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Campinas is a Brazilian municipality in São Paulo State, part of the country's Southeast Region. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population is 1,080,999, making it the fourteenth most populous Brazilian city and the third most populous municipality in São Paulo state; the city's metropolitan area, Metropolitan Region of Campinas, contains twenty municipalities with a total population of 3,656,363 people. Campinas means grass fields in Portuguese and refers to its characteristic landscape, which comprised large stretches of dense subtropical forests along the many rivers, interspersed with rolling hills covered by low-lying vegetation. Campinas' official crest and flag has a picture of the mythical bird, the phoenix, because it was reborn after a devastating epidemic of yellow fever in the 1800s, which killed more than 25% of the city's inhabitants; the city was founded on July 1774, by Barreto Leme. It was a simple outpost on the way to Minas Gerais and Goiás serving the "Bandeirantes" who were in search of precious minerals and Indian slaves.

In the first half of the 19th century, Campinas became a growing population center, with many coffee and sugarcane farms. The construction of a railway linking the city of São Paulo to Santos' seaport, in 1867, was important for its growth. In the second half of the 19th century, with the abolition of slavery and industrialization attracted many foreign immigrants to replace the lost manpower from Italy. Coffee became the city became wealthy. In consequence, a large service sector was established to serve the growing population, in the first decades of the 20th century, Campinas could boast of an opera house, banks, movie theaters, radio stations, a philharmonic orchestra, two newspapers, a good public education system, hospitals, such as the Santa Casa de Misericórdia, and the Casa de Saúde de Campinas, the most important Brazilian research center in agricultural sciences, the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, founded by Emperor Pedro II. The construction of the first Brazilian highway in 1938, between Campinas and São Paulo, the Anhanguera Highway, was a turning point in the integration of Campinas into the rest of the state.

Campinas was the birthplace of opera composer Carlos Gomes and of the President of the Republic Campos Salles. It was home for 49 years to Hércules Florence, reputed as one of the early inventors of photography and the mimeograph; the area of the city, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, is 795.697 square kilometres. It is located at 22°54′21″S, 47°03′39″W and is at a distance of 96 kilometres northwest of São Paulo, its neighboring cities are Jaguariúna and Pedreira, north. Most of the original vegetation of the city was devastated. Like 13 other municipalities in the metropolitan region of Campinas, the city is subject to severe environmental stress, Campinas is considered one of the areas liable to flooding and silting. To try to reverse this situation, several projects have been and are being conducted and planned, such as building corridors, such as regulation of the Management Plan of Environmental Preservation Area in Campinas. There are several environmental projects to combat the destruction of riparian forests located on the river london, which has a high level of pollution.

Today, Campinas houses the area of relevant ecological interest Mata de Santa Genebra, 251 acres, established in 1985 and regulated by the Brazilian Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, the city of Campinas, Fundação José Pedro de Oliveira. This is the now second largest urban forest of Brazil, behind only the Tijuca Forest, in Rio de Janeiro; the city has large forests, such as Jequitibás Wood, Forest Grove and the Germans of Guarantees. The city has a dry-winter humid subtropical climate (Cwa type in the Köppen classification, bordering on a tropical savanna climate. But, if it were not for the moderating effects of the city's altitude its climate would be tropical. Winters are dry and mild, summers rainy with warm to hot temperatures; the warmest month is February, with an average temperature of 24 °C, an average maximum of 29.1 °C and average minimum of 19.0 °C. The coldest month, sees respective temperatures of 17.8 °C, 24.2 °C and 11.4 °C average maximum and minimum. Fall and spring are transitional seasons.

The average annual rainfall is the driest month in August, when there is only 22.9 mm. In January, the rainiest month, the average is 280.3 mm. In recent years, the hot, dry days during the winter have been frequent surpassing 30 °C between July and September. In August 2010, for example, the rainfall in Campinas was only 0 mm. During the dry season and long dry spells in the middle of the rainy season are common records of fires in the hills and thickets in rural areas of the city, which contributes to deforestation and the rele

