Buttle Lake is a lake on Vancouver Island in Strathcona Regional District, British Columbia, Canada. It is about 23 kilometres long and 1.5 kilometres wide, has an area of 28 square kilometres, is up to 120 metres deep, lies at an elevation of 221 metres. The lake is located between Gold River in Strathcona Provincial Park; the lake is the source of the Campbell River. In the 1950s, Upper Campbell Lake was dammed. Water from the dam backed up in to Buttle Lake; because of this, the natural landscape of Buttle Lake has been forever changed. At times of low water, there exists mudflats littered with stumps from the forests which use to stand there, it was named after John Buttle and botanist from Kew Gardens, who discovered the lake and mapped the area in 1865. Buttle explored Vancouver Island as naturalist under Dr Robert Brown as part of the Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition in 1864. From Strathcona Provincial Park, located in the center of Vancouver Island, the main access to Strathcona Provincial Park is via Highway 28, which connects with Gold River on the west coast of Vancouver Island.
Follow Highway 19 north past Courtenay to Campbell River follow Highway 28 west for 48 km. Highway 28 provides access to Buttle Lake. Around Buttle Lake, there are some campsites. Travelers should bring portable gas stoves for cooking or use firewood which can be purchased from the Park Facility Operator at Buttle Lake Intendant near campsite area. No firearms are allowed in the park. Four-wheel drive car is required because Parking is permitted only in designated areas and on the gravel portion of campsites. Parking is not permitted on roadsides. Hiking equipment, swimming suits, small boats, fishing rods and bicycles are allowed. Details at B. C. Adventure
In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit; the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a "designated group", along with women, visible minorities, people with physical or mental disabilities. First Nations are not defined as a visible minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. North American indigenous; some of their oral traditions describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700 and the 18th-century Tseax Cone eruption. Written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century.
European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture. In addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together an understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Although not without conflict, Euro-Canadians' early interactions with First Nations, Métis, Inuit populations were less combative compared to the violent battles between colonists and native peoples in the United States. Collectively, First Nations, Métis peoples constitute Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, or first peoples. First Nation as a term became used beginning in 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language; the term had come into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive. No legal definition of the term exists; some indigenous peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community.
A band is a "body of Indians for whose use and benefit in common lands... have been set apart... moneys are held... or declared... to be a band for the purposes of" the Indian Act by the Canadian Crown. The term Indian is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent; the use of the term Native Americans, which the US government and others have adopted, is not common in Canada. It refers more to the Indigenous peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States; the parallel term Native Canadian is not used, but Native and autochtone are. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763 known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations; the term First Nations is capitalized. Bands and nations may have different meanings. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis. Individuals using the term outside Canada include U.
S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest, as well as supporters of the Cascadian independence movement. The singular used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person. A more recent trend is for members of various nations to refer to themselves by their tribal or national identity only, e.g. "I'm Haida". For pre-history, see: Paleo-Indians and Archaic periods First Nations by linguistic-cultural area: List of First Nations peoplesFirst Nations peoples had settled and established trade routes across what is now Canada by 1,000 BC to 500 BC. Communities developed, each with its own culture and character. In the northwest were the Athapaskan-speaking peoples, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ, Tutchone-speaking peoples, Tlingit. Along the Pacific coast were the Haida, Kwakiutl, Nuu-chah-nulth, Nisga'a and Gitxsan. In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai and Northern Peigan. In the northern woodlands were the Chipewyan. Around the Great Lakes were the Anishinaabe, Algonquin and Wyandot. Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Innu and Micmac.
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The name "Blackfoot" came from the colour of the peoples' leather footwear, known as moccasins, they had painted the bottoms of their moccasins black. One account claimed that the Blackfoot Confederacies walked through the ashes of prairie fires, which in turn coloured the bottoms of their moccasins black, they had migrated onto the Great Plains from the Plateau area. The Blackfoot may have lived in their homeland since the end of the Pleistocene 11,000 years ago.. For thousands of years, they managed the prairie to support bison herds and cultivated berries and edible roots, they allowed only legitimate traders into their territory, making treaties only when the bison herds were exterminated in the 1870s. The Squamish history is a series of past events, both passed on through oral tradition and recent history, of the Squamish indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Prior to colonization, they recorded their history through oral tradition as a way to transmit stories and knowledge across generations. This was common among all the peoples; the writing system esta
HMS Discovery (1789)
HMS Discovery was a Royal Navy ship launched in 1789 and best known as the lead ship in George Vancouver's exploration of the west coast of North America in his famous 1791-1795 expedition. She was participated in the Battle of Copenhagen. Thereafter she served as a hospital ship and as a convict ship until 1831, she was broken up in 1834. Discovery was launched in 1789 and purchased for the Navy in 1790, she was named after the previous HMS Discovery, one of the ships on James Cook's third voyage to the Pacific Ocean. The earlier Discovery was the ship. Discovery was a full-rigged ship with a standard crew complement of 100 including a widow's man, she had been built for a voyage of exploration to the Southern whale fisheries. Discovery's first captain was Henry Roberts, with Vancouver as his first lieutenant, but when the Nootka Crisis began in 1789, Roberts and Vancouver were posted elsewhere. The ship became a depot for processing sailors brought in by press gangs in Chatham. Vancouver returned and was given full command of Discovery to assist with the Nootka Sound Conventions.
