchulainns on 17 July at a Feis in Navan. The sport's governing body, the Camogie Association or An Cumann Camógaíochta was founded in 1905 and re-constituted in 1911, 1923 and 1939; until June 2010 it was known as Cumann Camógaíochta na nGael.

Máire Ní Chinnéide and Cáit Ní Dhonnchadha, two prominent Irish-language enthusiasts and cultural nationalists, were credited with having created the sport, with the assistance of Ní Dhonnchadha's scholarly brother Tadhg Ó Donnchadha, who drew up its rules. Thus, although camogie was founded by women, independently run, there was, from the outset, a small yet powerful male presence within its administrative ranks, it was no surprise that camogie emanated from the Gaelic League, nor that it would be dependent upon the structures and networks provided by that organisation during the initial expansion of the sport. Of all the cultural nationalist organisations for adults that emerged during the fin de siècle, the Gaelic League was the only one to accept female and male members on an equal footing. An Cumann Camógaíochta has a similar structure to the Gaelic Athletic Association, with an Annual Congress every spring which decides on policy and major issues such as rule changes, an executive council, the Árd Chómhairle which de

Comandamenti per un gangster

Comandamenti per un gangster is a 1968 gangster film directed by Alfio Caltabiano Comandeamenti per un gangster was Alfio Caltabiano's second film as a director. It was co-written by film critic and future director Dario Argento; the films script showcases several traits that would become part of Argento's directorial career. This includes an unseen murderer with black gloves, shots from a murderer's point of view and having the murderer being identified by a physical detail, a scar on his face; the film was shot on location in Yugoslavia. Comandeamenti per un gangster was released in Italy on 22 May 1968 where it was distributed by D. C. I, it grossed a total of 106.073 million Italian lire on its release. It was released in Yugoslavia as Poslednji obracun in 1968. In a contemporary review, Pietro Bianchi wrote in Il Giorno that the film was "a skillful attempt at applying the Western formula to the Gangster movie trappings" List of crime films of the 1960s List of Italian films of 1968 List of Yugoslav films of the 1960s Comandamenti per un gangster on IMDb

Robert Copland-Crawford

Robert Erskine Wade Copland-Crawford was a Scottish soldier and amateur sportsman. He served in the Afghan War from 1878 to 1880, was mentioned in dispatches, he was a police-officer in Sierra Leone, but ended his career in disgrace when he was imprisoned for causing the death of a native by flogging. He played football four times for Scotland in the representative matches played between 1870 and 1872, scoring the opening goal in the first match, he played first class cricket for M. C. C. in 1872 and 1873. Crawford was born in Elizabeth Castle, Jersey where his father, Captain Robert Fitzgerald Crawford was serving with the Royal Regiment of Artillery, he was raised in Edinburgh, before attending Harrow School between 1866 and 1871. At Harrow, he was a member of the school football XI between 1869 and 1871 and represented the school at cricket between 1868 and 1871; the family name was changed to "Copland-Crawford" in September 1872. While still at Harrow School, Crawford was selected to represent Scotland at football in the first "pseudo-international" organised by C. W. Alcock and Arthur Kinnaird in March 1870.

Late in the second half, Alcock instructed England's goalkeeper to leave his goal and move upfield in support of the forwards. England equalised in the 90th minute with a goal from Alfred Baker and the match ended in a 1–1 draw. Crawford retained his place for the next match between the two sides played on 19 November 1870, which ended in a 1–0 victory for the English and again "played well". Having missed out on the third match, now with the Harrow Chequers club, played in the final two matches on 18 November 1871 and 24 February 1872, which both ended with victories for England. In each of these matches he was joined by Fitzgerald. According to a report on the November 1871 match, Crawford was "truly unwearied from beginning to end" although "owing to the long journey from Edinburgh... hardly showed his best form." In the report on the final match, he and his brother were praised for their "untiring forward play throughout". As a member of the Harrow Chequers club, he played alongside his brother against the Wanderers in the opening match of the 1871–72 season, which ended scoreless.

In the match report in the Morning Post on Monday, 16 October 1871, the Crawford brothers were commended for being "conspicuous for excellent play". Both brothers were to become members of the Wanderers club. Crawford played cricket for Harrow School between 1868 and 1871, his best performances for the school came against a side from Lords and Commons on 10 June 1871 when he scored 72 runs and took four wickets with his underarm bowling in a drawn match, against Harrow Town on 4 July 1871 when he claimed six wickets in Harrow Town's second innings. He made two first class appearances for M. C. C. in 1872 and 1873 as well as an appearance for the North of England against the South. He made several other appearances for the M. C. C. as well as playing for the Old Harrovians, the Army and I Zingari, for whom he scored his only recorded century in a match against Household Brigade on 18 July 1872. Harris was to captain Kent and England. Copland-Crawford joined the 2nd Middlesex or Edmonton Royal Rifle Regiment of Militia and in September 1873 was appointed as a sub-lieutenant.

The following January, he joined the 60th Rifles with the rank of sub-lieutenant and resigned his commission with the 2nd Middlesex Militia. In January 1876, he was promoted to the full rank of lieutenant with the 60th Foot, he served in the Afghan War from 1878 to 1880, was mentioned in dispatches for his involvement in the Battle of Ahmed Khel in April 1880. He took part in the march to Kandahar under the overall command of Sir Frederick Roberts, he resigned his commission on 6 August 1884. In mid-September 1888, he took up a six-month posting with the Sierra Leone Frontier Police, but ended his career in disgrace after he was sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment with hard labour for causing a native servant to be flogged to death. Copland-Crawford was posted to the Sulymah district in the south-east of Sierra Leone, in an area described as "a narrow strip of coast in the south east of the colony, bounded by the territories of a number of independent native chieftains, who have never yet been considered subject to the British Crown".