Interpretations of 2001: A Space Odyssey

Since its premiere in 1968, the film 2001: A Space Odyssey has been analysed and interpreted by numerous people, ranging from professional movie critics to amateur writers and science fiction fans. The director of the film, Stanley Kubrick, the writer, Arthur C. Clarke, wanted to leave the film open to philosophical and allegorical interpretation, purposely presenting the final sequences of the film without the underlying thread being apparent. Nonetheless, in July 2018, Kubrick's interpretation of the ending scene was presented after being newly found in an early interview. Kubrick encouraged people to explore their own interpretations of the film, refused to offer an explanation of "what happened" in the movie, preferring instead to let audiences embrace their own ideas and theories. In a 1968 interview with Playboy, Kubrick stated: You're free to speculate as you wish about the philosophical and allegorical meaning of the film—and such speculation is one indication that it has succeeded in gripping the audience at a deep level—but I don't want to spell out a verbal road map for 2001 that every viewer will feel obligated to pursue or else fear he's missed the point.

Neither of the two creators equated openness to interpretation with meaninglessness, although it might seem that Clarke implied as much when he stated, shortly after the film's release, "If anyone understands it on the first viewing, we've failed in our intention." When told of the comment, Kubrick said "I believe. The nature of the visual experience in 2001 is to give the viewer an instantaneous, visceral reaction that does not—and should not—require further amplification." When told that Kubrick had called his comment'facetious', Clarke responded I still stand by this remark, which does not mean one can't enjoy the movie the first time around. What I meant was, of course, that because we were dealing with the mystery of the universe, with powers and forces greater than man's comprehension by definition they could not be understandable, yet there is at least one logical structure—and sometimes more than one—behind everything that happens on the screen in "2001", the ending does not consist of random enigmas, some critics to the contrary.

In a subsequent discussion of the film with Joseph Gelmis, Kubrick said his main aim was to avoid "intellectual verbalization" and reach "the viewer's subconscious". He said he did not deliberately strive for ambiguity, that it was an inevitable outcome of making the film non-verbal, though he acknowledged that this ambiguity was an invaluable asset to the film, he was willing to give a straightforward explanation of the plot on what he called the "simplest level", but unwilling to discuss the metaphysical interpretation of the film which he felt should be left up to the individual viewer. Arthur C. Clarke's novel of the same name was developed with the film, though published after its release, it seems to explain the ending of the film more clearly. Clarke's novel explicitly identifies the monolith as a tool created by extraterrestrials that have been through many stages of evolution, moving from organic forms, through biomechanics, to a state of pure energy; the book explains the monolith much more than the movie, depicting the first as a device capable of inducing a higher level of consciousness by directly interacting with the brain of pre-humans approaching it, the second as an alarm signal designed to alert its creators that humanity had reached a sufficient technological level for space travel, the third as a gateway or portal to allow travel to other parts of the galaxy.

It depicts Bowman traveling through some kind of interstellar switching station which the book refers to as "Grand Central," in which travelers go into a central hub and are routed to their individual destinations. The book depicts a crucial utterance by Bowman when he enters the portal via the monolith; this statement is not shown in the movie, but becomes crucial in the film based on the sequel, 2010: The Year We Make Contact. The book reveals that these aliens travel the cosmos assisting lesser species to take evolutionary steps. Bowman explores the hotel room methodically, deduces that it is a kind of zoo created by aliens—fabricated from information derived from television transmissions from Earth intercepted by the TMA-1 monolith—in which he is being studied by the invisible alien entities, he examines some food items provided for him, notes that they are edible, yet not made of any familiar substance from Earth. Kubrick's film leaves all this unstated. Physicist Freeman Dyson urged those baffled by the film to read Clarke's novel: After seeing Space Odyssey, I read Arthur Clarke's book.

I found the book gripping and intellectually satisfying, full of the tension and clarity which the movie lacks. All the parts of the movie that are vague and unintelligible the beginning and the end, become clear and convincing in the book. So I recommend to my middle-aged friends who find the movie bewildering that they should read the book. Clarke himself used to recommend reading the book, saying "I always used to tell people,'Read the book, see the film, repeat the dose as as necessary'", although, as his biographer Neil McAleer points out, he was promoting sales of his book at the time. Elsewhere he said, "You will find my interpretation in the novel. Nor is his the'right' one – whatever that