On 1 April 1791, Discovery left England with HMS Chatham. Both ships stopped at Cape Town before exploring the south coast of Australia. In King George Sound, the Discovery's naturalist and surgeon Archibald Menzies collected various plant species including Banksia grandis; this was the first recording of the genus Banksia from Western Australia. The two ships sailed to Hawaii where Vancouver met Kamehameha I. Chatham and Discovery sailed on to the Northwest Pacific. Over the course of the next four years, Vancouver surveyed the northern Pacific Ocean coast in Discovery wintering in Spanish California or Hawaii. Vancouver named many features after friends and associates, including: Mount Baker, named after 3rd Lieutenant Joseph Baker, the first on the expedition to spot it Mount St. Helens, named after Alleyne Fitzherbert, 1st Baron St Helens Puget Sound, after Discovery's lieutenant Peter Puget, who explored its southern reaches. Mount Hood Mount Rainier Discovery Bay and Port Discovery. Discovery's primary mission was to exert British sovereignty over this part of the Northwest Coast following the hand-over of the Spanish Fort San Miguel at Nootka Sound, although exploration in co-operation with the Spanish was seen as an important secondary objective.
Exploration work was successful. Vancouver and the Spanish commandant Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra were on such good terms that the original name of Vancouver Island was Vancouver and Quadra's Island. In 1793, Discovery entered a bay on the northern end of the Prince of Wales Island when a storm arose, its shelter led to it being named Port Protection. Baker Point, the northwest point of Prince of Wales Island is named after the Discovery's 3rd Lieutenant Joseph Baker, it is remarkable that during Discovery's five-year voyage she lost only six sailors, all in accidents. Discovery was meant to bring a resolution to the disposition of control over Nootka Sound, but despite four years of dispatches with their home governments and Quadra failed to formally conclude an agreement. Discovery put into St Helena in July 1795. There on 2 July 1795 Discovery and the brig Chatham captured a Dutch East Indiaman, the Makassar, which sailed in, unaware that the newly established Batavian Republic was at war with Great Britain.
Some prize money was due to be paid in November 1824. From there Vancouver and Discovery sailed in convoy with Sceptre, the East Indiaman General Goddard, their prizes, a large number of other East Indiamen, they arrived at Shannon in September and Discovery sailed on to England. After four years at sea, Discovery was in great need of a refit, she was laid up until 1798 when she was refitted as a bomb vessel and recommissioned under Commander John Dick. In October 1800 Commander John Conn replaced Dick. Discovery participated in the Battle of Copenhagen in April 1801. In 1847 the Admiralty authorized the issuance of the Naval General Service medal with clasp "Copenhagen 1801" to all surviving claimants from the campaign. On 4 August 1801, Discovery served with Nelson when he resolved to attack an enemy flotilla off Boulogne using Bomb vessels. On the night of 15 August, the British attacked in four divisions, with Conn in charge of four boats armed with howitzers. Discovery had one man wounded in the unsuccessful British attack.
Discovery was paid off in October and laid up in ordinary in May 1802. Discovery was recommissioned in May 1803 under Commander John Joyce, with Commander Charles Pickford replacing him in August. Pickford continued in command until 1805. In 1807 Discovery was at Sheerness, she continued in this role until 1815. In 1818 Discovery was converted to a convict ship at Woolwich. In 1824 she moved to Deptford, where she continued to serve as a convict ship until at least 1831, she was broken up there in 1834. Among the notable persons who served on Discovery's great voyage: Captain George Vancouver 1st Lieutenant Zachary Mudge - promoted to admiral in 1849 2nd Lieutenant Peter Puget - promoted to rear admiral in 1821 3rd Lieutenant Joseph Baker - Post captain in 1809 Master Joseph Whidbey - a naval engineer noted for the breakwater at Plymouth Thomas Manby - master's mate, promoted to lieutenant on Discovery William Robert Broughton - in command of Chatham a rear-admiral Archibald Menzies - naturalist and surgeon Thomas Pitt, 2nd Baron Camelford - sent back to England in disgrace.