Shortly after his appointment, he made a visit to one of the local chiefs, Makaia, at the town of Lago with instructions from the Governor of Sierra Leone, Sir James Hay to "enter into negotiations with a view to a peaceable settlement of disorders that had taken place on the frontier". Despite being hospitably received by Makaia, Copland-Crawford reported back "As your Excellency is well aware, the only way to renew trade, not 5 per cent, but 100 per cent, which means good for the Revenue as well as good for the merchants and traders, is to smash once and for all Mackiah, on one side, Gumbo Saido... on the other". His report was not favourably received by Hay who wrote back "While I am pleased to note that your journey has not been attended by any untoward accident, I cannot but remark that it is one which should not have been undertaken without specific instructions from the officer administering the Government, the more so as, at present, the relations between Mackiah and this Government are such that the future policy in

Jorge Ortiga

Jorge Ferreira da Costa Ortiga is a Portuguese prelate of the Catholic Church He has been Archbishop of Braga since 1999. He was born in the Brufe neighborhood of Vila Nova de Famalicão Municipality, on 5 March 1944, he attended the seminary of the Archdiocese of Braga between 1955 and 1967. He was ordained a priest on 9 July 1967, he was Vicar Cooperator in the parish of St. Victor in Braga from 1967 to 1968, he graduated from the Faculty of Ecclesiastical History at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome on 10 October 1970 attending the curriculum for the doctoral degree. He took courses in priestly spirituality in Grottaferrata in 1970–1971 run by the Institute Mystici Corporis. In Braga, he worked in the Secretariat of Bishops from June 1971 to September 1973 while fulfilling a pastoral assignment at the Third Church in Braga. On 1 October 1973 he was appointed Rector of the Church Gathered and Chaplain of the Brotherhood of Our Lady of Sorrows and St Anne in that parish. On 24 November 1981, he was appointed Episcopal Vicar for Clergy, an office, reconfirmed on 1 October 1985.

On 6 March 1985 he was named Canon of the Cathedral of Braga. On 9 November 1987, Pope John Paul II named him Titular Bishop of Braga Novabárbara and Auxiliary Bishop of Braga, he received his episcopal ordination in the Crypt of the Basilica Sameiro on 3 January 1988. On 5 June 1999 John Paul appointed him Archbishop of Braga, he was installed on 18 July 1999. In the Conciliar Seminary of Braga he taught Historical Studies, History of Religions and Church History, he was responsible for the Archdiocesan Secretariat for Vocations and President of the Institute of History and Religious Art. He chaired the General Secretariat of the 40th Diocesan Synod and coordinated the Diocesan Pastoral Secretariat, he is Chairman of the Board of the Diocesan Office of Clergy Support. He is President of the General Assembly of the Association "Give Your Hands." In the Portuguese Episcopal Conference, he chaired the Episcopal Commission for the Doctrine of the Faith and belonged to the Episcopal Commission of Christian Education.

He was President of the CEP from 2005 to 2011. The official style of the Archbishop in English is His Most Reverend Excellency Dom Jorge Ortiga, Archbishop-Primate of Braga, his full title used, is: His Most Reverend Excellency Dom Jorge Ortiga, By the Grace of God and the Holy Apostolic See, Archbishop of Braga and Primate of the Spains. Archdiocese of Braga: Archbishop Primate Catholic Hierarchy GCatholic

William Watson Smith

Lieutenant William Watson Smith was a Scottish First World War flying ace credited with eight aerial victories. Smith was commissioned as a temporary second lieutenant in the Gordon Highlanders on 10 September 1915, he was serving in the 2nd Battalion, which formed part of the 20th Brigade, 7th Division, when it was sent to serve in Italy in November 1917. On 3 July 1918 No. 139 Squadron RAF was formed at Villaverla as a fighter-reconnaissance squadron equipped with the Bristol F.2 two-seater fighter. The day after, 4 July, with the American Lieutenant Walter Carl Simon as his pilot, Smith drove down out of control an Albatros D. III over Levico. Two more victories soon followed, with Lieutenant H. C. Walters in the pilot's seat, when Smith destroyed another D. III over Cortesano on 15 July, an Albatros D. V over Nemo on 17 July. Smith's grant of a temporary commission as a second lieutenant in the Royal Air Force became official two days on 19 July. On 30 July, Smith was flying with Lieutenant Simon again, was with his squadron on an offensive patrol when it encountered a squadron of 16 enemy aircraft.

In the ensuing dogfight Simon and Smith were credited with five enemy aircraft destroyed within five minutes, though both men were wounded and their aircraft badly damaged. Smith was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, gazetted on 7 February 1919, his citation read: Second Lieutenant William Watson Smith. "This officer has shown exceptional keenness and efficiency as an observer. He has taken part in numerous reconnaissances, his reports are invariably clear and accurate, containing valuable information which has proved of great assistance in our recent operations." On 1 August 1919 Smith was re-seconded to the Royal Air Force for a period of two years as an observer officer with the rank of lieutenant relinquishing his temporary RAF commission to return to his regiment in the Army in 4 August 1921

Jean-Baptiste Théodon

Jean-Baptiste Théodon was a French sculptor. Born at Vendrest, he formed his style working in the Manufacture royale des Gobelins organized by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who saw to it that he was admitted to the newly founded French Academy at Rome in 1675. Following the successive reinstallations of the Academy, in the company of his wife, Théodon remained in Rome for three decades, working for the popes at the Lateran and the Basilica of St. Peter, above all for the Jesuits. After a brief visit to Paris in 1704, he returned once and for all in 1705, to participate, among sculptors of greater renown, in the installation of the Chapelle Royale at Versailles under the general direction of Jules Hardouin-Mansart, whose last major project this was, the more immediate supervision of Robert de Cotte