My Old Man Said

'My Old Man Said' is the name of the online publication and Aston Villa F. C. supporters' group. MOMS was formed in 2011 from the ashes of the supporter protest against the controversial appointment of Aston Villa F. C. manager Alex McLeish. The group and site takes its name from the Aston Villa supporters' song My Old Man. An affiliated member of the Football Supporters' Federation, as a supporter's group, MOMS aims to represent Villa supporter's interests in a rational and common sense manner. MOMS is a member of the Aston Villa Fan Consultation Group that meets with club officials to constructively address supporter issues; as a website / blog, MOMS aims to provide an original voice and provide a more supporter-slanted view of football issues. There is a penchant for Villa nostalgia and sometimes a humorous and satirical outlook. MOMS won the'Best New Football Blog' award in 2012 and the judges' award for the'Best Established Football Blog' in 2014. MOMS is a nominee in the 2016 FSF Awards; the group was started by David Michael, an Aston Villa supporter and writer/journalist, who first requested the club to issue an announcement to Villa supporters to admit an interest in Alex McLeish as a potential managerial candidate, since it had at first seemed an incredulous press rumour.

Michael helped oversee the resulting peaceful protest against the appointment. While the group supported McLeish during his tenure of the club, the original fears of most Villa fans were realised when a series of poor performances left the club a whisker away from relegation and picking up some new unwelcome club records - like the worst home record in any season of Villa's long history. Alex McLeish was sacked, but at least he could claim an epitaph in inspiring the creation of a new and popular Villa supporter group. Getting Aston Villa F. C. and Celtic F. C. fans wishes for a charity game between the two teams in honour of the club's captain Stiliyan Petrov into national and international press. Getting word out to Liverpool fans to join us in a 19th Minute applause for Stiliyan Petrov at Anfield on the day of their ‘Justice for the 96′ tribute; the first away game Villa had played. Organising the 6th minute celebratory applause for Fabrice Muamba of Bolton Wanderers, when Bolton visited Villa Park, to mark his incredible recovery.

In what the Guardian newspaper called an ‘unprecedented step’, organised an advert which read'We Told You So' in the local Birmingham Mail to remind the club that supporters do know something about the business of football. Obtained an apology from West Ham United for the Aston Villa away fans at the opening game of the 2012/13 season at the Boleyn Ground, who suffered poor catering conditions during a heat wave. Attended the FSF's Safe Standing Campaign visit to Parliament on 11 December 2012, that aimed to raise awareness and discussion amongst MP's. Formed a consortium of Villa fans'Holte Enders in the Sun' who within a 24-hour period before the deadline of share issue, managed to make the 100+ share club of Real Oviedo shareholders, helping to raise over €1000 for the cash stricken Spanish club. Fellow shareholders include Real Madrid football club. MOMS represented Aston Villa supporters on a football supporters' march on the Premier League offices in London on 19 June 2013 in a protest over the rising cost of football.

As one of the new directors helped relaunch and modernise the Aston Villa Supporters Trust to be a representative supporters voice. MOMS was present at the Football Supporters Federation march on the Premier League offices in London on 14 August 2014 With the club facing yet another relegation battle after a long winless run without a single goal scored and with chairman wanting to sell, MOMS joined with two other Villa fansites in issuing a joint open letter to Villa supporters to demonstrate at the Liverpool game at Villa Park on 17 January 2015; the suggestion in the open letter was for a two-part demonstration - refraining from talking seats in the Holte End for the first eight-minutes, followed by 82 minutes of non-stop support, thus showing two potential futures for the club. The proposed demo generated high-profile blanket coverage of Villa's worrying predicament in the media for the week leading up to the game. On the actual day, the club cut the concourse live feeds of the game to flush supporters out and refrained from using the pre-match surfer flag.

A week the club captain Fabian Delph signed a new contract. Unknown to supporters at the time, the contract contained a low buy out clause, thus in hindsight it seemed like a short-term PR stunt to appease the growing discontentment amongst Villa fans highlighted by the demo and press coverage. My Old Man Said crowdfunded a 20m x 20m giant surfer flag for the Aston Villa vs Arsenal FA Cup Final 2015, based on the classic Sex Pistols album Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols, banned by Wembley Stadium and the FA; the ban from Wembley caused outcry in the national press with many papers questioning the decision. The Daily Mirror labelled it a'bizarre reason.' Both Arsenal supporter groups and the Football Supporters Federation supported the flag and spoke out against Wembley and the FA's decision. As a gesture to the Villa supporters who helped fund the banned Wembley surfer flag, MOMS organised with Nottingham Forest to display the flag at the City Ground fo