Robert Barrie - commissioner of the dockyard at Kingston, Upper Canada European and American voyages of scientific explor
Bute Inlet is one of the principal inlets of the British Columbia Coast. It is 80 km long from the estuaries of the Homathko and Southgate Rivers at the head of the inlet, to the mouth, where it is nearly blocked by Stuart Island, it averages about 4 km in width. Bute Inlet is in a spectacular wilderness setting and is one of the most scenic waterways in the world. In the upper reaches of the inlet mountains rise 9000 feet above sea level. Bute Inlet is a spectacular wilderness, visited by few people. In more recent years tourists are travelling from around the world to view grizzly bears in a natural setting and explore the wilderness of Bute Inlet. Bute Inlet took its name from John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1762 to 1763, his grandson Charles Stuart was a master's mate on Vancouver's Discovery. Bute Inlet had an interesting role in the early history of the Colony of British Columbia. Entrepreneur Alfred Waddington sought to build a route to the Cariboo goldfields, shorter and easier than the existing routes via the Fraser Canyon and the Douglas Road.
In competition with the projected Cariboo Wagon Road, still under construction at that time, Waddington got a license from the colonial government to undertake the construction of a wagon road from the head of Bute Inlet via the Homathko River to the Chilcotin Plateau, thence east across the Fraser to the Cariboo Goldfields. The plan was that steamers from Victoria would voyage to the head of the inlet, travellers would take what was to be a toll road overland from there, he was granted a townsite at the head of the inlet and commenced construction up the Grand Canyon of the Homathko from there. Conflict with warriors of the Tsilhqot'in Nation ensued when Waddington's foreman threatened smallpox on the warriors, working as labourers due to famine in their country, over the mountains on the inland side of the range. Discussing his threats that night, the warriors, led by Klatsassin of the Xeni Gwet'in of Nemaia Valley near Chilko Lake, rose up and slaughtered Waddington's work party. Three men made it to civilization despite severe injuries.
As a result of their reports, expeditions were launched by troops from Victoria and a posse of volunteers from the Cariboo and a long bait-and-wait game ensued known to history as the Chilcotin War of 1864. It ended with the surrender on terms of amnesty by Klatsassin, betrayed and hung at Quesnellemouthe; the Bute Inlet route was considered for the mainline of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which would have seen extensive blasting down the west shore of the inlet and a series of bridges to reach Vancouver Island near Campbell River via Seymour Narrows. This route was passed over in favour of the Fraser Canyon route to a new port-city at Burrard Inlet, to become the city of Port Moody, British Columbia; the residual political impact of the Chilcotin War was one factor dissuading the CPR from using Bute Inlet. Bute Inlet is located in the Coast Land District, Range 1 and is part of the Sunshine Coast Forest District of the Coast Forest Region, headquartered in Powell River, the Lower Mainland Ministry of Environment Region, headquartered in Surrey.
It is within the mainland portion of the Strathcona Regional District, which has only municipal powers such as sewage and building permits on non-Indian Reserve lands in rural areas. The inlet lies in the overlapping traditional territories and land claims of the Homalco, Kwiakah and We Wai Kai First Nations. Bute Inlet in British Columbia is a classic fjord formation formed during the Holocene by glacial erosion. Bute Inlet is one of the deepest fjords in British Columbia with its depth of 660 metres, with a sill of 220 metres; the majority of freshwater entering the inlet, ~95%, is supplied by the Homathko river and the Southgate river at the head of the fjord. An underwater channel system is incised in the fjord basin sediments which carries sediment to the fjord. Homathko Estuary Provincial Park Bute Inlet, Long Term Trends in Deep Water Properties of BC Inlets and Oceans Canada - Pacific Region Map hydropower project in Bute Inlet
Strait of Georgia
The Strait of Georgia or the Georgia Strait is an arm of the Pacific Ocean between Vancouver Island and the extreme southwestern mainland coast of British Columbia and the extreme northwestern mainland coast of Washington, United States. It is 240 kilometres long and varies in width from 20 to 58 kilometres. Along with the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound, it is a constituent part of the Salish Sea. Archipelagos and narrow channels mark each end of the Strait of Georgia, the Gulf Islands and San Juan Islands in the south, the Discovery Islands in the north; the main channels to the south are Boundary Pass, Haro Strait and Rosario Strait, which connect the Strait of Georgia to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. In the north, Discovery Passage is the main channel connecting the Strait of Georgia to Johnstone Strait; the strait is a major navigation channel on the west coast of North America, owing to the presence of the port of Vancouver, due to its role as the southern entrance to the intracoastal route known as the Inside Passage.
