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Campine

The Campine or De Kempen is a natural region situated chiefly in north-eastern Belgium and parts of the south-eastern Netherlands which once consisted of extensive moors, tracts of sandy heath, wetlands. It encompasses a large northern and eastern portion of Antwerp province and adjacent parts of Limburg in Belgium, as well as portions of the Dutch province of North Brabant and Dutch Limburg around Weert. Today the Campine is becoming a popular touristic destination. Old farms have been transformed into bed-and-breakfast hotels, the restaurant and café business is active, an extensive cycle touring network has come into existence over the past few years. Part of the Campine is protected as the Hoge Kempen Nationaal Park, it is located in the east of the Belgian province of Limburg, between Genk and the Meuse valley and was opened in March 2006. Covering 60 square kilometres, it forms part of the Natura 2000 network; the area is heathland and pine forest. In May 2011 it was placed on UNESCO's Tentative List for consideration as a World Heritage Site.

The name Campine / Kempen derives from the Latin Campinia or Campina, meaning "region of fields". The inhabitants of the Campine region are known as Kempenaars; the region, described as a desolate flat land appears in the books of the prominent Flemish writer Hendrik Conscience, who spent much of his childhood there. Another author who has written many novels playing in the Campine was Georges Eekhoud. In 1837 Victor Hugo made a journey through Belgium and visited the Campine and the towns of Lier and Turnhout, wrote about his journey. During the interbellum Felix Timmermans, Stijn Streuvels, Jozef Simons and the poet Jozef De Voght wrote about the Belgian Campine; the painters Jakob Smits and Frans Van Giel painted many Campine landscapes. The region is rich in folk tales, such as the stories about the Buckriders and those concerning the gnome king Kyrië; the Museum Kempenland in Eindhoven has a considerable and important art collection of painters, sculptors and other craftsmen from this region.

Much of the architectural and historical and cultural heritage of the Campine can be visited in the open-air museum of Bokrijk. The old way of living and the Campine dialects have been the topic of scientific research. In the Roman era the name of the region was Taxandria; the Campine is an area in the Belgian provinces Antwerp and the extreme north of the province Flemish Brabant, in the south of the Dutch province Noord-Brabant. It stretches towards the west of Eindhoven. Farther east the Campine is in the Groote Peel, a region, geographically related to the Campine; the south border is formed by the river Demer, the east border by the valley of the river Meuse. The Campine plateau is part of the Campine region; the Campine Basin, which extends from Belgium into the Netherlands, is formed by the Devonian and Carboniferous sedimentary rocks on the northern flank of the Brabant Massif. In historical times, it is the reputed original territory of the Cempsii who along the Eburones and other Loire Celtic and Belgian tribes of the iron Age - according to the Classic Greek writers reports- were leading a large train of mixed peoples behind them in their migration into the Iberian peninsula at the end of the Hallstatt period, looking for more benign and akin lands propitiated after a combination of factors came about in those centuries: the increased aggressive pressure from the new La Tene Culture ethnic groups from further South the Rhine in their rise and expansion across much wider areas in Europe, as result of the climatic worsening too during those centuries which altered all the animal and plant life over Northern Europe for other folks, vital for their growing and harvest seasons, that will push many irremediably into migrations too across the Rhine into the area and beyond from the North and East.

The Portuguese city of Sesimbra and others in central Portugal still bear their names, legacy of their important presence once settled in the region. Since it was a region with a poor sandy soil, there are only a few old or large cities in the region. Most of those cities are located at the outer rim of the region, such as Hasselt, Aarschot, Breda, Eindhoven and Maastricht. Turnhout is an exception. West of Turnhout clay was used for the production of barge, one of the reasons why the Noord-Kempens Canal was dug to Antwerp; the more central Herentals was an historical industrial center, thanks to its textile industry of which the Lakenhal on the main market place is a remaining monument. The printing industry in Turnhout is important, with companies such as Brepols and more Cartamundi; the region was sparsely populated, therefore chosen by monks who were looking for silence, such as those of the abbeys of Achel, Zundert, Postel and Tongerlo. In the 19th and 20th centuries, industry established itself in the region, such as the metallurgy in Balen-Overpelt-Lommel.