Sir James Montgomery, 4th Baronet

Sir James Montgomery, 4th Baronet was the tenth laird of Skelmorlie. He was a Scottish politician known for the Montgomery Plot, a Jacobite scheme to restore King James VII and II to the thrones of Scotland and England, he was eldest son of Sir Robert Montgomery, 3rd Baronet, by his wife Anna or Antonia, second daughter and coheiress of Sir John Scott of Rossie, Fife. His father died on 7 February 1684, James became his heir on 3 February 1685. In April 1684 his widowed mother made a strong appeal to him to make suitable provision for her and her fatherless children, but to this he replied that, for the sake of peace, he had conceded more than legal obligations required. On 2 October 1684 Montgomery was imprisoned and fined for harbouring covenanters, religious rebels, on 7 May 1685 he and his mother were pursued on account of conventicles held in his father's lifetime, but both pleaded that they were not responsible. Montgomery visited Holland in connection with the invitation to William of Orange to invade England on behalf of Protestantism.

He was chosen as member for the county of Ayr in the Convention of the Estates of Scotland which met on 14 March 1689, when he distinguished himself by his eloquent advocacy of the resolution proposed by Sir John Dalrymple, that King James had forfeited his throne and kingdom. The resolution being carried, Montgomery was named one of three commissioners for the shires to offer the Scottish crown to William III and Mary II. After the convention had been formally converted into a parliament, he continued to sit for Ayrshire until he was obliged to stand down in 1693 for not having signed the Assurance, his ambition had selected the office of secretary of state for Scotland, as that alone commensurate with his services and abilities. In parliament he led with great ability and eloquence the opposition against Sir John Dalrymple, the two, according to Balcarres scolding each other "like watermen". Towards the close of the session he went to London with his closest confederates, the Earl of Annandale and Lord Ross, to present a declaration of Scottish grievances to the king, but the king declined to listen to their complaints.

Thereupon Montgomery entered into communication with the Jacobite agent, Neville Payne, they concerted together a plot for the restoration of King James, known as the Montgomery Plot, each being, according to Balcarres, more or less the dupe of the other. Montgomery's coalition with the Jacobites proved to him rather a hindrance than a help in parliament, as soon as his influence began to wane the Jacobites revolted against him. A quarrel ensued, soon afterwards Lord Ross made confession of his connection with the plot to a presbyterian minister, who informed Melville. On learning this Montgomery went to Melville, on promise of an indemnity confessed all he knew, making it, however, a condition that he should not be obliged to be "an evidence or legal witness". Melville sent him, with a recommendation in his favour, to Queen Mary, to whom he pleaded for "some place which might enable him to subsist with decency", she wrote on his behalf to King William, but the king had conceived such an antipathy to him that he declined to utilise his services on any consideration.

According to Gilbert Burnet, Montgomery's "art in managing such a design, his firmness in not discovering his accomplices raised his character as much as it ruined his fortunes". After lying for some time in concealment in London, he passed over to Paris, where he was well received by the Jacobites; some time afterwards he returned to London, on 11 January 1694 was taken into custody, on the accusation of being the author of several virulent papers against the government. He escaped to the continent, reaching Paris by 15 February, he died at St. Germains before 6 October 1694. By Lady Margaret Johnstone, second daughter of James Johnstone, 1st Earl of Annandale, he had two sons: Robert and William. Montgomery was the author of "The People of England's Grievances to be enquired into and redressed by their Representatives in Parliament", reprinted in Somers Tracts, x. 542-6. The authorship of other political pamphlets attributed to him has been claimed by Robert Ferguson the Plotter, in some instances there may have been a joint authorship.

A portrait of Montgomerie in armour has been engraved. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Henderson, Thomas Finlayson. "Montgomery, James". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 38. London: Smith, Elder & Co..