The United States Geological Survey defines the southern boundary of the Strait of Georgia as a line running from East Point on Saturna Island to Patos Island, Sucia Island, Matia Island to Point Migley on Lummi Island. This line touches the northern edges of Rosario Strait, which leads south to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Boundary Pass, which leads south to Haro Strait and the Strait of Juan de Fuca; the mean depth of the Strait of Georgia is 157 metres, with a maximum depth of 448 metres. Its surface area is 6,800 square kilometres; the Fraser River accounts for 80 percent of the fresh water entering the strait. Water circulates in the strait in a general counterclockwise direction; the term "Gulf of Georgia" includes waters other than the Georgia Strait proper, such as the inter-insular straits and channels of the Gulf Islands, may refer to communities on the shore of southern Vancouver Island. As defined by George Vancouver in 1792, the Gulf of Georgia included all the inland waters beyond the eastern end of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, including Puget Sound, Bellingham Bay, the waters around the San Juan Islands, as well as the Strait of Georgia.
Several major islands are in the largest being Quadra Island and Texada Island. First Nations communities have surrounded the Strait of Georgia for thousands of years; the first European exploration of the area was undertaken by Captain Jose Maria Narvaez and Pilot Juan Carrasco of Spain in 1791. At this time Francisco de Eliza gave the strait the name "Gran Canal de Nuestra Señora del Rosario la Marinera." In 1792, it was renamed for King George III as the "Gulf of Georgia" by George Vancouver of Great Britain, during his extensive expedition along the west coast of North America. Vancouver designated the mainland in this region as New Georgia, areas farther north as New Hanover and New Bremen; the June 23, 1946 Vancouver Island earthquake shocked the Strait of Georgia region, causing the bottom of Deep Bay to sink between 3 and 26 m. The two busiest routes of the BC Ferries system cross the strait, between Tsawwassen and Swartz Bay and between Horseshoe Bay and Nanaimo; the Strait of Georgia is known as a premier scuba whale watching location.
In 1967, the Georgia Strait inspired the name of Vancouver's alternative newspaper, The Georgia Straight, which has published continuously since. Towns and cities on the strait include Campbell River, Comox, Qualicum Beach, Parksville and Nanaimo on the western shore, as well as Powell River, Sechelt and Greater Vancouver on the east. Across the border in the United States, Bellingham and other communities lie on the eastern shore. Other settlements on Vancouver Island and the mainland are separated from Georgia Strait itself by islands and lesser straits but are spoken of as being in the Strait of Georgia region. A controversial idea has existed since 1872 of a bridge connecting Vancouver Island to the British Columbia mainland; the first idea was to cross Seymour Narrows at Menzies Bay with a rail bridge for the then-proposed Canadian Pacific Railway to link Victoria, via Bute Inlet and the Yellowhead Pass, with the rest of Canada. Proposals have focussed on bridging the Strait of Georgia itself, much wider than Seymour Narrows.
A proposed modern road bridge connecting Greater Vancouver to Vancouver Island in the manner of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel, has been discussed for decades since the commencement of service by BC Ferries. Some crossing design suggestions include a floating submerged tunnel to allow ship traffic to move freely; the hurricane-force windstorms of Typhoon Freda in 1962 and of December 2006 call into question the safety of such a project. Proponents of the bridge argue that a reliable link to Vancouver Island from mainland British Columbia will increase tourism and growth on Vancouver Island. Opponents argue that construction of a bridge will result in further urbanization of the island and that the area's environment will be negatively affected by construction and the increase in tourism. Other potential problems are the width and depth of the strait and the soft consistency of the strait floor, as well as high seismic activity in the Vancouver Island region, the fact that the strait is used as a navigation channel.
