click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Otger Cataló

Otger Cataló is a legendary character who with the Nine Barons of Fame would have conquered Catalonia from the Saracens sometime in the 8th century AD. According to some old theories, the name of Catalonia would have derived from its surname. In any case, the oldest written references to this character that have survived are from the fifteenth century, much than any contemporaneous source; the legend was recovered from XIX with the appearance of Renessaince and by the works of the authors of the Catalan Renaixença: Víctor Balaguer, Antoni Ferrer i Codina and Jacinto Verdaguer. The legend is based on events. Otger agrees in the name and on the date of death with Otger, Arcomte de Catalanum, Duke of Aquitaine, who died in the battle for the reconquest of Roses and was buried in the Monastery of the island of Ré. According to the legend, Otger Cataló survived the Saracen attack. All the Christian warriors had died. Only he survived and hidden in the mountains of the Pyrenees. Under the protection of his goat's skin shop, he was treated by the affection of his greyhound, who daily wound his wounds.

Otger, little by little, has recovered. It was fed on the milk of a sheep. To the extent that they were being healed, Otger Cataló devoted himself to preparing weapons with the desire to fight again against the invaders of Catalonia. Polia sharpened the dagger. Over time, the day came, he took the hunting horn and made it resound and prolonged, so that his hoarse flake flew through valleys and mountains spreading all over the country. Thus he summoned the faithful Christians to the earth, to the fight; the greyhound, interpreting the call of his master, undertook a fast and untiring race until he found the first man and made him understand with his dreams that he wanted him to follow. The man, following the dog, was led to the presence of Otger Cataló, who gave him the message that he informed the lords of the earth that the moment to fight again against the Saracens had arrived; the messenger went to give the news to the main characters of the territory to take the weapons they had at their disposal.

Thus, nine different places, came with their hosts the most beloved barons of the earth with the pleasure of reconquering the territories. These nine knights were:, Bernat Roger d'Erill, Gispert de Ribelles, Dapifer de Montcada, Galceran de Cervera, Galceran de Pinós, Bernat d'Anglesola, Guerau de Alamany and Hug de Mataplana, known as the Nine Barons of Fame or the Nine Knights of the Earth. Otger Cataló urged them to fight until death by the land that had seen them be born until liberated from Saracen power; the nine knights joined the swords, swearing before the altar of the black Marededéu de Montgrony, who would loyally fulfill their word. The horsemen, with Otger, started off for the combat, each one towards a different place, achieved the most resounding victories; the only one that got injured again was Otger Cataló, during the battle to reconquer Roses, in 735, but this time as a triumphant. Otger Cataló, before dying, ordered that his shield be decorated with the symbol of the greyhound because this animal had given evidence of unconditional and endless loyalty

Uncial 0237

Uncial 0237, ε 014, is a Greek-Coptic uncial manuscript of the New Testament. Paleographically it has been assigned to the 6th-century; the codex contains two small parts of the Gospel of Matthew 15:12-15,17-19, on one parchment leaf. The text is written in two columns per 23 lines per page, in uncial letters, it is a palimpsest. It is dated by the INTF to the 6th-century; the Greek text of this codex is mixed. Aland placed it in Category III, it was found in Fayyum. The manuscript was examined by Karl Wessely, it was added to the list of New Testament manuscripts by C. R. Gregory, who classified it as lectionary 349; the manuscript was added to the list of the New Testament manuscripts by Kurt Aland in 1954. It was digitised by the INTF; the codex is housed at the Austrian National Library in Vienna. 0237 List of New Testament uncials Coptic versions of the Bible Textual criticism Karl Wessely. "Ein fayumisch-griechisches Evangelien-fragment". Wiener Studien. Vienna. 26: 270–274. Stanley E. Porter, New Testament Greek Papyri and Parchments, Vienna 2008, pp. 88–91.

ISBN 978-3-11-020308-0 "Uncial 0237". Münster Institute - INTF. Münster. Retrieved January 13, 2012. – digitalized manuscript

Rogers Plaza

Rogers Plaza is an enclosed shopping mall in Wyoming, Michigan, a suburb of Grand Rapids, Michigan. Opened in 1961, it was the first shopping mall in Western Michigan; the center features Planet Fitness, Citi Trends, OfficeMax among its major stores. Built in 1960, the mall included S. S. Kresge and W. T. Grant variety stores, Kroger and A&P supermarkets, Cunningham Drug, Montgomery Ward. An adjacent development, Southland Plaza, opened one year with a Wurzburg's department store. Mall developers were unsuccessful in attracting a department store for the eastern anchor, but by 1971, a Turn Style discount store had opened on the east end; this store was the subject of a lawsuit from Kresge. Into the late 1980s, the Stannard's Music store was one of the first stores in the area to introduce the public to the MIDI, giving seminars on the capability of the device. By the 1990s, the mall was having difficulty attracting business. In 1990, the mall's east anchor had become Best Products and in 1990 and 1991, the mall held a "Haunted Hotel" event, sponsored by Easter Seals, near Halloween.

In 1991, a fire in the Best store resulted in three people hospitalized for smoke inhalation. In 1994, Office Max became a tenant replacing Bargain Books, with the bookstore moving into a smaller space. While Gantos, a boutique, closed. In 1998, a United States Postal Service store opened in the center of the mall. Rogers Plaza had a total of 30 retail stores in 1999 with the mall "filling up fast", with the former space used by Best being filled. However, much of the mall's business was taken by the newly opened Rivertown Crossings Mall in Grandville. Into the 2000s, Ward's closed in December 2000 with 140 employees losing their jobs while the mall was sold in May 2000 to a new owner. In 2001 and 2002, the mall underwent a 14-month renovation project; as part of the renovation, the vacated Montgomery Ward was demolished for a Family Fare supermarket and AJ Wright discount store. AJ Wright became CW Price in August of the same year; the mall was purchased by Sun Valley Ltd. in June 2012. At the time, other major tenants included Big Lots, Harbor Freight Tools, Citi Trends, OfficeMax.