In 1872 the Sablières et Carrières Réunies, now Sibelco, was founded to extract the silica sand layers in Mol for industrial applications. In 1891, the Koninklijke Philips Electronics N. V. was founded in Eindhoven. In the 20th century, the first nuclear installation in Belgium, the SCK•CEN, was built in Mol in 1962; the European Institute for Reference Materials and Measurem

Augusto de Vasconcelos

Augusto César de Almeida de Vasconcelos Correia, GCSE, better known as Augusto de Vasconcelos was a Portuguese surgeon and diplomat, who served as 57th Prime Minister of Portugal. He graduated at the Lisbon Medico-Surgical School in 1891, where he taught becoming a Professor of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Lisbon. A republican since his youth, he was Minister of Foreign Affairs of the first Constitutional Government of the Portuguese First Republic, whose Prime Minister was João Pinheiro Chagas, from October 12, 1911 to November 12, 1911, he succeeded Chagas as Prime Minister of another Portuguese Republican Party government, in power from November 11, 1911 to June 4, 1912. In that government, too, he held the post of Foreign Minister as well as that of Prime Minister, he was Foreign Minister again from June 16, 1912 to January 9, 1913. He served as Plenipotentiary Minister in Madrid and London, during World War I, which Portugal entered in 1916 on the Allies' side. Subsequently, he led the Portuguese delegation at the Peace Conference, in Paris, in 1919.

After that he concentrated on diplomacy, in the service of the League of Nations as a Delegate of Portugal. He helped to solve international conflicts, like the Chaco War between Bolivia and Paraguay in 1935. From 1935 to 1937 he occupied the office of President of the League of Nations, he received the Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint James of the Sword, the Order of Isabel the Catholic, the Order of the Crown of Belgium and both the Orders of Merit of Chile and Peru and was Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur of France, etc. He was a son of Júlio César de Vasconcelos Correia, an Engineer and a Shipbuilder, wife Constança Libânia Auta de Almeida, his father was a natural son of António César de Vasconcelos Correia, 1st Viscount and 1st Count of Torres Novas and 93rd Governor-General of India, thus being a second cousin once removed of Fernando Peyroteo and three times removed of José Couceiro. He married in Lisbon, Santa Catarina, Hermínia Laura de Albuquerque Henriques Moreira, widow of Augusto Pereira Leite and daughter of José Joaquim Henriques Moreira, Division General, Commander of the Municipal Guard, Commander of the Order of Aviz and Knight of the Order of the Tower and Sword, etc. and wife Maria Hermínia de Albuquerque de Mesquita e Paiva, daughter of the 2nd Viscount of Oleiros, had: Júlio Moreira de Vasconcelos, a medical doctor and without issue Maria Teresa Moreira de Vasconcelos and without issue José Moreira de Vasconcelos, an engineer, married to Maria Gabriela de Sampaio e Melo, had issue: Maria de Sampaio e Melo de Vasconcelos and without issue José Maria de Sampaio e Melo de Vasconcelos and without issue Maria Isabel de Sampaio e Melo de Vasconcelos and without issue Augusto António de Sampaio e Melo de Vasconcelos, married to Maria Helena do Patrocínio Nogueira Maria José de Sampaio e Melo de Vasconcelos, married to José Afonso de Almada Negreiros, son of José Sobral de Almada Negreiros and wife Sarah Afonso Maria Micaela de Sampaio e Melo de Vasconcelos, married to politician Raúl Miguel de Oliveira Rosado Fernandes Maria Teresa de Sampaio e Melo de Vasconcelos, married to José Maria da Fonseca Caldeira Cabral Maria Isabel Moreira de Vasconcelos, married to Pedro de Sárrea Mascarenhas Gaivão, without issue Augusto de Vasconcelos's genealogy in a Portuguese genealogical site

1971 Memorial Cup

The 1971 Memorial Cup was the 53rd annual Memorial Cup competition, organized by the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association to determine the champion of major junior A ice hockey. It was a best-of-three series between the Quebec Remparts of the Quebec Junior Hockey League and the Edmonton Oil Kings of the Western Canada Hockey League. Quebec won the series in two games, both held at the Colisée de Québec, to win the first Memorial Cup championship in the city's history; the national playdowns were marred by controversy as the Remparts advanced to the championship series when the Ontario Hockey Association's St. Catharines Black Hawks forfeited the eastern championship series after five games rather than return to Quebec City for a sixth game in the face of a hostile and violent crowd and threats from the Front de libération du Québec; the Remparts refused a challenge from the Oil Kings for the national championship as result of disagreements on player eligibility and travel subsidies. The two teams resolved their differences in time for an abbreviated best-of-three series to be held rather than the typical best-of-seven.