The strait is far deeper than any bridged body of water in the world. Former B. C. cabinet minister Dr. Patrick McGeer, a research neuroscientist and a science advocate, has advanced the proposal in recent decades
Captain George Vancouver was a British officer of the Royal Navy best known for his 1791–95 expedition, which explored and charted North America's northwestern Pacific Coast regions, including the coasts of what are now the American states of Alaska and Oregon, as well as the province of British Columbia in Canada. He explored the Hawaiian Islands and the southwest coast of Australia. Vancouver Island and the city of Vancouver, British Columbia are named for him, as is Vancouver, Washington. Mount Vancouver of Yukon and Alaska, on the Canadian-American border and New Zealand's sixth highest mountain, are named for him. George Vancouver was born in the seaport town of King's Lynn on 22 June 1757 as the sixth, youngest, child of John Jasper Vancouver, a Dutch-born Deputy Collector of Customs, Bridget Berners. In 1771, at the age of 13, Vancouver entered the Royal Navy as a "young gentleman," a future candidate for midshipman, he was selected to serve as a midshipman aboard HMS Resolution, on James Cook's second voyage searching for Terra Australis.
He accompanied Cook's third voyage, this time aboard Resolution's companion ship, HMS Discovery, was present during the first European sighting and exploration of the Hawaiian Islands. Upon his return to Britain in October 1780, Vancouver was commissioned as a lieutenant and posted aboard the sloop HMS Martin on escort and patrol duty in the English Channel and North Sea, he accompanied the ship. On 7 May 1782 he was appointed fourth Lieutenant of the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Fame, at the time part of the British West Indies Fleet and assigned to patrolling the French-held Leeward Islands. Vancouver returned to England in June 1783. In the late 1780s the Spanish Empire commissioned an expedition to the Pacific Northwest; the 1789 the Nootka Crisis developed, Spain and Britain came close to war over ownership of the Nootka Sound on contemporary Vancouver Island, of greater importance, the right to colonise and settle the Pacific Northwest coast. Henry Roberts had taken command of the survey ship HMS Discovery, to be used on another round-the-world voyage, Roberts selected Vancouver as his first lieutenant, but they were diverted to other warships due to the crisis.
Vancouver went with Joseph Whidbey to the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Courageux. When the first Nootka Convention ended the crisis in 1790, Vancouver was given command of Discovery to take possession of Nootka Sound and to survey the coasts. Departing England with two ships, HMS Discovery and HMS Chatham, on 1 April 1791, Vancouver commanded an expedition charged with exploring the Pacific region. In its first year the expedition travelled to Cape Town, New Zealand and Hawaii, collecting botanical samples and surveying coastlines along the way, he formally claimed at Possession Point, King George Sound Western Australia, now the town of Albany, Western Australia for the British. Proceeding to North America, Vancouver followed the coasts of present-day Oregon and Washington northward. In April 1792 he encountered American Captain Robert Gray off the coast of Oregon just prior to Gray's sailing up the Columbia River. Vancouver entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca, between Vancouver Island and the Washington state mainland on 29 April 1792.
His orders included a survey of every inlet and outlet on the west coast of the mainland, all the way north to Alaska. Most of this work was in small craft propelled by both oar. Vancouver named many features for his officers, friends and his ship Discovery, including: Mount Baker – after Discovery's 3rd Lieutenant Joseph Baker, the first on the expedition to spot it Mount St. Helens – after his friend, Alleyne Fitzherbert, 1st Baron St Helens Puget Sound – after Discovery's 2nd lieutenant Peter Puget, who explored its southern reaches. Mount Rainier – after his friend, Rear Admiral Peter Rainier. Port Gardner and Port Susan, Washington – after his former commander Vice Admiral Sir Alan Gardner and his wife Susannah, Lady Gardner. Whidbey Island – after naval engineer Joseph Whidbey. Discovery Passage, Discovery Island, Discovery Bay and Port Discovery. Vancouver was the second European to enter Burrard Inlet on 13 June 1792, naming it for his friend Sir Harry Burrard, it is the present day main harbour area of the City of Vancouver beyond Stanley Park.
He surveyed Jervis Inlet over the next nine days. On his 35th birthday on 22 June 1792, he returned to Point Grey, the present-day location of the University of British Columbia. Here he unexpectedly met a Spanish expedition led by Dionisio Alcalá Galiano and Cayetano Valdés y Flores. Vancouver was "mortified" to learn they had a crude chart of the Strait of Georgia based on the 1791 exploratory voyage of José María Narváez the year before, under command of Francisco de Eliza. For three weeks they cooperatively explored the Georgia Strait and the Discovery Islands area before sailing separately towards Nootka Sound. After the summer surveying season ended, in August 1792, Vancouver went to Nootka the region's most important harbour, on contemporary Vancouver Island. Here he was to receive any British buildings and lands returned by the Spanish from claims by Francisco de Eliza for the Spanish crown; the Spanish commander, Juan Francisco Bodega y Quadra, was cordial and he and Vancouver exchanged the maps they had made, but no agreement was reached.