In June 2019, Family Fare was closed down and the space is going to be auctioned off

Elena Sanayeva

Elena Vsevolodovna Sanayeva is a Soviet and Russian theater and film actress and social activist. She is an Honored Artist of the RSFSR. Father — People's Artist of the USSR Vsevolod Sanayev. Mother — Lidya Sanayeva. First husband — engineer Vladimir Konuzin. Son — Pavel Sanayev, a Russian writer, film director and translator. Granddaughter — Veronica. Second husband — actor and film director Rolan Bykov. 1975 — The Adventures of Buratino as Lisa Alisa 1977 — The Nose as Podtochin's daughter 1978 — The Cat Who Walked by Herself as cow 1980 — Alibaba Aur 40 Chor as spirit of cave Sim-Sim 1982 — Private Life as Marina 1984 — Scarecrow as Margarita 2007 — Kilometer Zero as Olga Sergeyevna Elena Sanayeva on IMDb

History and use of instant-runoff voting

Instant-runoff voting is a voting method used in single-seat elections with more than two candidates. Instead of voting only for a single candidate, voters in IRV elections can rank the candidates in order of preference. Ballots are counted for each elector's top choice, losing candidates are eliminated, ballots for losing candidates are redistributed until one candidate is the top remaining choice of a majority of the voters; when the field is reduced to two, it has become an "instant runoff" that allows a comparison of the top two candidates head-to-head. IRV more known outside the US as the alternative vote or preferential voting, was devised around 1870 by the US architect W. R. Ware. Today it is in use at a national level to elect the Australian House of Representatives, the National Parliament of Papua New Guinea, the President of Ireland and President of India. In Australia it is used for elections to the legislative assemblies of all states and territories except Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory, for the Tasmanian Legislative Council.

IRV is used a number of municipal elections in Australia, the United States, United Kingdom and New Zealand. Because of its relationship to the Single Transferable Vote system, IRV is used for by-elections and elections with only a single winner in some jurisdictions that use STV for ordinary parliamentary elections, such as the Republic of Ireland and Scotland. IRV is known by different names in the various countries, it is known as the'Alternative Vote','Ranked Choice Voting', and'Preferential Voting', although IRV is only one of a number of forms of preferential voting systems. This method was considered by Condorcet as early as 1788, though only to condemn it, for its ability to eliminate a candidate preferred by a majority of voters. Instant-runoff voting is based on the Single Transferable Vote electoral system, developed by Hill in 1819, Hare in 1857, Andrae in 1855. Unlike IRV, the Single Transferable Vote was designed as a form of proportional representation involving multi-seat constituencies, today STV is used in a number of countries, including Australia, the Republic of Ireland and Malta.

It is known as Ware's method, after William Robert Ware, the founder of the schools of architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Columbia University, while describing the Single Transferable Vote system in 1871, mentioned that it could be used for single-winner elections. IRV was adopted for the Australian House of Representatives in 1918 and has been used to elect the President of Ireland since the office came into being in 1937, it was introduced in Fiji in 1999 and in Papua New Guinea in 2007. IRV was introduced for House of Representatives elections in Australia after the Swan by-election in October 1918, when the conservative Country Party, representing small farmers, split the non-Labor vote in conservative country areas, allowing Labor candidates to win on a first-past-the-post vote in place; the conservative Nationalist government of Billy Hughes introduced preferential voting to enable the Coalition parties to field candidates in the same electorates without putting Coalition seats at risk.

It was first used at the Corangamite by-election on 14 December 1918, nationwide at the 1919 election. Preferential voting continued to benefit the Coalition until the 1990 election, when for the first time the Labor Bob Hawke government obtained a net benefit from preferential voting. Ballot papers are marked with the order of preferences: 2, 3, etc.. Counting of the ballot papers proceeds and when no candidate receives 50% plus one vote of the first preference vote, the candidate with the fewest first preference votes is eliminated and that candidate's votes are distributed to the remaining candidates; the process continues until a candidate accumulates 50 % plus a simple majority. Counting will continue to finality, which results in what is referred to as the two-party preferred vote, which expresses the electorate's voting preference equivalent to a 2-person election of the two most popular candidates. Most council elections use the method, as do the lower house elections of four states, the sole house of one state and one territory and the upper house of one other state.

A study of the 2007 federal election found that every House of Representatives electorate had at least four candidates, the average number of candidates was seven. 76 candidates depended on preferences to win. Preferential voting is used for most state and local elections in Australia, but sometimes with optional preferential voting where voters are allowed to limit their number of rankings; the Australian Senate, the upper houses of four states, the lower house of one state and the sole house of the Australian Capital Territory, use the single transferable vote. Under the name'preferential' or'elimination ballot' or alternative vote, IRV was used in the British Columbia's general elections of 1952 and 1953. IRV was brought in by the governing coalition consisting of the Liberal and Conservative parties. In the next election many CCF supporters chose the unknown Social Credit Party, a minor party that had never held any seats in the British Columbia legislature, as their second choice; the Social Credit Party achieved an upset victory in the 1952 election, winning 19 seats in the 48-memb