Gang Starr Foundation

Gang Starr Foundation is a collective of east coast rappers led by the hip hop group Gang Starr. It was co-founded by Boston legend Big Shug, it was established in 1993. Jeru the Damaja Group Home Afu-Ra M. O. P. Bumpy Knuckles Ab Bueller Squala Orphan True Master Krumb Snatcha Bahamadia Gangstarr Foundation Sampler Gangstarr Foundation & Ill Kid Records presents Krumb Snatcha Classics Ahead of the Game Big Shug / Gang Starr - The Jig Is Up / Doe In Advance Big Shug - The Other Side of the Game Big Shug - Never Say Die Bumpy Knuckles - Street Triumph: The Mixxxtape Vol. 1 Bumpy Knuckles - Crazy Like a Foxxx Afu-Ra - State of the Arts


Tadley is a town and civil parish in the English county of Hampshire. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, now known as AWE, became the area's largest employer, many houses were built during this period to accommodate AWRE workers. Though the establishment was located in the parish of Aldermaston, most of these houses were built in Tadley; the origin of the name is uncertain. In old maps and books Tadley can be found spelled as Taddanleage, Titherley, Tudurley and Taddeley; as with many other rural British communities, it is assumed that the village began as a clearing in the dense forest which at one time covered the greater part of England. In Old English, Tadde means'Toad' or'Frog' and ley being'a clearing in the woods', so it means "a clearing in the woods with frogs". Most sources, say that the name means "woodland clearing of a man called Tada". In 909, Edward the Elder granted the'Manor of Overton' to Frithstan, Bishop of Winchester. In the confirmation of this a wood at Tadley is mentioned.

The village is mentioned in documents relating to the grant. There was an independent estate in the parish called the'Manor of Tadley' but was known as the'Manor of Withford or Wyford'. In 1166 this property was held by William Hotot, he was succeeded by his son, Robert Hotot in 1205. The first reference to a church at Tadley is in 1286 when Andrew Hotot is recorded as owning the Manor and Church, it could be assumed that a settlement and therefore a church existed at an earlier date in view of the documented references to owners of land at Tadley from 909. Tadley is a civil parish with an elected town council Tadley Town Council which consists of 4 parish wards, Central Tadley, South Tadley, North Tadley and East Tadley; these occupy some or all of three wards of Basingstoke and Deane District Council, being Baughurst and Tadley North, Tadley Central and Tadley South. Tadley falls within the area of Basingstoke and Deane District Council and of Hampshire County Council and all three councils are responsible for different aspects of local government.

Tadley lies next to the northern border of Hampshire. It is six miles north of Basingstoke, ten miles south west of the large town of Reading and ten miles south east of Newbury. Nearby villages are Aldermaston, Pamber Heath, Heath End, Mortimer Common, Silchester. On the edge of Tadley is a Site of Special Scientific Interest called Ron Ward's Meadow With Tadley Pastures.. The growth in shopping facilities has been slower than the growth in the population. Though there are shops in small groups throughout the town, there is only one significantly-sized shop, a supermarket. For more extensive choice, it is necessary to go to one of the larger nearby towns, Reading, or Newbury; the main shopping areas in Tadley are on Mulfords Hill and Bishopswood Road, though there are isolated shops in other parts of the town and parish. A notable business in Mulfords Hill is that of the Royal Warrant Holder for Besom Brooms and Pea Sticks. Hampshire County Council built a new library for Tadley in 1994, it was opened on 12 October 1994 by the Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire.

A local legend dating from the late 19th century claims that there were treacle mines located in the village, until well into the 20th century the locals were referred to as "Tadley Treacle Miners". Tadley holds an annual "Treacle Fair" in honour of this legend in early June, it is organised by a member of Lions Club International. Tadley has a Non-League football club Tadley Calleva F. C. which plays at Barlow's Park. The main road through the town is the A340, which begins in Basingstoke 6 miles to the south and ends in Pangbourne in Berkshire, 10 miles north of Tadley. Tadley is served by Stagecoach South with a regular service to Basingstoke. Newbury Buses provide a less frequent service to Newbury. Tadley does not have a railway station, but is served by Aldermaston and Basingstoke. Children aged 11 to 16 that receive state-funded education are to attend The Hurst Community College, though this school is located in the adjacent village of Baughurst. Primary schools in the area include: Bishopswood Infant and Junior Schools, Burnham Copse Primary School, Silchester Church Of England Primary School, Tadley Community Primary School, The Priory Primary School.

Dean Horrix, who achieved minor fame during the 1980s as part of the Reading football team that won promotion to the Football League Third Division in 1984 and the Football League Second Division in 1986, lived in Tadley with his wife Carol. He remained in the area after leaving Reading for Millwall in 1988 and being transferred to Bristol City in early 1990, he was killed in a car crash in March 1990, aged 27, less than two weeks after signing for Bristol City. His wife survived. List of places in Hampshire List of civil parishes in Hampshire Tadley and District History Society