At this time, they decided to name t
British Columbia Highway 19
Highway 19, is the main north-south thoroughfare on Vancouver Island from Nanaimo to Port Hardy. A highway has existed on the Island since about 1912. Gravel and rough, the highway was an essential link together with the E and N Railway; the paved highway first opened in 1953, replacing a stretch of Highway 1 between Nanaimo and Campbell River being extended to the northern tip of the island in the late 1970s. The total length of the highway is 377 kilometres. Completed in 1953, the highway was built over most of the original highway 19A. By 1976, the highway was extended north to Port Hardy, where it terminated at the Beaver Cove ferry terminal. Before 1976, the highway terminated in the north at Kelsey Bay, where BC Ferries began its northern route to Prince Rupert until moving its southern terminus north to Port Hardy after the highway was extended. Between 1996 and 2001, an express route was built further inland between Parksville and Campbell River, while another express route was built as a western bypass of Nanaimo, extending the highway further south to the Duke Point ferry terminal.
This makes Highway 19 the only numbered highway in B. C. to have ferry terminals at both ends. Highway 19's northern end is located at the Bear Cove ferry terminal, across the bay from Port Hardy; the highway proceeds southwest from the ferry dock for 5 km to a junction with the main road to the centre of Port Hardy turns southeast, travelling for 16 km to Highway 30, further east for 20 km to the main road to Port McNeill. The highway follows the eastern shore of Nimpkish Lake and the Nimpkish River through a long stretch of dense forest terrain for 64 km southeast, until reaching a junction with the community of Woss travelling another 65 km east, through the boundary between the Regional Districts of Mount Waddington and Strathcona, to a junction with Sayward, entering the city of Campbell River another 64 km southeast, at a junction with Highways 28 and 19A, just past the river that the city is named for; the entire stretch of Highway 19 north of Campbell River is an undivided two-lane configuration.
Once at the junction with Highways 28 and 19A, Highway 19 separates into an expressway configuration, built between 1996 and 2001. In Campbell River, the expressway shares its northbound lanes with Tamarac Street, its southbound lanes with Willow Street; the entire stretch of Highway 19 between Campbell River and the city of Parksville alternates between a divided four-lane expressway and freeway, with a nominal speed limit of 110 km/h, is referred to as the "Inland Island Highway". South from Campbell River, Highway 19 is divided by a concrete wall, goes through a series of six at-grade intersections, five of them possessing exit numbers. 52 km south of Campbell River, Highway 19 reaches its first interchange, with a four-lane arterial highway that goes west to the village of Cumberland and east to the communities of Courtenay and Comox. Past the Courtenay Interchange, Highway 19 is divided by a grass median. 16 km Highway 19 reaches another interchange, this time with a two-lane road that goes a short distance east to the B.
C. Ferry terminal at Buckley Bay. There are two more at-grade intersections on Highway 19 in the 41 km between the Buckley Bay Interchange and the interchange with Highway 4, which goes north into Qualicum Beach. 9 km Highway 19 goes through another interchange, this time with Highway 4A, which goes east into Parksville. The next interchange, at Craig's Crossing, is another 5 km south. Past the Craig's Crossing Interchange, Highway 19 resumes its 1953 alignment, which today is a 4-lane, divided arterial highway with a concrete median barrier constructed during the 1970s; the highway passes southeast through the communities of Nanoose Bay and Lantzville before entering the north part of Nanaimo. Highway 19 veers south onto a 20 km long four-lane expressway known as the "Nanaimo Parkway", which has five at-grade intersections along its length. Highway 19's Nanaimo Parkway portion ends at an interchange with the Trans Cedar Road. At the interchange with Cedar Road, Highway 19 proceeds to share an alignment with the Trans-Canada Highway south for 2 km before turning eastward at another interchange.
Highway 19 crosses over the Nanaimo River 2 km passes through an interchange at Maughan Rd and goes northward for 5 km terminating at the B. C. Ferry terminal at Duke Point; the 5 km-long stretch of Highway 19 between Capilano Road and Northwest Bay Road in Nanoose Bay is a single point of failure in Vancouver Island's highway system. If a major incident resulted in the total closure of any part of that stretch of road, traffic travelling between the north Island and the south Island would have to take a long detour involving no less than four separate ferry routes. BC Highways - Highway 19