The CAHA reorganized junior A hockey prior to this season. The OHA, QJHL and WCHL formed the "Tier I Major Junior A" rank; the Memorial Cup became the national championship of the new tier. The remaining teams and leagues remained in the Junior A rank. A new championship, the Manitoba Centennial Trophy, was created for teams at this level; the Memorial Cup tournament remained in an east vs. west format for 1971. The champions of the OHA and QJHL were to play for the Eastern championship and face the WCHL winner for the national title; this format lasted only one year, as for 1972, the CAHA reorganized the Memorial Cup into a three-team round-robin tournament between the winner of each league. The Remparts were led by Guy Lafleur, who in 1970–71 set league records with 130 goals and 209 points, he added another 22 goals in the playoffs to lead Quebec to the QJHL's President's Cup championship. In a best-of-seven series for the Eastern championship, they faced OHA champion St. Catharines, led by Marcel Dionne, the Ontario league's top scorer with 143 points.

The teams split the first two games, held in St. Catharines, before the Remparts took a 2–1 series lead in the third game, held in Quebec; the game was violent at times with over 102 penalties in minutes given out by the referee – 77 to the Black Hawks. Quebec moved to within one win of winning the series with a 6–1 victory in game four held in Quebec; as with the third game, the Black Hawks attempted to intimidate their smaller Remparts opponents physically. The crowd grew hostile towards the visitors, pelting the players with eggs and golf balls, while one fan threw a knife. Dionne's parents were assaulted in the stands over the fact that he had left the Quebec league to play in Ontario. Mike Bloom inadvertently struck a police officer with his stick trying to hit a fan; the Black Hawk players were escorted out of the building by police following the game as a mob of angry fans threw bottles at them and milled around the team's motel until the early hours of the following morning. Threats were made against the players by the Quebec Liberation Front, a group that precipitated the October Crisis of 1970 that resulted in the Canadian government invoking the War Measures Act.

The fifth game was held in a neutral location. St. Catharines defeated Quebec 6–3 at Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto, but refused to return to Quebec City for the sixth and seventh games; the Black Hawks offered to play the remainder of the series in Montreal. Fearing for their safety, the players voted to forfeit the sixth game, giving the series and George Richardson Memorial Trophy to Quebec. In the west, The Edmonton Oil Kings were led by 60-goal scorer Don Kozak and 43-goal scorers Darcy Rota and Dan Spring, they won the Western Canada Hockey League championship over the Flin Flon Bombers four games to one, with one tie. They had eliminated the New Westminster Bruins in five games and the Calgary Centennials in six, it was the first Western championship for the Oil Kings since they made seven consecutive appearances in the Memorial Cup between 1960 and 1966. Their streak ended when they helped create the WCHL in 1966 over the objection of the CAHA who declared them outlaws and ineligible to compete for the national championship.

The WCHL gained CAHA sanction prior to the 1970–71 season, allowing the Oil Kings to return to the Memorial Cup Final. Both the QJHL and OHA had announced they would not face a Western Champion over the WCHL's use of overage players. Nonetheless, the Oil Kings extended a challenge to the Eastern champion and proposed a best-of-seven series to open in the east move to Edmonton for two games and finish out east; the eastern leagues were upset that the CAHA offered a $10,000 travel subsidy to the western champion for the Memorial Cup vs. $6,000 to the eastern champion. Oil Kings' owner, general manager and coach, Bill Hunter, implored the eastern leagues to participate in a championship series calling it the "burning ambition" of all Canadian junior players while invoking the actions of the government during the October Crisis: "If the Prime Minister wants to do something right for the west for a change, he'll use the War Measures Act to enforce a Memorial Cup final." The Oil Kings negotiated with the Remparts.

They agreed to play a best-of-three series, all games in Quebec, for the national championship. Edmonton was met by a much different crowd when they arrived in Quebec City than the one St. Catharines faced. A crowd of 2,0